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THE 

BELFAST POLITICS, 

ENLARGED ; 

BEING A COMPENDIUM 

. OF 

THE POLITICAL 
HISTORY OF IRELAND, 

FOR 
THE LAST FORTY TEARS. 

COMPILED BY JOHN LAWLESS, ESQ* 

BELFAST : 
PRINTED BY D. LYONS. 

1818. 



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APPR^SS 



TO TBS 



CITIZENS OP BELFAST. 

W HEM I lint dMermhied to cMett those poUtkil pfO« 
dactf ODB^ by wbose spirit and eloquenoe Belfast lias been so 
pecoHariy distingmdieifortliekstlbrtjryeafrs; I did imagine 
tiiatit would hare been tofident to give to my readers a (kitln 
AH and well arranged compilation^ widioot any obaerr atio Pi 
Or any reflexion^ on the practice or the principtes of those who 
have endeavoured to make the past laljors of tfie most en« 
lightened and vahied of our countrymen tributary to their fa* 
Torite object of raising the monopoly of a fiew^ on the ruina 
and the degradation of the many. 

ft is with great pain^ indeed, I have witnessed the laboriooa 
stmggle that has been lately made to perpetuate those jeakra-* 
aiet, reKgioos and poUtical^ that have already succeeded in ex- 
tinguishing the name and honor of our country. It is witAi sor** 
row I peruse the overlaid pages of those authors, who think 
no toil too great, no industry too excessive, if they shaH be 



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aUe to save fxoni the corruption of the grave those melancKo* 
}j memcnials of antient bigotry and aDtient misfortune— notes 
piled on notes, drawn from the cobweb lumber of polemical 
controversy, or extracts from authors, who were paid to de&me 
and calumniate the religion of a people, whom they after* 
wards plundo^ and oppressed. From Geraldus Cambrensis 
to Sir Richard Musgrave, every historian who has been most 
distinguished by his hostility to the peace and harmony of 
Irishmen, has been Industriously consulted, and those opi- 
tiions selected, that are best calcCilated to keep alive the 
,^ devastating fire, which has almost burned up whatever re- 

. i^^ mains of humanity in the Irish bosom— the sacred spirit of 

TOLERATION every where soofied at and trampled upon—the 
priest, of every sect of Christianity, Protestant, Presbyti?rian 
and CathoHc, repnesented as contending fbr th«ir ^spective 
supremacy, with the dagger in one hand and the Bible in the 
other — ^preaching peace with, the sword of the conqueror, or 
pr«^ag^ng the Gospel of Christ with the fke of intoteranee. 

Sueb is the picture, carefully and anxiously pr^rved by 
men whose talents and Understanding should have disdained 
ao unworthy an office; whose common sense, at least, 
fbould have told them, that the public mind of the present 
day, turns aside with loathing and disgust from such wretch- 
^d recitals, and. that it closes the volume that w6uld revive 
the animosities of antient days with indignation against those 
who would thus speculate on its credulity. It roust be matter 
of surprize and regret to every good and benevolent mind, to 
see men of talents and acquirements sitting down, in the soli- 
tude of their study, to the work of giving perpeluHy to" the 
bigot and the usurper, surrounded perhaps as that study is by a 
crowd of evklence which could bear testimony to the follies 
and the crimes of civil and religious mtc^eiance. Tt must be 
matter of surprize, that men. of talents and information 
should be found, who will gravely insist upon the danger of 



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$ 

giving freedom to the human mind, at the moment tfeey are 
deicribing the horrors of the Inquisition^ the doipotism o^ 
yopei and the bigotry of Cathoh'cs ; thus practising the illibe- 
imlity th^ condemn, and refusing to their neighboar the in* 
du^gence they clamorouf ly daim for themselves. Closing tha 
vc^ume of history, they affect to forget, that all denomina^ 
tiona of Christians, whenever estabUshed 6y temporal autho* 
fiitf, acted the tyranU in turn, tyrants over the mind as well 
as tb^ body ;-^that all denominations of religions had their 
P<Ofei, and that the great discovery of modem times, the ap* 
plication of the ornnijteiemi principle of universal toleration to 
all sects, is the efficient and certain antidote to the corrupt and 
destructive passions of the bigot and the fanatic. To those 
who coiisult the history of mankind, it will appear, that no 
^brm of religion prevented the assertion of human rights— 
the Catholic in Hungary, and the Catholic in Ireland, are e* 
qoally zealous in the cause of political freedom, as the Pro- 
testant of Prussia, or the Protestant of England^ ^th are e- 
qoally jeslous of their rights as men, and equally anitious to 
circnmscribe the limits of temporal authority, whenever the 
opportunity arises; but it is also true, that the religion of the 
Catholic and the religion of the Protestant, whenever either is 
made an instrument of state, can be converted into a sl>arp and 
devastating sword against the liberties and the rights of human 
nature. The Popes of Rome abused their power, and trampled 
on the rights of humanity ; the Kings of England abused their 
power, and, aided by the Episcopal Bench, pnu^sed the bigot- 
Tj and intolerance they deprecated. Europe has been the vie* 
tim of both religions, wherever they were identified mth.thepow" 
<r« that governed. The Christianity of both waa forgottfen ; the 
ibras of religion w^ practised, the better to conceal the evasi- 
CO of her doctrines ; the name of Christ was in the mo^iths of 
all his followers, at the moment they were refusing that mer- 
cy which their master bad commanded. Perseputiop vent on 



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4 

ft tfi« name of QoA ; and the pulpit, itrhich sbould be »• 
Aronc of \ig\it, was prophaned to the pufpode« of party tri- 
uraphs over the liberies of mankind ! How ofteti has the mi^ 
fiister ot God been seen blowing the trumpet of eternal hosti- 
lity to those n^ho have been taught from th^ir cradle to be«* 
Iieve, that the doctrines they maintained Were the best calcii-r 
lated to secure them salvation ? tlow ofleri has the preacher, 
Catholic, Protestant, and Presbyterian, in eVery country of 
£urope, endeavpured, either by the keenness of darcftsrfl, oi^* 
the aftectation of liberality, to represent their neigiibduring 
sects as bigots or fanatics ? Yet stilt the war of religion 19 
going on ; still the battle of words and syllables is imaging, 
and still the anon3rmou8 controversialists are daily fluttering 
themselves With triumphs which every good man deplores; 
which the Deist and the Atheist rejoice at,, and which fbturtf 
generations will ptss by with the satne contempt that is now* 
entertaine4 for those learned and laborious Tbeologiahs Who 
have gone before them. 

There was a period in the history of our country, when tL 
few able and honest men flattered themselves they could put 
an eternal extinguisher on tlie pernicious squabbling of the 
bigot ; when the circumstances of Europe encouraged the 
Irishman to hold up his head and demand better treatment for 
bis country than she had experienced for 6OO years, tlie 
difficulties of England, who had, in her hours of ]n*osp4?nty, . 
insulted and enslaved the nation to which she had pledged her 
^delity, emboldened the people of Ireland to demand as a 
right, those privileges which would not be conceded ki k 
boon. The clouds which so long obscured and mildewed the 
fairest flowers of our native land, seemed to pass acrddd thd 
channel, and hover over the fortunes of our mster country, 
while the Sun of Liberty arose over Ireland in all his pomp and 
splendour, animating the almost lifeless body of a nation 
wbic^ h^ 80 lonff been cbaiiied 4own by a jealous and des» 



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s 

potid code. The VdunUeri assemBled^^onr Patriots, 1* WrRit 
knd doqaence, rote up like one man^ atid toMned^ in a toni 
which • co^exxtanded attention, the rights htkd pnVdBgn of l« 
fbhihen. To adc^t the language at one of llioae doqsvnlf ap^ 
p^s, to Whidi the dmM^ and the spirit of which we aine now 
^peaklilg, gavfe birth, ^' Man no longer t^iKy^ed oo nuks, dt 
rested his head oti some fi^groents of the temple ef Mltel^ 
fjr-^he hd longer amused hiihself in pacing the hieMireiieoi 
6f thk edlAee, Md nitely limHin^ its pre|«drtioi&s-=^^-he reiMi* 
^ tbki bb temple wad truly CoMii^-'-ihe aA]t>le eKrlh kaarei^ 
ktid tile arch df EfeftVen hs dothe."^ 

Iriihmeh Who h^ beeh pehing each (»ther widi the (wmdeN 
ous atid linintetligib]^ folios of religious controversy fhr een» 
turies, were now found seated at the satne boattt, interebAng^ 
ibg sentiments 6f the 6tncei^gst alf^ctioti and cotifldence. The 
f^ligion of Christianity succeeded to the religion of secti^ to4 
ihe t)rindples of benevolence and mutual regard wen prietiiet 
as well as professed by the followers ofChrist ''let «tf etttliilM 
(said the eitlightened Volunteers df BelfdSt in ti^ly to Ih^ ad«i 
dr^ of their Catholic countrymen") rest with the bttnes cf 6ur 
Ancestors— differing ih our religibh as we diiRf iti our fulM, b«i 
resembling each other in the great features of hutnanity, let 
OS unite to vindicate the rights of our common nature ; let th# 
dedsive and unanimous voice of the entire body of th^ pee^ 
pie, the fenighty and irresistible whdle, be heard ; it will, H 
must be obeyed.'^ It was obeyed. Preedotn in tmde, fl^eeW 
dom in constitution were conceded. The Catholic was n^ 
longer an Irish helot He stood by the side of his brothef 
t'rotestant ; co-operated in the same cause, and succeeded itt 
striking oft some of the links of that chain i^hich had to lonj^ 
withered the arms of national industry. The jealouby of En* 
gland watched our country^s progress to union and happmesi 
and strength, witl| a malignant and wakeful eye. The vftlni^ 
ter who could have established, in the gratitude of Ireland, 



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• bfmk on whi«h be might have ever drawn without the appre* 
hentien of diM|qp(»ntiDexity became alarmed at an union sora« 
pid, to extraordinaxy^ ao productive of Iriih bajHun^ and 
bith atrength* He dreaded the tnuaition tf partial to com* 
pkte . iBdependance^ and preferred confiding in tho duplici^ 
of a oorrupt policy to the generous and enlarged system of one 
rownpn Constitution and one common Empire. He therefore 
so ocdeiedf that an Irish Protestant Legislature shoi^d be reiu 
danAodiotts to the Catholic People, Itistru^thefury offMnal 
laws, the violenoe of persecution, were no longer to be act« 
ed upon; but the Irish LfSgisbiture was to be corrupted into 
an impotent tyranny over the country^ and wbep completely 
alienated from the hearts and affections of the people, the mi- 
pister could securely monopolize the credit of giving to the 
CaAolic the protection the Protectant refused. '^ A new arti- 
flee (said an able production of this period) is adopted, and 
that restless domination, which at first ruled as open war by 
|)ie length of the sword, then as covert corruption by the 
strength of the poison, now assumes the style and title of 
P^oteftent ascendancy, calls down the name of religion from 
Heaiwn to sow discord upon earth ; to rule by anarchy ; to 
keep up distrust and antipathy among parties, among persua- 
aiomif, among families ; nay, to make the passions of the in- 
•dividttids stn^gle like Cain and Abel, in the very borne of 
the hearty and to convert every little paltry necessity that ac- 
cident. Indolence, or extravagance brings upon a man, into 
It pander for the purchase of his honesty, and the murder of 
bis reputatioi^ The minister succeeded. The Catholics were 
W«dtix]|ply rejected by the Irish Legislature. The breach was 
ma^ between the peofde imd their natural protectors, on 
y bich the mmister speculated ; and he then ordered that 
Parliament,, which had so often and so insultingly rejected 
ti^ petition of the Catholics, to grant only as much as might 



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best sait the further views of this l^adikvelifln poUej^This 
mu the great and broad ftnikdation cf the Union'* 
" What measure too desperate^ or too base, which cannot be 
carried when a people are divided ? Yet it is painful to see 
with what foolish triumph some Irishmen hail ibeir own iosig- 
nificance; how thoughtlessly they endeavour to calumniate 
the iMunes and the rodtives of those distinguished tndifiduah, 
who, at the period of which we are speaking, held out tor 
dieir country, tossed about on a trouUed sea, the steady lights 
of tbeir firm and cultivated understancBngs. ^ Too kmg (ssi^ 
those estimable men whom inferior minds would wibh to re* 
dude in die estimation of their country) have the Irish People 
been set in array of battle against each other— too long have 
die rancour and revenge of our ancestors been left as a legacy 
of bkiod to their posterity— too long has one limb of the se- 
nd body been tied down^ until it had nearly lost all feeling, 
lib and enin^. It is our wish, it is our hope, to give Ire« 
land the full and free possession of both her arms, her CatluN* 
Kc arm as wdl as her Protestant arm, that she may die better 
embrace her friends, or grapple with her foes." Yet there are 
political writers, who deplore the hour which would witness 
the onion of religions in Ireland ; who Would set sect against 
•ect, with iill the fury and bitterness of fanaticism ; who 
would insist upon the impossibilitt/ of either Catholics or Pro-- 
testants, or Presbjrterians, ever acting in the spirit of Chris- 
tianity, animated by its benevolent precepts, its charity, or 
its mercy.* 



)•••••••••••«•••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••• ••••••••••I 



• We knoent the necessity of being obliged to call public sttention 
to the Iblbiriaff posaage^ which we read in die prer«ce to a work Utelv 
imMVffTH in BcJuMt, by Mr. Berwick, called, • Hittory of Belfast. Why 
tims endeavour to divide those denomioatioos of Christumity« whic£, 
m\mU rsr ihtlr ipeculative dliFereoce^ may be, are figbtinjic a commnn 
cause against the common enemies of both-^he Atheist and the Deist 9 
Wkj inndcate ofMons which go to establiith the eternal slavery of men, 
hecmtiae they diffisr from each other upon abstract pointti of theology ? 
It is productions like those we now aUudc to, which makes Ireland »J o- 



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g 

To thoH i^howij applj^ to the records of hivtoiy to glean 
the filth and oorrupUofv of its pf(ges; who m^ke that filth and 
that corruption tfieijr 4«^lj ^itftenigiQe ; who^ like their prade- 
qp990f% in the wprjl^ of naSjonal division, vainly strutf le to 
l^eep #Uvie the tmhers of rdigious and political bi{ot;r^-r4o 
4|ich mop I M^^ th9 yolome I noa^r give fo the public q^ 
BO^bc a ioorice of ploaiure or amlructioo. Th^y luive ti^^en 
tjbi^liiie; an4 t^t iixH^ fhpy ttitnk IbmI^ on tP p!i^Mic notioe 
^ $9 ^prtoi^e. They reeommend a ienew«l of religioiia wtat 
•4^ aev^id pf ascient aptipfithietfrii cetum of ^cieni diacord. 
They >iquigii?e tb«^ liiia pQ|ir«e IMs dmctlj to fn$WHU cort9^ 
fH^M^ Tl^ey «ee diatinctly th^t iheir cgpntry hjw fanep^ ^d 
that tho^ and thoee alone who would dvice ypon its tpoib- 



dious to its inhabitants, and which compels those who can accompliaii it, 
tp abandon a oountryt where fotmienee is etemiUr persecuted, W^ 
would recommend Mr. Berwick to omit the enUre of his Preface in the 
next edition of a Work which is in many respects veiy ^uai>le to ibe 
TeBd8r.-«-In this Preface we read the foUowin g 

*♦ When We reflect on the inveterate hostility which has subsisted a- 
menji^ Protestants and Bondan CsthoUcs ever since the refoanatioo, an^ 
on the sense whicf^ the former has invariably entertained o£ the inevita- 
ble tendency of the principles of the latter to promote arUtrary power in 
the, atatCf 4Uid ^toffrmme fMid pfrtefi^ion in the chun^ it must surely .ex- 
cite surprize, that a coalition should ever have been formed between sucli 
<;ooflietio^ pprties. fbr the pQipose of extending the bounds of civil and 
rd^gUms Hbertyr 

' And again — •* That the TrUh Romanists participated with dbeir ortlH>* 
dax brethren abroad, in a detestation of French principles, it is iippossi* 
ble to deny. However, to the utter amazement of all, they entered 
warmly (in If 92) into th^ views of the United Irishmen, and stepped 
forwai^as ardent and disinterested .cham|)ions of civil and rdi^ioiu liberty t 
Such,«.mofc«/nmt coaHtion struck all reflecting men with astonudiment, and 
the long established maxim of popery unroediattly occui^ to their 
thoughts, that • no methods, whether of deceit or violence, are to be left 
tinaMempted^br the service of their church, which, in ail their lowest 
fortunes, th^ never suffer to be removed out of sight — that all forma 
of complaisance and dissimulation, of civility and gottd-hunior, even to 
heretics themselves, are to be put on, to inveigle them to their own mia* 
— {Ho&dkyU Sermotit, XL p. tSO.) and they must have reeoUected that 
Queen Mary, before she commenced tlie work' of blood, * oonunaodedaH 
her loving subjects to Uve togetiur in qitiel tort, leaving aside those new 
found devilish terms of Papist and Heretic,' and that the plea of liberty 
of amscience and Hnivenal toleration was the ladder by whieh James IL en- 
deavoured to mount to the summit of his ambition, and overthrow the 
constitution which be had tmorn to support.*' 



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sfaar may flattarDitamrivM wkh tfi6 hope of poUtkitoour* % 
qtitiMc*. WIma wdhmm 9ippe$it, iC Uftitt tiai* to^ Mt afloat' 
t Wanddate !• tine pdMi ; ifittiaaatotikedowii.tlMiapagtf 
faritatteaM^um wMoh dMf^luvNiM'lMig, amtao- inglori^ 
oosly slombered, and whioh cmH a ia e J tiMMi aaeMd prifictplta> 

may yctcoMtriboteUrrq^mantta a people^ ivlio have batn dM 
wtMoa of public tnaaon; 

WImd t fin* liB tif mgri a d en Ilia pHeaant «oiic» I did ooiii' 
oatMi^ tbattleliamadEditMi0f AeBel&atPoliliGa, IHrnn. 
Jov an4 Bmoc, httd kboradtoivitlidiair fkana drcolatiov 
ivbataver iraaiMd of that Tory eiceUaot piaMiaation. 
Sinoe, h>w«ver, I amiowicfed ny inteatien, a faarinniihni : 
of tbia p^Hdar work have re^apfmred, and mt hom Mm§ 
lif jsy amch rcipeoled MUm-eitimm, Mr. S. Afcber. I wiih 
eiraryaucoaaitotliefaleof tt^iMi^, a«d Ihank liCaiM, J^. 
apd ftmor for tk# auddcii aod uMxpeettd dianga of tbeir 
HntiaQcntaoDthe prudescf and pMfrifty ^ Its cuPcaialioo> 
I am 1W17 oertain, tbat tbota gentleman^ intlieiitaioctfitrain^ 
iqgp of theic benevolence^ or themnmeat aiptaBtknaaT'llMiir 
patriotisiDy cannot confer a greater benefit on the community* 
than by tfaec^eap and rapid diasemination of the doctrines con- 
tained in the pages of the Bellkst Politics. I shall preserve 
those pages, and re-publish tlienl in a cheap and cenveoient 
form for our countrymen ; but I shall do moch more j I shall 
add those political documents which Messrs. Bruce And Joy 
did not publish, and which are perhaps the mod vatnei, and 
fliojl valuable portion of the politics of Belfast. Indeed, when 
we speak of Belfast Politics, we comprehend almost everf po* 
Uiical ioameta in Ireland, whidi bad deserved celebrity, &om 
1769101796. 

Ireland took her tone from Belfast, and perhaps will centi* 
nue to imitate her example. Messrs. Bruce and Joy must be 
aware^ that it is an idle effort, to attempt the suppression of 



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10 

« w«dt in « town Hlia 9e1fiMt, whicii ntrir oooU be cbarsed 
withliteraiynuMu^y; wboie ckisens aif BOt !• bt inl«on<» 
oed hy names, bat pttnciplef ; who an not U bp ^ontinoodl 
by the swagger of dagmatiaVj b«t the cool and dia|MaikMWto 
exercise of reason and eoounon aense. 

: Before I proce0d to give to nay readers those eal^atad p»* 
litieal |Hroductioiia whidi so powerfully directed the mind of 
our country from 1769 to 1796, I have considered thatil 
woold not 1)0 a bad mode of estimating the Isbort of asodem 
putriots, to take aretroqieCtive view of the state ef that Conner 
tiy, whose liberties they had assertedj and whose IMinga- 
they had defended. I therefore have ondeavonred to give a 
rapid bnt comprehensive history of ray country lireaa that sera, 
from whioh British fivedom has so often been dated^ and have 
brought it down to that year, when the hiborf of our Ii48h 
Patriots commence their great and benevolent work. Tbut ' 
will I present to my readers a volume every way worthy of 
their protection ; and thus will I be the instrument of recalling 
to the memory of Ireland those memorials of their genius, 
their learning and thehr patriotism, which should never be for- 
gotten. 

JOHN LAWLESS. 

Bdpui, 9> King^rtef. 
J6ne8<^181T. 



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COBIPENDIUM OF lEISH HISTORY; 

nU>M TBS REVOLUTION OP 1688 TO 1779* 

h ROM the period of the English esUblishment^ iinit ef- 
fected, nfkrwards esuUished, and final]/ secured by (km^ 
tic treadiery abd division^ there appears to have been no in- 
tention, on the part of the invaders^ to give the people die 
beneOt of free and wholesome laws; and so far from wishing 
to coalesce and anite with the native inhabitants, the ill-fated 
policy of the invaders appears to have been to foment and per- 
petuate dissention, animosity, and hatred between the two 
nations; and it woaM appear, as Sir John Davis testifies^ 
*< that snch as had the government of Ireland, under the 
Crown of EnglancI, did intend to make a perpetual separation 
and enmity between the English and Irish.** 

Long did this ill-fated country groan under oppression and 
injustice— lier rights trampled upon and disregarded—her 
complaints i^nattended to-^-^and her suffinrings unredressed ; 
laboring under every corruption in her domestic government, 
deprived of all internal police, plundered by rapacious fo- 
reigners, and abandoned in despair by her children. 



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IS 

The King't) d#]^utiefy and the deputies of these deputies, 
that held the reigning government, were strangers, and sol- 
dicrs ; united by no ties of sympathy with the inhabitants, 
their duty was conquest, and their reward was plunder. 
Henoe imavailing resistance, and more severe coercipn ; the 
riotous discontent of the half-subdued, drawing on themselves 
the suspicious severity of the halC^establbhed ; and the subju* 
gation of the former, effecting, by degrees, the ultimate de- 
gradation of both. It would be disgusting and revolting to 
the mind, to wade through the sanguinary details of a conti- 
naal warfare and intomittent massacre, every where the Md 
of slaughter^-no where the field of triumph. We will pass 
over the alternate ravages of Charles and Cromwell to the con- 
clusion of the contest belween James and William, when the 
warfare of the nations had ceased, and that of the govern- 
ment began ; and when the Parliament of England first as- 
sumed over Ireland an authority as tyrannical as it was u»» 
^ust. 

From this period the ravages of internal warfare had eeas« 
ed, and the historian of those times has little eke to recof4 
than Parliamentary transactions; but unhappily, these are 
sometimes of such a nature, as, more permanently dian war^ 
to t^ink tlie nation in poverty and tiarbarism. 

The Hevolutioa of l6d8, opens to our view a new scene 
of Irish politics ; and that sera, so auspicious for the liberties 
of England, produced in Ireland a more aggravated scene of 
oppression. Then, more than ever, was it treated as a eon^ 
quered nation ; its independence violated — ^its national con- 
sequence and dignity debased<>-^nd a systematic, rigid, and 
uniform policy seems to have been acted upon, not only to 
trample upon the rights of individuals, but even to extin-* 
guish the very idea of an independent legislature. 

In no sense whatever did the revolution of 1688 open to> 
Irelfind^any of those constitutional blessings which were so 



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IS 

gloriflQrfy asftrled by England ;: and mt^ wetm otmlel lluft 
revalotkm be tamed any iking ehe to die Irish than m metis 
cam|iieit; a eonquett of the lurahe«t natinv ; for k INu -adt 
#3llo«red up by a pinticipation df mil ri^tB takd Ulienifet, 
tat acted iqion m » new gromid fat burdening tiiem with ad- 
ditMud grievanoei. 

Tbe aapporters tt the Whig inleiest in Ireland dMfored 
Iren illaw who Ibrwarded tbe revolution in England, in priff- 
dpiey mactm, and in viewi. the Iriah Wb%t of that day 
w«e tiie rdica of the Crorawelian party^ Avowing no other 
|irinciple hat that of retaining the nonepDly and the pMur 
of the-few4ivert^ Mkof the nation; nettng i^pon ibedi 
mA -afbitrary severity^ in order to rivet the tihcit jpewer of 
the Couatiy in ^fgraoeful and everlasting tnhjecUoo. 
• ileiiaa^ however glorious the eiMPtaona of fing^iind in the 
cnee of- Friedom were, yet die unlnisaed mind will arraign 
their, modv^^ wlien il eontenplates tbe En^^i^ PariiameQt 
opposing that vtey liberty in Ireland, whMi they ao resdute* 
}y and ao focoessftdly supported in Bngland, 

Tbe artides of LioMrick had scarcely received the great 
sesl of £ngknd, when diey wera attempted to be viohtted; 
in defianre of the faith of nations, and in disregard to iR 
those principles by which society should be governed. 

Tbott|^ Ireland, as an independent kingdom, daitioed un^ 
der William, tbe same right it had enjoyed under his prede^ 
ctMaof^ yet did the Parliament of England usurp the right 
of Icgistoing/or Ireland, in as free and uncontrolled a man-, 
ner, $m if Irdand had no Parliament of h#r own. Thus, in 
t^ year l09l, before William had convened an Irish Parlia- 
neat, tbe £n|^t^ Parliament passed an ad, to alter tlie laws 
of Irebmd, regarding the most essentbl teidflmentel rights 
of the aslgect, l^ exdnding the Roman Catholics, ^ho com- 
poM^^tbe deckled ma|ority of Ireland, from a seat in cithea 
Haim.dt Padkttient. And when a pure Protestant ParKa< 



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14 

mmit iTM ooBV«ned, in tke year 169^, an little satisfied with 
it was the Buriiament <^ Eoglaad, that they oontioued their 
Jegifllatiye encroachmeots on Ireland^ by enacting whatever 
.kirs they thcmght proper, for regulating and settling the le- 
4(a], ciWh military, and eccIesiasUcal departnents of Ireland, 
for cbedung their commerce, and disposing of ihnr p roperty. 
' Lord Sidtiey being ereale4 Lord Lieutenant, in l69t, im* 
aadial^ly on his arrival in Ireland, issued writs, and Conven- 
ed a new Parliament; the primary ety}ect of which was to 
ndse snppUes, to dtscbarge the debt contracted daring the 
war. The c ommews consented to a grant, not exceeding 
70fiQ0L i^eac&ig the inability of the j^eople, ftom the cala* 
mitaesof the kte war, to increase the grant There had 
been no ParUaro«mt in Irdand for the last twenty-six years ; 
and sdthoagh the Farlitment of England had undertaken to 
legislate for Ireland, in the most important matters of State, 
it had not. yet proceeded to the extent of raising money di- 
lectly upon the people of Ireland. The Parliament which 
was now convened* after so long an intervid, could not be 
insensible of the encroachment made on their independence ; 
they felt their consequence, and manifested, by their con« 
duct,, their just resentment of the usorpiitions of the Eng- 
lish Legislature. They considered it to be their indispensa- 
ble right to determine, in the first instance, the sum and man- 
ner of raising every stipply granted to the Crown ;*-and 
when, in viokdon of this privilege, two Mon^y Bills, which 
had not originated with them, were transmitted from En|>:- 
land, and kid before them, tliey, with becoming dignity, 
resented this encroachment on their privileges, by njecting 
•ne of them, and dedaring, '* that, from the extreme ur- 
gency of the esse, they alone consented to pass the other.** 
They, at tbe same time, entered some veiy pointed and spi- 
rted resolutions on their journals, in support of their rights. 
His Excelloicy was highly enraged at these resolutions ; 



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15 

tand, m his speech, upon prorogaing the Parliament^ he se- 
Terdy leprimaiided them for having, in opposition to the de- 
sign of their meeting, midutifiilljr and nngratefttlly invaded 
their Idajesties' prerogative. And when the Commons re* 
quested penyissioa to send Commissioners to England, in orw 
derto lay a full and impartial statement of their oondo^t be* 
tare ihdr Majesties, he contempinoosly and insultingly told 
them, '' Thai ihey mi^ goto EnghndUb^ikeirMafesiiei' 
pari m, for thrir sediiiotu and noUms mmwMks," 

This uneipected and ungradous prorogafioo of the Par* 
liament, created general discontent Bills of ianpottanoe, 
whidihad been prepared, remained impeHeeted;— andtbe 
several grievanoes complained of, remained unredressed. 

At a subsequent meeting of Parliament, a biU, upon the 
principle of the En^iA Bill of Rights, was introduced hm 
the House of Lords. It proposed to enact, iIhi the pretend- 
ed power of dispensing with laws, er of executing htws, by 
r^al audiority, as assumed and exercised in the late reign,' 
was OlcgaL-^ 

That the election of members of Pitrliament ought to be 
free.— That the freedom of speech in Parliament, can only 
be impeached or questioned in Parliament.— That excessive 
bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel or unnatural punishments inflicted.-* 

That Jurors ought to be duly impannelcd and returned ; 
and that jurors in trials for high treason, should be fVecfaolders. 

This bill was, with some addition, agreed to by the Com« 
mottSy and transmitted; but, to the very great df^race of 
Government, not relumed. 

As the Parliament continued to act on principles offimsive 
to the Court, it was prorogued a second time, and then dis* 
solved. 

Lord Sidney having become an object of popular odium, 
was now recalled, and the GovernmDnt vested in three Jus- 



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16^ 

^Ci»^ Lodl Cqpftlr Sir CccU Wjdie^ and lis. Dutlcomlie. 
DMei:eB«BoCj^riociidt», howevti^ Moadiiaiiitsd tb#ii^Mai«» 
«f ibeir Gore^m&en^ InflaeiMd bf a«traigcUiireo£ n^ 
c;gi|m)ei|diQg djuawlf to Am fayor»W» «pinpoii ef feh« ISpglMh 
8«tljai9B, Lord Qqpel attinhtd hfanelC let Aei» intMfoc^ iPkicb 
}^ labomd, to fproo^olft •«e».atMij»«q»ef|s»qC e<piity. ttr. 
Ccien md Ifc Dqanowb? intcwiti d thinwohw k tirihtif 0f\ 
dvr Irids. They piMMMd th«p fttim p ppNwi o it; •ThMr 
who, fWmitetMiiiMip itftMplodtwi^ 
Ximtitk, tfafy wyn'mad bjr timr«itiioiJty« 

, 97«HlMr«.d«»rec^CoiirtiiAiMc4 ooraregMdto tfa^api^. 
|^#iM^4(f . tfie^pftWNrfWi iwtt thft prineipkiiof tMr oaododl ;/ 
they o^bJIf. wiiM ^ be diitipgnMifd t^ a^ «^ 
n|4Mtio^. Si^d^deet Goyerninaft of^roveaad'eiicounige 
limits servants anchitimritf of) hgm^^Thfi caoO^icx ct Looi 
C$dl was fdnpMi) ti^ tbipN^idmaar thcfiP'ir^HW;— b» am 
tcrrstivMyaiM; to thu rfgiowd of his twonfff^to ril oig i ie u p 
aiid he «as cnei|tfd eole C9vemof> uador t)ie tifle of Loid 
Depaty. 

^ liM J^arlirafot^ -eparveQed by thi% Qo^anior^ thg pet&mi^ 
rjf SMIipUM «ere fretted ;«*the in;ocipdi|igy i& Kii^ Jiunoa'^ 
£arij«i9eQt.wete.jce<ran^; ^lo^^^ in viobi^oii o( tbnirl^a* 
lali^ pi^v0«)8M, Alavr toth^8aiaapni|Met|tdb^aiipaf9ed, 
in England, Tbe Actof gettlyagnt naaa exjiUinad and coih^ 
fipned^«--tbe Ani€lea.o£4>inierick wereidaQ confimec^ tiot 
ap modificdy aato laaseiLtlia secnfi^tofthepierMliicaiioeiiH. 
edrr «>^ * low pqnal Jtetutet were added^ in addition to tlRdlw. 
^ich had boon al^eadj enacted ag^iHut Catbolioa. 

It was, however, eveiy day becomiiv more ^psMSiti that 
civil Ubofty conldnot make the' progresa i| did in Eoffand, 
and :the^ Ireland ahcpld contiQua odcnre thi^inaenail^Ie-to ita • 
l^^nga ; apd the triih people were hourly becoming more 
reb^laiit to surrender and renqunce thoye rights^ wfaieb the 
^i>|^i&h had ao glcjrjously asserted for tliemselves. 



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Jf 

ly dittliBMilwil hjmtM kf hi«pHriQtipnt#n4 iHi» 
^ J|a 2»U fa j hi yof ni to fUfn^lrlW 4ivpnMrfiafDt of our bm- 
miactKurtB, he foond hiaiitlf fi99itwaR% cyp^ 
»t aT -Bijtiih WM^^^i tli|d.pen0iii4s|^ 1h«t Milber #«r 
yapu j fiKywt ^ ottTC Q ii ^ i y^ oqraa|rPi«tii0i^ oawUdiM-. 
iMftfl prM p Mity jdqMftjb^ cwU tucptcJL ao lone it oor nw^ 
t«nd anA oeoitttiiliaiMil riglM w«rt nppQWirl bjp tbt onjiift m» 
tafteeaeo^of the BriUdi IqiiilbttfEe j--4«t«r9iined to vindicate 
tiMTcnwof Iris e^mtfjTf msdio^iSi^^ibn^^vXibiipt^ 
ajoatitnatofiUcoDititiitkmdjdg^ h^ itLlGtfd, paUiib* 
^a book, ttyloc^ '' TAt Qm^ cf Irebtnd beuig bamd bg 
4€U ff PaHiamnf in Er^fiand^ ^Medi*' for.dio pwp^^of 
^tyvingi fiom hittoriol taOB, ,Tifi tit kmgiom ^ trAxni 
m»m, JBdipfifiitwt ff th^kkigimV M^gjiamif at the laU&r 
«M# ^ Mm ^MiMTr-^hialM^ |v«t waKXm in 4 ittein cf m« 
fcp indint diacttttioa and wpbcMi Mfeitioi^ to wUdi Irolmid 
llftd Jopg bMn a stnttifdr. It tM|^t the y aiyj p oC Ir>Uodt» 
comidtr, move J^tdy and mofo wXMirdj, tl» Qatme q£[, 
tfie^ ooQiMction with Ei^^and; a^d obuined for its atitfior 
t)M^g|ilaa9, hia patriptim and talenta to wtll.nwtPHf>d> 
' VilQr diftpan^ wanBtha ofHuiaoa aptoitaiaed hjr-tl^ Bq(^ 
1(A Htaae of CoaMiaiM>*-tlMy a||)pia|ad a oonnputtee to ax- 
dia bM(» ,and ^ itoaqiort ^ thti^omniiltee, tlie 



CiOMvoiii «OPlMoi|i)r MfulM, ''That tba.book fsbliabed 
bf Mr. J^olynaam^ waa^- ti^a^acom taodiancjr to ^' Crown 
•nd Ptf|i^ of gaglaprf» )v dcnyii^ ,tba authority of the 
Kiaff^ attd JBnUgniani of EilgiMl to bind tiia kia^daoi and 
faople .^.. Jralaodi^ .and i^ ffibocdioalion and dapandaoee 
laAiad iiad» and pqgbt ttf bt«i npo^^ England." They alsc^ 
in, Ji h^jy pff oa p n trt -an AdAnna to hia U^^f* ef^ai^ii^* in 
ttrma «if sm4.inili|;nationj on th^ boofc, and its p«'nicious 



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18 

W8c;rti«i8 ; ami beieechufg Ittm' to tikd dM Ibift tile bnrt 
whkhiMreeitdmidrntriAnedIke Pmikmeni^ Mftkmi, tkooUl 
not be eraded. In lunswer t^ wMdi, they receifed a |iriinin 
from bis Migeilj, ^* bit edfogecedtdh^ lb their wMu 

Tbe bodk was alto baitied by tbe Madi of 4eeottBH« 
ban^pnaOy by order of Oorertunent. ' 

' The Einglish ^arlament continued *to exercne orer Ir«Auicl • 
an authority as onjo^fiable asit'wos eppm^ve; and our 
tnanufactures were almost in eTeiy Instance sacrificed to tbe 
fliiberal and selfish Ttews of the Englisb trader. In England, 
ihe woollen mano/actore had become a- staple coromoAty ; 
with us likewise ft was a profitable branch of com me rce. Be- 
ftrt the thne of Charles I. we fndraped our wool, and ex- 
ported the overplus to foreign maMcets. Of this privUflge, 
tbe English, jealous of a competitbn, endeavoured Co de- 
prive us by several Acts of Partiatoent, more especMly by 
one, enacted in the reign of Charles II. which waa dee|4y 
marked by the most unjust severity. Preflmisto'tiiepuUi- 
eation of. M6lyneaox, the Irish Parliament had been required 
by the King, to pass laws for the encouragement of the hemp- 
en and linen manufactures in'this country, and the Hiccurmge^ 
ment of the woollen, in consequence of represenUtions made 
by English traders, who apprehended a competition of the 
Irish in the latter. The preference thos prmmsed to the 
hempen and Knen manufiictures, so as exehiavely to supply 
the English trade in fUbrics of -this Wnd, and to amount io 'a 
compensation, for ike loss of tkewooOen, woanot ghreftfer 
six years after ; and in Ihe mean time, the growing and ma- 
nufacturing of hemp and fiax was so fiivored by Cbvernroent 
in Scotland and England, ftat these comrtvies became rivala 
in this branch of tndusbfy to Iveland, where the trade of 
hemp entirely failed.^Thus was Ireland unjuWly compiled 
io lay yestricdotis on a profitable bhmch of indu^iy ; cheat- 
ed out of the promised compensation ; and when even the 



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4iMM]M««rJb«mfiiwq[m8st)9d£vtltttoM of tlMr 



Mttniwiliii vi|i»d»i«Mitiif€li0iM,.th» EoglMb P»lia« 
BMim itttile jFiir IftW. ■ | »ii> t t <i •fio»mittgg> t» inquirt. 

dHn nidi tke«b w^9oi;t<n«M«l %ii uvbiMUtiittn in foraign 
BMriMli; «h«t ikmlmunktt bMWMas.wta iocnMiiig with us; 
md Ift^ Ifcy Mliliec <f«U mrmoM^ffiar Ikt w^olkn- wmn* 
fytl tmm «f tM$mmitT$^ to rhc, intQ:<wi^tiimK ^lAA Ihtin. 
1b tmm^mc^, A^ p«fvd, a. \$m, proUbiliog llw etpotta* 
IMi fiwa Ireland of aU doths made, of voal, or comaiimg 
anjr nixtara* «f iL— Tha pnkibftoiy laws of tbis daa^ e» 
naclfd m Bn^aod^ awa acconpAoiad witb ^blbrcfsitnis, aa 
ma oo i st ant with iha yijiticiJ c^tiaitoesa o( Itclapd, as with 
thafiaapsiiitii^of Ihe BiMsh mmsliittrwi. By <iM aet,^ 
tba aaesBMcl wtre4iaUa A^ tha panalties dTcattSscatioii aiMl 
^ aaotkar, ta ivanspaeCatioD.^'-Ajr tba fgr* 
of these sla^ilei, 4^ ac^idKal, 4A lidatid, 4if ao/ of- 
jtlraHU beHUawa^ ia bair or delay <)f «iiy hi- 
dktoMnt, orjprosecuAi^ witkim tbe kimgdom of Jgngland 

llm^ a penoa, for vsing his liberty, as a fkaeman, ia ex- 
petting aay of tbeae rprohibited aitiekv might be trifd id 
tUaaooolry, aad afcfatttad, aader all tbelbniia of law Itk 
Irdand, and yet might be still dragged to £ngla|id^ to be tri^ 
ai ftir the saaia of eqce; by^ a fii^gn yxtjf .^ ^ strange land, 
where ha co»iU not have his witnesses; iar from his friends, 
andpobaps withaaH mdnay or resonrcas. 
' Tha immtdiMa elfeets «C these prAibiloQr'bw% ware po- 
vast^fiand ^strass^to Icdaftd; jnsniwMmti^aHa by tha fertility 
af her soil, and the ing^auity j^ her inhaWtaola. Deprived 
df tbemaans of iiibeistaara Al^^iiRpie, thaosands of Irish ma- 
imftctamB emigriitfd :to Fi!SiaO0>'and oSliar coontriei, and 






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tqral wwt i^gitQtt tktir pn i o || cti l y y to 

ttUT mwirtitnTH if f>H%< liiil- Thw, tb^ 

. ooiMiil .ttp lofllMH Initio aiilum of 
TVm» £«i^nd lulhut **i a I— W ii ^i i nt lii n , far kmrf. 

(Of tl»r fmnm >g i cf jMrrtndoMyi Mk i i| «< wJ i ii i idi; of liio- 
Ihrils, wiiwli %oold tote ttltfaaotiiy ro»ertoilo*<r i |0< *i ■ 
banUiodl •'torcftys^ ip^4«tolNg«ttt> md ipJwiriaot p iptfhtiiOj 
to in^ liM lOMiiveoi,' awl iaiptwo'tiit>mfcr>oiiBlo»w of ^ 
pOfrovAil and rivd ootiiii. - . 

' Tbo dofllnictioii of 4)if fvoiUon foaiH&etare^ wn not tb»- 
0iidy oidl Italiiod soMiiiod^ IHhi iho oofott oftUlllUboiol fto^* 
Uki^aaof Ao-l^o^lbllX^gHlt^iv. Atfiang a muMiy of'^ » 
• tbir nu^Unlum^, oaibaiyoit woro fra qacutl y Jbiit oo tlMi ot* • 
ptrlatioa ctfnmum^ hmmmm to-^^ealtaio, aad4 
ctot of iHdaiCry; and tko i|^Mtof wnotyulytid ioi 
pleleiy pen^acfed Englaodi Ait |f tJie^Pntiooipt liad- boM 
snfloeoetfl/ to the flt^oartoat, * by die a ppTimJ a w i i » hil c fc iwt» ^ 
madotothom, Irolaiid mint hayo boett ia a gve^ -degrav ffe^' 
populated. The spirit, reepoetitig Ireiaod, whiob pieoailid 
in Et^land, appears, if pessiUe^ mora mot^i^, £km Ao; 
^Uoorin^ draQasstanco, than ooenjkom tbo paitioalaiajdfloid^t 
addueed. 

T^o pelirtoBs wevo preeeoted in 169$^ by'tho poopfa o| * 
Folkstono in Kint, and Aldboreagh m Sid^ etaUay 4r 
grievance whkh they sMtaiood tees haliasl, '^ Iv^ the irU|i 
(;atchiag herrings, i|t WaterAnd aad Weoiftid, Ottdseadiog 
th^m totho Stseigks, thoraby fdosbOlkq^ ottd MMMg Bffi* ' 
tkmors' matketa." 

Thereignor Qneea Ami!^ wbo eo er oed ril on tbo ^eaJi of' 
Vf^^i; in IWi we ind diminfi|idi«4 (H)lyb^«o i50BBh^ 



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•t 

Irfiitt if iMtivifvomtti. AtwUk^mt ^mttmUkj'iMit 
« rigorMs adgncotitMli «f p«ttl aUtatM agabiti C inhdhfc 

tflt wUdi itof «tont|IUIa» ^ Aattbt oowtflMiiqn of ^bv kiwgu 
dom b»d been ii^iifed, aadtfelivciu UNrtMt, andMlater 
^ lIiu'|Hiiyl%MKd btkn wJM ia q<i<iin, in sMvtiiv un. 
litjw mtiiiiif ^ioimpm^ Ailt|ie«MNMtMfli«ff ^taidcifv 
4bw^ir«i' not e^oal M d» fteaordhugy •gpt p c t tii c m a J j 

«f *# MJiir/'aiiiiiig Amb |I» MArieiiaii^ of imawmoih> 

tktyoMkliMteMiAt^lfaliMsd^ d# stifqpoBl rtitiiMMmUMJ^ 
If «yil^4liaili«Ai«iga MMwiw fedboN}d»ufidbt>ifli: 
mtohmBhmmi^ fa n gi p i%m» i m < > iwin^att ' 
iAle; gb* liift Ike iM fr i % tii n t J»tH ii f tf i^MflunMll^ %Nii A 
piJnc^Md caet0 of iIm natMnd-wMMteiM* > 

• TmUs RfWiwiHioa Ifar J M n | i*f ftmwirt th»foa##faf 
mAAn^i «<11i«inlf«t if it toritti ttfrtlatviomslliit' 
r; Ad< IIm otter |M|t mi)|r ccNMlttait of^ 

Mdpmtt^ boc kHU nfce kfato bor.t—iliMilfiiiu''^Ttg«tti ^ 
r»|]Mi0it/ ^Mr faivittgr toM^Uit^MMIiiy Mtipiieii pM** 



kti ft jbfani> to^tlteai»wiiii^ i<jWlbfcoyt», > 

xU^ jMi |MiiiikiMiii of lM^ifil1illM# '9^ MfiMlMi tolli§ ' 
uiMiONWf lanroooiiVjy bib imp iiipHSiM'Wi^m wvnHy^m 

iiMrit «HyiB wwiifcio<Wr H iBj U yy 



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flitten«nd«iibMloBtlieMm«bftkewort]f)r and im kii l rit^t 
IftdMfsie 1 . . f* 

. Aiia0w«idio]iaMedg to nttfe the fveeMkiMi killifteviP 
<tf I&iiomr. IiiaBai»topc«veii|A«£utiin'8lv>wthQ£Pppr- 
rji AMOUBCithriics wertdMqmlifffdAiMnifoiiRgat^lactlcKiti 
aQdfiiDm8emngMll«BA>anof P^tfliaiBCril; ttvoRal odier se- 
veritiM were eneeted' against theeiL 

Dttriof the w^oie reign of Queen Anne> the fpenal laws 
were ^aeeubed with tmabeting aeverity ageiiiat the BomaD Ca* 
ilolica^-^heagh-po aet cf d tt^ w Hj^ mdaai|^of dklarhing 
the peace; oould, widi any reaionebie fcieadation^ beicbari^ 
a» the bodjr of chat people. WUUam^ dun^ educated in die 
frinciples ef tbe Calvioiate; a aect wry adlfene toAbe pHmH 
oC B it m t, andthmgb the orfy nHMoeotcma oppotiliwleA* 
eaUbUahdMiit of bia g^veraeMnt^ Jn the Biitedi I<land#, hid 
ariaaQfmBtteIri^CadicUo9» wtetooUbeml, bad Ma l^aiUa- 
ment beien equally enligbtened^, to have ^realtfd wMi ^ilde- 
rtoce bi9 Catholic seljectay but would ultioiataly baare auuk 
Ibe asperities of.#cfl$tarian pr«;^idieea in tlft aialplji^ ield ot 
Christian benevolence and toleration. 

As ibe fcietf neas^ thewiadom, thejU6tice» and Ihe boniani- 
ty of King Williwn> had attitched theafe to govennaacBl ; sa 
did the opposite, conduct which was punltied, #hen tfaia en- 
lightened Pritice was scarcely laid in his gtave, nU^aiQs tb^* 
affectioiis from Govemoient, and their country ; thfy ceased 
to cultiyate their famu^ and Converted them to'i^aniy. In- 
dustry drooped/ and roukitudes of the inh^nt^n^ emigsvpted 
from eiyery quarter^ and soogbt eleewh^re fbr the tneans of 
subsistence. It. is painfkl to the feelings of etery Vbtnl mind , 
to enumerate the many acts of qipresatoo, paaaad io this 
xfign ; which reduced the Roma6 Catholics to tbe^oweat state 
of depression— whick every sentiment of beneveleBce loudly 
condettins, and wfaicb oo aigonient of p^icy« or of reasao, 
can justify; wlule those very lawl^ which .'a^efened jbiliiided 



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Ptfpmf hm Ae had, twdid only to fix it dttpi- 
«% Iqr stttnglfaiMbig wd tenAEming the {^edpb is their opi^ 
Mttm; Md«iMirkn»MK«te«flbottww»,balMdto^ mVmg 

llf «iityja»ttt ihiMer> to imd tfce dtifuitiqg deUiloC 
^ppnorii^ Imr^ arnfff^rt •t tlifa ptifad J^g«iait.tlu»'iii||uqpp7 
peofife; «odhwoidd)itB(Mriiiiiieoe8iaiy toptfticok^ 
artadtonf ttvpoilftl cods, IqrwUdi their xriifkmwun^tdct- 
gd, by a vtakty ef sev mhA aggnmtiog opprwtioni; by 
wfaidlltepaMiaftltb, 8e)miily pUgfattd to Ihom^ bytfae». 
tidfiof Lmeridc, waeviolitocl, and by which> for the great- 
er pen of » centurf, they wwe reduced toe politied Ueidi, 
ead by i4Adk, if die prieete generoiity of ProueCiAte hed 
Mi fciKtrrted tbmr eztoitien, they iroald have been dtgra* 
ded still BMve, to a condition harAy ooac^mble. 
• The eery conduct of Catholics themaelves, if a proof of the 
f ij^st ic c and xamehy of these r ea triotions. The resistance of 
so mneh peoyooatioii to rebellion^ as those laws Aimished, is a 
Buokedtast of the staady loyal^ and peaceable demeanour of 
the Irish Gathoiks, Ihim the reroiution to the accession of bis 
pwasnt Mqesty, noder whom they had the hj^piness of being 
considered as no longer eeenues. 

. In the year 171% .the ivguriea of this country wereaggra- 
mitei^ in a degree quite intderable to the feetiogs of free^ 
men. And Uie transactions of that memorable period have af« 
fyuA a stain on the jnstice and character of the English Le« 
giris(tufe>- A canse relative to an estate between Esther Sher- 
lofikand Meariee Aanesly, waeiaaidl>eforethe Court of £x« 
oboiMr in laaiand. The laftljar etafned a decree, which, up- 
on spfaaU was psveeMd by ;the (<efds. From this sentence 
Aimealy appealed to the JSfgfijA ^eers, who coofirtned the 
jodgnaeiU- given m his fiiver by the Court of Exdiequer, and 
iuued an order to put him in possession of the disputed e« 
state. AgailMlfaisiU^S^l detenmuition, Sherlock petitioned 



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tfie digiik|( «r ik0«mB, mid tfetimlli^pttkiflt^NMionj, 
the HooitafljMliPMieMwidifemiiitatflpr^^ 
digni^. Hiviog fiwt tiiMtf Min^dtfcfiiiilyw fcy tbt 9§inim ^ 
«M! J«%«% th^iftMlTed, tfiiltbqriwAklMWpartllMurte. 

. A'pitilini wit mb6 Ine wAnpnmaafMU te FiMii^ t]F 

AfexfodsrBwfM^ Sfaviff •€ KildhB% iiliii«6rdi ''Th*^ 
M»pfrftde <i >c ai <■■§ hadpA ah<dpc» fa piXt m i m rf tW 

tilp6iAa#lodieQi«fer of the fi^fliiia FMVr wiied fbon tb^ 
S«4i«fMr, Wfiaimf bim l# rtflMi» MMrkie iMtV»ly to Hit 
pwwmiwirf tke Above 1M>; wd tbatooCdmgto ^ct^^ 
ooDtmdtction to Ao oidtr of Cbo ihmmg ho^ imni fined j Im 
e^WqMsee of this, bm»g aftftid ht '^riimdd be taken tote 
eoitodj, bechirat note— itn pan hiseceoenttj eed for Ibit 
irm fitted l^»(mL" Bf AereMhatidHi of tbe LonK hb oon^ 
duct waa qiprored; baa AtaaeeoeUed, and dto Bareitf ef* the 
Ekthequer wereordeiedtobetekeni«leeaitoify; ttftdifiirto- 
dieiiidaof 4hcteineaatM«, eed ef the rigbts of tbemmiiei^ 
thef di«w up a memorial, to be prgiwiteJ to Hia Migeity> 
In Ibif escdleot paper, they rqmattitad, Ael .the ktnga and 
priiiqipal nien of Iielaed, havny weleluia} tobmitted tor 
Henry II. as their liege lord, obtoiaed, ae ^eir reqoeiH, froaa 
hifQ, the benefit of En^iah kw, iirttb flaany other prieilcgca, 
particularly that of haviog a diatmct FarUament ; end that,^ 
in caau-queooe of tble.ooneearien^ tbe English had been «ft^ 
eoursigedto Qome over and settle in tieUhd,- where ikey irei«^ 
to enjoy the fame pciviliqies 8»te Soffbwd.'HiianM thoegh tbe^ 
knpetial Crown of thia rei^l a was avnexed io that of ChreA 
Britaii|» yet» being a diiaifi^ dominioii, woe could detei^' 
nine witli respect to tbe aArini^ it/ but sedi as weae aiitbe- 
lised, by its known hwsand eastrais« or tbe eaiprasK 



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0f tb»]^ki g> 4| n t itwt<»oinpovati>nof hitM4g«t3r'«I*«»* 
gattrej and a grterance lo bta Irish nvd^etU, for any ooartof 
jttdiaUttC9to-de<danv> that^ ib i|HKm|ing Co bU MnjwtfM Pjiy^« 
UiMmt btn^ Ibajr did wt briag Ib^ cmm bofore a QOinpeo 
toBt jiidifafiirt YlMgr tbaa stata the perolcioua coBfloquenoaa 
id Ais uiaipad jumdiqtaoQ of tha Britith Peers with spirit 
aodpanpiefii^; and in coodusioD^ they inform his Majesty, 
that to prevaot Eather Sheilac)L from mukmg &tther i^lica^ 
tiqn to the Irish Fariiameiit, his dqwty reoeirer had paid her 
Aasom of ahove etgbteeu hundred poonds^ the re*piiysiest 
of whkh money was esipected from GoTermnent :-l- 

That these proceedings of the English Lords had greatly 
embamssed his Parliament of Ireland; disgusted the gene* 
rsltty of bis loyal sobjeots; and must of necessity expose all 
sberiffii and officers of justiee to the greatest hsrdships, by 
this inteiArenoe of different jurisdictions ; they therefbfa 
hofe, his M^esty will jui^y the steps they have takeq, f* 
supforting hi* prerg^tive, and - the just rights aud libAties 
of tbamsslves and their ftUow^sabjeets. 

The gqpmscntation and proeeediugs of the Hense of Lords , 
in Irebmd, ooanQ^niiig appeals, habg transmitled to His &!»• 
jestf, puasoant to mi address fisr that purpose^ weae laid b»- 
fore the BritUi HooM^f Lords; wboi» instead of departing 
fnanthel^oi ooodiict tbey had adopted with inspect to this 
Cewatry, thriojnstieeof whidiwas here plaoed in a clear and 
striUng ligbt» they reselFed, that the Barans of the Irish £x* 
dieqpftsr bad acted aooordii^ lo law, and with fiddity to the 
Cmimof EagUnd; and they also supplicated His Mijesty to 
confiar on them some imA of his Soyal £ivor, to aompensale' 
for the mgost censure and i ny rim n ment they sustained. 

Harang tbua far intarpoeed in favor of these apostates from 
virtue and the causenf their country^ the EagHsh Peers enact- 
ed a Bill, '< for the betier securimg th€ d€penienc^ of Ireland 
aa Mr Crown of Great Drilain," which also passed the Com- 
fit 



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26 

m, by a kitft nuy^rity, and was em&aoMdb^ « h^» hf 
the RoyaX assent ' 

.. Eveiy Inshman shooM be acqaainted wMi i^ tfie parts eC 
this chain^ passed to adi^h&ite the priWlegas ef our eonstita** 
ttoD. It was as foUoirss — ^* Whereas attenoptslate been late* 
If made ,to shake off the sabjecticHi of frelakid upon die Im* 
perial Crown of this tesim ; which will be of dangerous oob« 
seqnencies to Gveat Bf4tJsin and Irdand: And wheveas the 
Lmfdsof Irriand, in order thereto, hate of late, against law»- 
asiQfided to IheniselYes a power and jurisdiction to examine; 
correct, and amend, the judgment and decrees of the Courts 
of Jttstioe, in the kingdom of Ireland ; tfietefbre, for die 
better securing of the dependency of Ireland upon the Crown 
of Great Britain, majrit please your Majesty, that it may be 
enactedi and it is hereby declared and enacted, by tfioKing^s 
most excellent Miyesty, by and with the advice and consent 
at the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, it» the 
present Pkittament assonbled, and by tiM authority of the 
same, that the said kingdom of Ireland haCfa been, and of 
right ought to be, subordinate unto and dependent upon the 
Imperial Crown of Great Britain, b» being inseparably an- 
nexed and nnited thereonto ; and that the Khig'e Mi^eSty, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal, and Commons of Great Britain, in Parliament as* 
sembled, hath bad of right, and ought to have ftdl power and 
authority to make laws, and statutes, of snflkient fbrce and 
validity, to bind the people and the kingdom of Ireland. 

'^ And be it feither enacted, and declared, by AeauAority 
aftiesaid, that the House of Lords of heland have' not, noi* 
of right ought to have, any jurisdiction, to ju(%e, affirm, or 
reverse any judgment, sentence; ordecr^, given or madetn 
any oomt within the same kingdom; and Uiflt all proceedings 
before tiie said House of Lords, upon any such judgment^ 



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wMoMt, or daeiee, aw. and an hereby declared to be imer- 
1/ null and void, to all intents and purposes whatever." 

TImm did the Bridsh ParUamen^ by tUs Mtraordinary star 
to oasi a veil over Um iniquity of its former u- 
ta aanolify injattice, and to rob of their oecistit»« 
tianal prt?ilegt8» niidev the daim of a pretended right, three 
matiodsef ft«eiiienl 

WoCsnlhftaadtag (he degraded state of subjection to which 
the IfsA ParUament were redooed, audi a spirit of oppositioo 
was fviaed among the people, in 17S4> against a measure fi»- 
▼ored by the ruling party, that the British cabinet thought it 
pmdent to reiinqMish the business. Until then, ftmn the en- 
croaobing Act of the British Padiaaent, few matten worth 
Botiee occurred. Pteduded from the benefits of industry, by 
vestrieting laws, tiiepeaple were so miserably poor, that the 
fioKNM JeoathMi Swift, Dean of St Patrick's, a real Uiver o£ 
his country, deobred, that he 'r^Joioed at a mortality as a 
talasraig to indtvichuds and the public' The ssase system of 
adninistnition which had been ad<qpted in the reign of Wil- 
liam, eositjmsed Ihrougb this period, and long after it~Ti»e 
Catholics were reduced to a political iion-extstence by the Irish 
Parliament* and the bish Nation to a very low state of per- 
manent weakness by the ParUameat of Britain.— -The Vice* 
ray, iMMninaUy vested with the executive government, came 
commonly lor a short time, once in two years, leaving the 
veal power to ]Loids Justices, who were principally occupied in 
ooQsolidatiiig an ari atocrntic influence for eflhctuattng the plans 
nf: the British Cabinet As in the couociis by which Irefaml 
was gmraraadj its prosperity was manifestly no object, a num- 
bar of men, real friends to their country's welfiire, formed a 
partjr, catted the pa^rioU, to oppose the ministry. The soul 
of this party was :l^wift, whose, writii^ excited in many of 
lua oottQtrymen a senae rf thair situation and.tnie infteresU ; 



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Ae first suctiMs of which, was the deftating of a job favor- 
ed, by the miiiiitry. 

To remedy the mcoaveDience arMng from the acamty of 
eoppM: money in IreUnid, inUead of a toitmge Jmn ike r^it^ 
mini, wkickkad hem rip miedfy sMcHed, a royal patent waa 
granted to William Wood, an EngKthman, for the eoani^ eT 
halfpence and &rthingt, to the value of lOSfiOOL for Aoidt^ 
tion in tfak kingdote. Such an ind^paBty waold probdbly 
have been sabroitted to, had he executed his imet withfideli* 
ty ; bnt it seemed tfaii intenticm of this man to oonsiilt merely 
hk own emoluasent He made his haM^pepce of sock base me* 
tal, and so small, that a shilling o£ them was searody worth 
a penny* Of these, large quantities were sent over ;— bnuSi« 
money multiplied beyond all proportion j it was not only nsed 
in change, bat acoounts in generri were likefy to be paid m 
it Wood might pour clandestinely into the kkigdon a greait- 
er quantity dian hit patent authorized; forei gner s migiit 
counterfeit the stamps and swell the inundation of base me- 
tal; and when this medium should inevitably «nk in ez- 
Amgt to its veal value, the entire loss most fall upon Ae 
people of Ireland'. 

TJve spjrit of tiie nation was at lengft ronsed at the imqni- 
jty of the job; and men of all ranks labored widi united ef- 
forts to remedy an evil which already began to be sensibly felt. 

Addresses to His Mi^esty against the patent were voted by 
the Irish Parliament; he was likewise addressedj on the name 
subject, by most of the city corporations^ The Orand Jury 
of the Coun^ of Dublin presented, as enemies to Geveni- 
ment, all those who should attempt to put this base coin into 
circulation. At Quarter Sessions the country gentlemen d»» 
clared againft it, almost unanimously ; nor w« it smprising, 
^at an ettempt ta serve an itt£vidual, a foreigner, a man 
destitoto of principle, to the ruin of thousands and the ityn« 
^ of the community, should exdto gepiend indignation, 



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Wood, insteid'of telitiqddibig a BAmoBf the baseneu oi 
whteh appeared kk a glaring point of view, used every 'means. 
tosvippoltR. Bif the iaAieMe ef his IHends, tfaeEng^h 
Pfivy Cottttcil pubHshed a report, in approbdtioii of the ccia, 
and severe condemnation of the Irish Fsrliament*s address.^-^ 
After die mtnds of the people had been agitated a year by this 
disagreeable affiur, the King, by the advice of the ltUt% PrK 
vy Council, revoked the patent, and thus allayed' Ae gene* 
rsl discontent. § 

Of those irho opposed the iniqaitoiis iMpo«itloi#itt ^Ndd"*^ 
base money. Dean Swift was paiticnkrly dKrtingaidlieft} %it 
Drapier^ Letters, in which, witii so much knowledge &i the- 
subject, with so mddi force and perstncaity, he poiirted oitt 
tbe natate and consequences of this pemiddns design, #ere 
of siBgalar use; and^ his country stQl grateAdty rememben* 
tbJB noble effort of hispatric^sm. He wa#, liowever, in dan- 
ger of snflfering deeply in die cause ; for in diese da3rs tf ser* 
vitode, Irisllmen had not even tlie privilege to complain. For 
tile andior of tlte Drapier's Letters, OovefUmeat oftred a re- 
ward of SOd^. ; however, not an individual conid be Ibond so 
base as to prostitute his conscience, and to dishonor his eoun* 
try, for die sake of this inglorious bribe. He remained undis- 
covered ; die printer was then prosecuted ; here likewise the 
tyranny of Government was disappointed of its aia»-^e^aa 
acquitted by die unanimous opinion of the Jury. 

Theststtttes and parliamentary acts, viditch took pUce a 
diort dme previous to dlose transactions, show the principle 
Oft which die Irirfi Gov e rn men t oondticted themselves towards * 
die people, in return for their unshaken loyally to the House 
at Bnmswick. In 1719 the Pariiament passed an act for ex- 
enpdngdw FrottsiatU fissenters from certain penalties, to 
which they were (in common wkh the CathoHcs) subject, *«in 
order,'' as the preamble says, ** to unite his Majesty's Protes* 
font subjects in interest and affection." Thus, were the Ca« 



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80 

tfiolkt ngiirtly ejukded fvoni ttis bond of motod «Sed«» 
and inttrest The Duke of Bolton^ then Lord LieuleiMiit, 
when doting the aaiiion, reeomoMnded "am uniqm m vUtrtU 
dnd affkcUoB among all hU MmjeMUft tnbJecU.*' Unfortunate- 
If for the Catholics^ the words of the ttatate were operative 
and lasting; those of the Lord Lieutenanlj insidioiiSy fidse, 
and transient 

The same Lord Lieutenant, in opening the session, in 178^ 
Irecommended Parliament, though no shadow of disloyal^ 
co«tt4» IIMpmI to the Catholics, '' to strengthen the Pfetes« 
tMt Jf^iiglian,/bj providing laws, and enforcing those in exis- 
tence against Pofush priests being in die kingdom*" Remov- 
ed as we now fortunately are out of that medium of bigotry, 
and fknaticism, which distorted the views of .those who mov« 
. ed in it, it appears difficult to believe th#t the Commons, in 
1725, amongst other cruel and oppressive acts, could, in a 
bill to prevent the further growth of Popery, unanimous^ a- 
dopt a clause, for castrating every Catholic dei^man that 
shoulrl be found in the realm ! — ^This bill was presented to the 
Lord Lieutenant, on the 15th of November, '172#, and the 
Commons most i^amestly requested bis Grace, to recommend ike 
tame la the most effectual manner to his Majeetjf. It was trans- 
mitted to Enf^and, and, for the honor of humanity, them 
suppressed with becoming indignation.* The Lord Lieuten* 
ant, on proroguing the Parliament, consoled them for the loss 
of their favorite bHl ; recommended a more vigorous ezeen- 
tion of the penal laws against the Catholics ; and promised 
them that he would contribute his part toward* the praveotioa 
of the growing evil— -Popery. 

.,Lord Cartaret, who convened' the Parliament in 179^, ro* 

tained the Viceroyalty till 1731, but the chief manager of the 

••#••••••••••••«•••••••••••••••••••■•••••••••••••••••«••••••«••••■••••••••• 

* Some Historianf attribute th« failure of the BU) te tbt huauae 
interfefence ot* Cardinal Fleury with Mr. WalpoU. 



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81 

Irnh Goiftnmietd, from 1724, was Boulter, the Primate oi 
Ireknd, whoie prisiary object it appears, firom the pablia^ 
tioii of his letters^ was to maiataiii the ascendancy of an En^ 
glwA interest, with little or no regard to the welfare of the 
covntry governed,— >A line of distinctioD was drawn betwixt 
the English and ^ Irish interest, and aH the arts of political 
intrigue were made use of to support the fimner^ in CfppoA^, 
tioQ to the latter.— p-The jnoat autdttous care was taken to fill 
all the great offiees of slate with Ei^ilishmen; lest, if thejr- 
were occupied bjr those of this countty, oppositaon to die 
wiaiui'es of J4ini8tiy should be made in fitvor of oiir pri?i« 
l^^a. 

The high digiiitf> and large em^uments, wfaidi Bocdtev 
mijfOfed in Ireland^ might have interested him in its honor 
jHid pvo^erily. . Instead of this, infiuenoed by the prejudiots 
he Immgfat over with him from England, and by Uie princi* 
pl^ ci a complete courtier, he entered inta and supported, 
with warmth, the views of government most preyodicial to it ^ 
y«t in private life, be was moet amiably distingdshed by his 
benevolence^ goierosity, and many acts of charity and com* 
pflssioo; while, as a Minister, he paid little regard to the 
vif^MaeC thenation* 

In die Administration of the Duke of Dorset, who suc- 
ceeded Lord Cartstet in 1731, the strength of the pMtrioU 
appears to have been increasing, as a question of considerable 
iaapoctance was determined in fiivor of the people^ 

When, in the year 171^> apprehensions were entertained of 
a design upon the kingdom .having been formed by die friends • 
of die Pretender, the House of Commons passed a vote of 
cndit ta gov e r nm ent to a considerable amount This laid the 
Ibondation of oar national debt, which in s few years increa»* ' 
ed to upward^ of 200,000^. ; for the payment of the principal, 
aa acett $m the intero^ of this debt, supplies were voted, ses* 
axon from aession, by the Commons. 



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.8f 
^ Duri^f the late AdminUtratioo^ the friends of Gotcfnnvtnt 
moved in tbe Hou8e» that this fund should be gren^ed to Hit 
hb%e9ty, bU beirpj end succeeion, for ever, xtifeetilaMe hy 
F4rliianeiit, 

The Pelrietf iniiatedj m& Qirried their poiM, thatit wee 
ttconttitiiliaiie). And ineoDaiileBl wiih the pubUc safeQr, to 
glial it Sor i^'ki^j^teini Aan firon lesflien to seesioD. 

AnaMkaptmamm madeto veetit in tfie CHmti ftr twen^ 
lfK»e yeari. Whan die affair came te be agitati^^ the 
ettragthof thellinieterialieUaad CcmAxy ftix^ wta euMy 
equal; hut inuaediitdir prefnoua to the vote, ColoBel Tok- 
tenhanij who had ridden pest on the occasion, arrived baia l j r 
ia'tinSe to determbe, by hit vote, Ae queitidn i^pii&st Go- 
TeffwioBt/ ' His zeal on this oecasion fyr the (wbhc good wiv 
loog lemeoibered withgratitiide; andiVoHi the.thei^Bovebjf 
of cinBiiBg to Pailianiinit in boets^ which he was oottipetted to 
do bj the urgencgr of the queetiqn, «« Tottenbun in hoot^" 
becflflse ai ftvoirtte toast , . 

Severd yelva subeeqiloit to the adntmistratidn ef the Dokc 
of Dorset, afotfd nothing worthy of notice in the history of 
thi»eou|itqr^- Iti J 754, Lord Chesterfield was, oontary to 
the real inclination of the Monarch, whose fiMnortte* erron in 
politios be htd oppo^, appointed Lord Lieutenant sA a chm- 
gmm juncture, when in the niidslof an uosucceseful Wtf r 
against France and Spun, an alamiBg rebelUoa had been 
nused in Scotkod, in fiivor of Charles Edward Stuart, son of 
ibi$ Pretender* The administration of this highly priished, 
liberal, and edllghtened Nobleman, was a kind of pfaenerae- 
non in Irish Histery. 

Vested with ample powers he acted fiom his own jo%«^ 
ment, niiinfluenced by thecounetiaof thosewhe, topiweot 
an iniagioary, might have excited a real rebellion, by violent 
mefsur^ againt Catholics, the boUc of the naliion. He dk- 
eeuntenanced all party distinction ; he extended tbefoUpro* 



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83 

tcction of the laws to Catholicft^ and diiipfayed full confidence 
in their peaceable demeanor. 
* Befbre'his arrival, those (n power had shnt up theur chapeW 
in DoUin ; their priests were commanded by proclamation to * 
leave the kingdom, 6uch as disobeyed were cast' into prison, 
and threatened with greater pdnishraent These severities 
were ofimsive to Lord Chesterfield— his system of policy wks 
not founded in partiid views of human nature, or in those ' 
csMitracted sentiments suggested by reKgtous bigotry.«»-It re- 
ceive no 'tincture from the violence of a party spirit, by* 
wUdi the jodgment is perverted, and restraints are imposecf 
<Mi tte kfad impulses of bumanity. Convinced that harsh 
treitm#nt alienates the heart, but that gentle usage inspires 
eoofidinee and gains the«fiectionB/hepenmtt»d4othe Ro* 
smm GUfaABcs the fire^ iin^urt>ed eiericUe of their rdfgtcn/ 
knowfaig that the frish, above aB people, ave to be gained by 
confidence, kindness, and liberality. The accusations that 
j^rcjniUce brought againitlbem, the Tumors of plots and in* 
larrections designed by them, be listened to with calm indi& 
ftrence,' or treated with ridicule. AU partite ultimately oab* 
purred hi admiring the wisdom and public virtues of Ais tn* 
•dlent Yiceitiy, and chee^fiilly contributed their efforts to 
weoAv ll& Government easy and agreeable. In Parliament, ' 
bttmess went smoothly forwards ; vesting the support of his 
AdtniirtsUfMion on iu rectitude, he abstained fWmi the perm* 
doos custom of gaining partisans by reversionary grants. 
The atfp{4y asked by him was moderate, collected with eaite, 
mad tnaniiged wiA ecohomy ; and tbe surplus which reinain* 
cd was applied to the improvement of Cork harbor. Instead 
of raising neAr regiments, or demand&ig troops ttom Britain, 
te'tefit Ibur battdiona to veiiAnfoe tl^e royal army in Scodand, 
Itfp p ly h i g th^ p\MW Widi additional companies to the regi** 
liMiita already on tlie eltabSabmMit, and enocfuraging volu»^ 
I for'definice ; wSth'ottt |uigm«nUng the pobKo 
W 



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54 

eaFptndit|ir», ^ in£u^ct of ^ Cromu, his rtwn p«« 
trooage, or bit private emolucaent. Tbe wii4('oa of li^ mU 
minratiTitioo wfs verified by the result; do external enemy 
dislHrbedtbe public peace; ^ prpfound tranquillity rdg^A 
ia Ireland ; nqi a ipian espoused tbe Pietender'a /cause ; while 
ia Soatland diousands were in arms under his banners^ ap^d. 
-for a time seefpec^ to threaten the overthrow of the f rotes* 
tant establishment in England. 

The boon to Ireland of sucli a governor, as it had been ex- 
torted froQQ th^ Vnjtish Cabineti, by the necessity of cirhih- 
sCsnoos, Was. recalled as soon as that necesnl^ ceased;. siip% 
days after the cdebrated battle pf Cullodep^ the ai9ii|b]» 
Stanhope departed from this kiufdlenr, fo)loired bf.tx^ f^^«t»^ 
tbe.prayera. and gooid irisb^ «f a. crowd of MIfndiig sod 
sprroWfol sp^cUlUirs; |o perpfMl«^ hi^ Tdtim and th* gratis: 
tude d( the nation, his biist was pbced JD Ae tisstfe aT IMh.. 
lin, at tbe pubHi; e;q^c^. 
. Under Lord Chesterfie^'s gj^vermpoen^ the cent^ betweai>. 
En^sh »pd Irifih int^veat h^^^^ ^f donnant; )b^a^. 
these halcyon days» it f«viyed ifk ftdl fevoe; fhe cbjef man- 
agement of the fiDHcmer devolved from Primate Boulter to Jfiij, 
mate Hgadly, and from hitn, m }7t>T, to his siyccessor*, 
George Stofie, prppooted from the see of Deny; biingh^« 
determined, ^nd devoted to his party, this pre)#te.scn»pled 
at no means for the accoropliihmeiit of bis purpose ; and re* 
gardless of his pastoral ^utie^ and soMy inten|; ^ politic^ 
he sacrificed religion and nipraljty. to the cooQrming and gainst 
ing of adherents. His Chief opponent, as leader of the pa- 
triots, was Henry Boy]^ tftfl Sf^ei of th^ Commons, alV. 
ierwards Earl of Shannon. 

About this period^ a politiciil question was started in Ire«r 
land, and carried with extraordnn^ viiujehoehy ihf^^ro*. 
Ending pafttes, and which sidled fiirtb iiKo public view., ^n 
ph^ua^ f^wgk»o^ w^ 9mop0ij difMiwi^iiMf To v^ 



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9S 

... *. . >• , . ... 

crense the inflaence of the Crowii, inhovations were made m 
the charter oT the city of Dublin, in the reign of Charles ihe 
Se<!ond, by clepHving the Comm6ns of the power of chuaing 
ihe dty InagWates^ and placing it in die Board of Alder- 
men; tubject m its exercisej -upon each election, to the ap-< 
probation of tlie Chief Governor and Privy Coancil. Charles 
Laca?, an apothecary, anxiooi finr the rights of the citizens, 
into whose common Council he was admitted, proceeded to ih'* 
«|um whether •ther encroachments had not been made on the 
rights of hh fellow-citizens, and which had not the sanction 
of A laW to justify them. Having satisfied himself by dill- 
geody searching their ancieQt records^ that his apprehensions 
were well founded^ he published his discoveries ; the conse- 
quence ct which Was a violent contest between the Commons 
mod Aldermen, and the former struggled in vain to regain their 
ket pr{v3eges. The ex^ims of Lucas, in every stage of 
the business, rendered him so respectable among his fellow- 
O^ens, that, on the death of Sir J^es SomerviUe, he was 
«ncomraged to declare, himself a candidate for a seat in Parlia- 
ment; and pardcularly distinguished UmseU^ not only by the 
boldhesd of his speeches, bnt still more so, by a number o^ ad- 
dresses to his countrymen ; in some of these he particularly 
considered the several branches of the Constitution, and point- 
ed oiit the encroachments of the iftritish legislature. Govern- 
Bientf alarmed at his boldness, determined to ^ush him ; * and 
the most obnoxious passages were selected from his writings, 
apd made the jsubject of parliamentary mquiry. The Com- 
mons Toted him an enemy to his country, and addressed the 
Lord Lieutenant for an order to prosecute him, by the Attor- 
ney-General. The universal esteem in which he was held 
could not screen him from ministerial vengeance > he was dri- 
ven from Ireland ; but having spent some 3%ars in banish- 
ment, he returned to his country, on the death of the late 
trhtg, and offered 'himself as a candidate for the city of Dub- 



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86 

lia j being again elected, he continued tp ^stlngniah himadf 
by the same virtuous principles, for which he bad been from 
the beginning so remarkable ; and died with the character he 
had preserved through life, of the incorruptible Lucas. 

In the year 1753, a memorable contest took place betweeo 
Government and the Irish Parliam^it, relative to prariour 
coMtnL As the representatives of the people impose the tax* 
es requisite for defraying the expenses of the State, they con* . 
aid^red it their right to superintend the eipenditure ; jn or« 
der, if there should be a deficiency, to su{^Iy it; if a sur« 
plus, to place it to the credit of the nation, and apply it» by 
bill, for the public advantage. This they did, not as a matter 
of favor or of courtesy, but by an authority, which they hl^l 
hitherto exercised without any impediment, and which neces- 
sarily and plainly resulted from the trust reposed in them^ 
Ip tliis year a considerable sum, after the demands of Ga« 
vemment were aoswered, remained in the treasury, and the 
Commons framed a bill, in the usual manner^ for applying & 
competent part towards the payment of the national debt, 
llie Duke of Dorset^ then Lord Lieutenant, told the Parlia^ 
ment, that His Hajesty **consenied, and recommended t4> 
reduction of the nationa! debt." Aa 
»rent in His Majesty to dispose of the 
»ropcr, the proposal was accounted an 
M of the House of Commons ; no no- 
iirecUon given by Dorset, b«t the biH 
was sent over to England as usual, without any notice taken 
of His Majesty's consent ; there, however, this very material 
alteration was made, and the word ^ consent' iatroduced into 
it.' The Connncms at this time did not eppose so essential an 
alteration ; but next year, on its being repeated*, the bill was 
rejected. Government was now at the utoxist pains to defend 
the measufe they hfd adopted ; and the press teemed with 
tlicir ivaraphlets in justifi^cation of what th<?y bad done ; the 



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ST 

oootrorersy^ howfver^ wts terminated by His M^eity^ by bia 
letters patent^ taking, the money which had been the subject 
of dispute out of the treasury. 

To inarease the discontent, occasioned by withdrawing the 
public moD^ fhun Ireland, the favorites of the pqpulat cause 
w}x> held pUces under Government, were shortly displaced, 
and the Primate was urgent with the Lord Lieutenant, to cf^- 
rj the plan tc^a more extensive execution ; the palriotB or op« 
positionists were studiously represented to the King as a Jaco- 
bite and Popish party, aiming ai the expulsion of Hia Majes* 
^ from the throne. To counteraa such proceedings, the Earl, 
of Kiidare presented a memorial to His Majesty, stating the 
distressed and embarrassed situation of the county; that the 
face of the loyal kingdom of Ireland wore disj^ntent, ^* n^t 
colored from caprice or fiiction^ but purely founded, on minis^ 
terial mtsapplication." This strong, though necessary measure^ 
gpve great o^ce to the Ministry ; but the good of his CDiin« ; 
try was At once xU motive and justification, nor did it ulti<- 
nuttely )ose its eiflfect upon the King ; the pqsular cla^ipr was 
at l^aigtb so loud, that the Viceroy became alarmed for his 
personal security, and retired from the kingdom, as if he were 
making hia escape. 

The Marquis of Huntingdon was created Lord Liept^ant . 
in 1755. Prioaste Stone was removed from the PHvy Couu-; 
cil, by order of the King. Boyle, the great leader of the op* 
position, was created Earl of Shannon, with a pulsion of 
2000/. a year ; and Jdm Poosonby was appointed Speaker in 
his room ; and several others qf the patriot party were ap|)oint« 
ed to lucrative employments, and most of those who were 
diiplaced for favoring the popular cause, w^e with ho^or re- 
instated. Loud as was the cry of patriotism, firm a^ was the 
stand made by the pa.triots of 17^3, against the encrpacb- 
ments of an Et^liah inter^t, yet lamentable is it to reflect, 
that when tbe boasted purity o][ thpse patriots was called into 



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as 

action by tlieir appointments^, ibe nu^ority of tJiem became at , 
recreant ftotti the caiue of ctvil friee<lom and UgkUitiVe mAi* ' 
pendence, as the mott, venal |poftitiid«s to systematic corrop- ' 
tioH. Theb^ imwdlingness to promote tbe real independenof 
eir fli«ir country, appears from the rqectioh of a BUI brouglit 
into the Hoi»e in 1756, to secure the fii^edom of Parliament, ' 
by vatatini; the seats of ^uch mcsnbers as should accept any 
pension or civH office of profit Irom the Crown. A spirit more 
pitriotic aj^afed in Another question ; on the report of th» 
committ^ appointed to inspect die public accounts in 1757* . 
r^Iu^ocrt were yoted iadisapprobstioD of piensions improper-' 
ly ^nmt«d'6n' die dvil ettablidmiQnt, the amount of whicli 
exceeded 46>O00/. anniially, of which a considerable part was 
^V6n to p^JTsoBs not residing in Irtlahd. The Commons also 
with thetr Speaker waited on the Lord Ueutonant, the Dule 
of Bedfordj, with a request that he would lay their resolutkuis 
before die King ; and received for answer, that " the matters - 
c6ntatd^ ill these resolutions were of stibh a nature, that he 

c6uld not suddenly determine whether tb^ trsinsmitting tiiem 

' ■" * . ... - ■ 

tci Hi^ Majesty would be proper.*' An adjoiirmoent and con- 
sequent suspension of public business, till satisfactory ansil^er 
should be given by the Viceroy, was carried by the popular 
pftrty ; who, after a warm debate, outvoted the courtiers by 
twenty-one voices. On this determination of the controver- 
sy, which was virtually a qii^ion whether the great represen- 
tAtiv^ body of the nation should be deprived of access to the 
Throne, by ministerial influence^ the Jjord, t^ientenant sant a 
snessage to the House, that its resolutions should be immedi- 
ately forwarded to the King. It is but justice to the Duke of 
Bedford to »tate, that he was the first Chief Governor who 
ventured to profess a favorable opinion of the Roman Catho- 
lics, tfnder his government, did the first dawn of toleration 
lireak in upon that sujfl^ring people, and to his administration 
must be allowed tlie merit of bsvicg first restored animation 



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i^ 4f .M^b«r» of fhfll^pardjved body^. which biw siaae ac« 
*4|4m| it^ hftldi, Tigar, and^ streogth pf constitution^ pndef 
tb# ^njgn n^ of hk preseiit Miyc8t]r» 

. IxoLpidt whidi finr a period of nearly seventy yeara had en^ 
J59i^ iiiiinleirii|itod peace, soffiered, in 176O, an incQP5ider»- 
Ue infnkm ^npm a forf ign fperoy. The plan of invasMm ar« 
Fjngfrt fay Fl^oe^i was fimoidable, both from the greatness of 
t|y 4|!Danml» and from the ability with which it was concert* 
mip^-^rem whuds^ and the ability of Sir Edward Hawke, 
sctiodfd tqr t|ie bravery of the fleet under his command, frus- 
trated tlioae designs; the litde squadron of Thurot alone 
tfm^ifd tl|e Msh coast ; but its oMi^ioi^ ^^b ^ble, and its 
foctme di|«s|r<ms. 

The mOy ff^ «f At telgn of George IIL was disturbed 
by tfkie riaif^ of seyeral tupnoHuoos mobs, whoj under the ap- 
pplUlioQ pf White-Wys^ Oak-boys, and Heartoof Steel, riol- 
oiisly ^fsorted to iirbs, to fVve thfnvMlves fVom the misery of 
oppession i^.pov^r^ und^ which they labored. The atten- 
tion of Goviprninent waf more occupied in quelling the dis- 
Uirbancas than id removing the causes which occasioned them 

i , l^ i e army soon vibdued them— the executioner performed 
hiado^, and tl|e oo|iotry wee restored to tranquillity; but 
ma M.eCNts were taken to anieUorale the pondition of the peo- 
ple, Iheir continnal distresses drove t|iousands of thpm to seek 
a bettor fiictane.in America. 

t Darlag ibe administration of Lcnrd Towns^c(, in 1768, a 
Teij fastepal alteration took pUct in th^ duration of Parlia^ 
which tended very comder^ly tp. promote the inde- 
ed Iretaod. At this period f bill fas prepared, [ 
iqid sent over to England, by which it was enacted, tliat the 
Ufk BadijHBepts theoceftrth shoold be h^Id^yery^^yen 
yeairsj and 4t yw returned with the addition of one y^ and 
fjfOf^ that period the Farliamenfa • of thiii country were octen* . 
Djbil;; ,|nlIio^s|o this, Uie djonttioa of Bmrliamei^t depended 



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10 



land ; neither were the commodities of Yreilind 'to% ezfSSAed 
to the American colonies, not American ^boAtlb^bd impeded 
to any port in Ireland, witKbUt fintunloldihgttiem''ltars(NU» 
fiort of EiTgland or Waled ;-4ilI thid^ rhltk ^Attt wa^inilH^ 
died, Iby charters granted to p^rtlculitr cdNij|iii^ ; itudilMpie- 
tidus Irere Imposed otion akndst e^^rf vihMbkSorttdi iif lofi^ 
mei^e' aeni to the differexit ports of Europe/ t*ovkhti ttie koB 
qF fcvig Waiiam's reign, ah absolute pii)i^i!d& %ltfiWF«m 
the expioirtaticm of Irish #obI ; other r^tricti^s^itt^pi^JHD 
augment the iuMiODal calafiikj^, but ^ nfhitih i^teunt aeft^ 



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41 

f0mii mwimHy ia Amtpnq^ klge qusthiti €£ Imh ' liBioi. 
.1M« ^ly iwiiillpl'ii JMwif of p>tMPal attyapty wmh^ 
4M n^' «Mli|r dw-pralne*. of rtodolxig j^ ttNOns cBSciiU for 
the MMmy to be eapplied with tbeitoei9» of anbtiiteace, bot 

iUi eo^beq^ was kid upeiithe^zporle- 
fiwi kebmcl, by aii'UttCGnititatioiial BtreU^ 
of f w r » |<lli» 'j .TtpaitUflcetf to Ei^^eftd, ocivirio«ieeoeiiiiti^ 
lirtiMMF Ai^ i^ Pf9™^^ o^ our fbroet eteeed, wttejnote 
Ihtt «mO^ ocMUerable. These imniediate ofratee bofaif 
€9MhpMi wid|' tlMM uliidi were iaveri^bie opd |>iCTMincm> 
yr e dii e td io tfcjr^oontryvefy calamitoos effectt; Uedcoettle 
Ml ^90 pmiitiiMyi mi yetcuBtoaeffeeovUlnotbehedj 
due pebi of wMl.^pm ridfced in a aUB gteater pnpoitieii; 
iiteivMlj InnanyplMBsitwaaaiHpostade t^ 
flMn, An MBU^penal Hagnation of borinete eofiied^ 
>^m'^pTf^fu»gUBfhi^^ of aMnfitfto* 

jert wyMiJqcad tQ.eMt»aie pofrntsini nniilfl haye^pCTitb^ 
fd WW Ikqf/Mt avq^ported by pibUc charity ; famiera were 
jlPMUf .f^^cm ntMiHy, aadiiMn^of themfiwled; aii4 
jPfl|i|kaf Ifeery iiMk and condhum were deeply aiiKted by the 
«f ihe tmes. Alneat every braucfa of thr revenue 



'.^^•fKiOtieo of Eoghoid was atfefigth ealledtothisdepb* 

jQidb«i|qMpnj?C?'^' and Karl Nugent, intheyetrl778> 
;|be.O|iqf oftb^r Iritb, l^iooviiii^ in Parliament 
I almdd be taheo kito oo^uU^tion, bj; « cooh* 
jqiljfff of ibewMeB<nM|^ Thia motion bmf agreed to al« 
jM^painwMmify k was folbw^ by several olbers, and biUf 
^i^il^llfoflrdaiid were fhnned aconrdix^Iyk The trad- 
jiBf/BriaMP wyfa^i Pt ^9^ pf £ngUM ww xqck the alarm, 
flVd ft^HJTrf W^^f,¥^^^9^^ ^* ^ ^'^^ ^^^ brought 
Arwasd ftom maojr d^f^^ 9^Mfftf|C9, and OM^ibeeiiinstniclea 



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4% 

^ opfMe^ ; in cMsequenet a'Vrarm bonlett took pbce on^die 
*kc9nd TtadiDg of the UHs ; sttd^ii the Mini a ler e eenmaip &■ 
Sror fheb/lhejr were oonttifittdd, Ihtiugh the violekit j0|^pclrition 
^ ihem etiH e^MSmied, winch intttKedasqr^^ieir^ftieii^ 
^it^thitlhiie, tif desert didreattse. ' 

^fpOrea uUfuccesflnii lor ne praenc^ loejr renewea foewnuM 
^ifk>lirs befene ^tbe Chrfottoaa vacation. Ibejr bow nrgedl, -(kgt 
Jto i i|mrt »ni of ■ itt^diSms Jfom jtisttee aiid4iiimainQr, tM re- 
4tef (oTftVlaiid wai enforced^jr tieceintsr { .'the tra£b wiA B^ 
'lhlb^ftierMi#itolo8tftr^irer^ andit was inffiipensaEfy i«qiii« 
4iti ttf tmite'ttetemiilnhig^^^afU^ theeuiiire mone^eonttAoii 
ffetereM^Ana ifection. Ireland had httbeito'be^ paashre ; bat 
'iktfe^kA danger/ ftat ^ dHvnig her to eitremffiei, the 
:w^ld taut oT'^e yoke Altogether; or^ften If thb afaodldiiot 
4]hii)^, the tyrannjr of Britain would be ^ Ktae- advantage, Ǥ 
;oa tfie \evetit df a |Kace, (he people woedd d^sertn lOoontry^lh 
*^hteb they experieneed tttdi oppression, and etnigrateto A- 
Tn^ricar, ^hexe they had a greater prospeet of libeHy ; im dm 
7)ther hand, they insisted, that very considerAle advantages 
Wlstensue toBriuln fhmi ^e emancipation of IrelAnd ; atib 
%very benefit extended to that country wonid be retomed widi 
accumulated interest The 'bu&ineas was at last sunnned up, 
in a motion made by Lord Newhaven, in Feb. I779« thut li- 
berty >hoQld be gnnted to ihefirhih, to import sugars fronr the 
West Indies; thiff was carried, but die raerdiants of Glasgow 
and Manchetor having pMitioncd against It, it was again lost, 
throo^ Ae interi^rence of the Minister, who now exerted%is 
fai^aence a^init the relief be had fonnierly decfaued in fitvor 
df ; vadrioos iQier efibtts wese made to effkct the intended^* 
pose, but nothing more could be t)btained except a few trifling 
cJMiceifllons, and a promise from l«ord Gower that during the 
recess some ^lan should be matured, ' for accommodating the 
afTasrs of Ireland, to die sadsfaction of all piirties. 



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4S 

Tliefiice #r Iceland wat daily aasomtiig a nore awful and 
cWoalaapeet So hiag as the aflSiirt of the country W6r« un- 
der .tliecoDflideniilion. of ^BritiabParliaoient> tbefeeGngtof 
Ijie faiaii nation wero satUfiedby the hopep of reUaf; but 
vtai they ib«nd themselveft ifeBertpd hytSxe Miniiteri their 
difCyitent. wml inflamed Jbeyood measure. The kn Uwa ht 
llMd pttMod in their tkrw Hkj oonaideared mockery, not relief; 
40ii«Deofnaged1iytbe military aaaoda^on^ which had taken 
jg^ wmub time befinre^ they reeolred to ti^ aiA measnrea 
aa^irobU dlectoaUyclontioee the Minuter, that they wp^ldno 
kaJlgir.attAsr themaelm to be deprived of their just and-natu* 
ndl^hta. VMtt tins' view, asaociatbna against the importa^ 
tIeQ of yritisftcomwodMes wwe daily becoming moee general ; 
immitqiMloe of wbidi, the Irish manofiictures bq;an to re. 
vWe^ mid tbe demand fiir BritiA goods in agfeat measoie de» 
creased, Mr. Onttan, who had entered the Irish FariiMaent 
s^eoe time before^ under the anspices of Lord Charlemont, con- 
trOMife^ in « powerfiil d^jree to direct and enimate the people 
iti Ae assettioa of those righei of which they hed been so un- 
^^is^y depriiied. With a mind ^Mrmcd to einbraoe something 
bi^yend ^^reaent olijectif, aocostomed to trace effects tothrir 
qmses^andtolookfbrwardtoftitureconsequenceSj hepcreei- 
ved that the root xA those calamities which his country suffer- 
ed, 'Was pot caused by a tapnpoesry stagnation of trade, but 
Seas^ooeasioiied by the uiqust lestrainta imposed by Great Bri- 
t^ on the industry of Ireland; and that toattempt their cure 
bf Ae petty and temporary eiq^edients which the nation, and 
even the Patlnunen^ seemed content widi adopting, would 
b^ la rdl np the stone of Sisypfam. 

He was the fifte, (berefore, who had die boldness iind the 
wisdom to.nqge the Legislature to Complain of these restraints ; 
hipifiirta were seconded by the onattimous voice of tbe coon^ 
try ; and audi was the efficacy of a political truth thus uiged, 
taoA tbus 8iipp«He^ thatfrei^ tbe whole force of British xnflo- 



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44 

ry expedients, bat bj* « fbetfdrlioti^>'<tl»ftlh9'i^ 

Utitti «li«» fmtd thtf AriiMt LqfMht«>e^ tdit- MU Wi wc <if 
InlniWIr^^trtfriW'pMt, opened lir her chiidtoi jr r t roppnu y » 

skm; ttrH wit caiM, ontlv pan of ^liiigbnd? :lbriRt a«cite^^ 
todied*hkd'tte pMple been t^exclttmn/ t^peniiiiaie ai||dire»t 
5tfi«lkm4 tlwr « Tehudoa «r siispinnen Aimay tt-tm^ymm 
kdHd fOk as lii# den&nfa«|r <^ <^ poMftrJieMl^ nufctr tbm: 
tht'oeiiatlenefimtcCiiaHlijf^. ^'' / .^ir f ;.v ;j»>-r.- 
^ Hdt OBJJr 1NM iltiiirtdat l^rtltteiwtoUatedbiQp^ it 
WIS dso imllt«i*1iHM)^y ««ft Wi^^ 
load enN^liCeiied ■ rtitiiiM Wi»»%iiBiBie "CfteTy day^neva extend*- 
ed.-^Tbepeople flow Immm c aai i iehi n>f ibpr^^wri JaMigtb ^ 
OHlilie idte WW^e^tf fco i»<fytf ifl lidit; -^i* ^ ftee trwfc * 
coaM be^if littiapiili^ tfi w M jy^ii ^fetariaoa f i tft >^ ifeift- 
peaNf tite'dteiiripiiwlawe'was ■f|Ma»»ii<i<l«i muXmlJtftnewmi 
9a$jt ti^;«irHdM>kr$ "Itait wbciifliiatMiHikyM.laiiverd^ 
ed» Ar SrtMi PMlkMeWtt}|far^r^ tl Imd 

granted, and again ^tter tbe Iriab tnOt^dbf^BtMktkt B p M^ ' 
haps even Viom ^ppretttre dUm belfavrr AnMMft^ 
pdiraotagei^of Afrafttade, ^-waampii—^ Adl llw iiigi— 

pjeopleioriced up to the Volmilear r aaaiiiiery fnd Jfae i 

their trnthmy mni many wU Iwd fbta»i%rMfapiedl« ow9« 
nectduiMdir^with tUatxidjF, now ya eA i a fcri ii iAiig eater 
fheirltete.* Hidieftotbaeetedk«Itairh«^ifledo^ 
•d«Dinpiiliei> knew dot their own vtrcBgtb;.ike]r fend it. 
neeMBtj^lbeir gnuid ^b|}eet, to fena theendfee into regti#^ 
larbiittdi«li/ilndeBliMiA«'f^atenief couM Wuni i peU on with 
ptdio^ier) ianghad Ifae origin^ oanao o0ifaejVebmtoet9 



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4S 

«riiiiii9ir.adfUefa«:e^ %oittiite«igii ma&ny, bew fsak iiw 
to Ihijmu f g ^inftwcstiiig: cifect irf iirrrrting; thrii rnnit'HiilimJ 

. hHlw tMgrBJiiilrf ttieye>gfT^> they gteaadiip^'tht* 
pint aiffionaifbrgMBSaltim^diej i^ypomtod i«Tif^*«^ A» 
tDBon^sditinKT; *3lKey dad tnd^ afVMlji ttHbaiifcg vJuiHili^ 
17 r ^ Aty xltefrfUBy levned llie use ^ Biwit^-^^ 
aotteA-ta^B InoAl excmplilry dlKipUM Ihty jibiii tfujr i%^ 

per» teeoMd wilb nMoAmMot ikediftiiiit oovfi^^^kif tmi^ 
aaA fi% a<irttil U^ 4ll the n a q i ntn allid i%to| . 

IBMX, IBHHBQBHMa^VIK 9 ftaC €0lMttilllliail*f**''4lMi[t^Sa 

«dha Iflv^ «D Mid ditei ;Mtlw(<«iC3F iN»e rady, iMlb^beir - 
Uvea ail falaaHj to nri« llir iiMV|lilHNi ttdt flaarosfekK: 
nMaar»oft«^ftKvtl9ikrtiift^*^^ th a Mwy »fi#id»lH{w 
flnit«lMllo4iy dows Aairaim^* tW tlMjr had acMapiMie* 
iha t*iJi|ilia Mfaratfin^af tltobaaiaitiy film tba laNragiity* 
cf J i > ifca toh * B tfliiui€Mfc> -^ .- 
Svar9i|«lMartte4tetl«HfeaM briaad al^ 

ft «die?a ibna, vtbat tha niat 
[ikpomARiti ^ irotiawiil^ and^aolkto id th0" 
peai^'ltekTyiaoiiuiaiidaatha^tye/jndtfaii^ abd^«id»ttia< 
ac4alMaa%BKolHStaMnlkBlaii& *v^y ttwinalaiiciMily^canfafaaft*^ 
cas ^ 4Mrj&|Danc«lkflniS)' Mr iaats had baaomrUMar ta* 
tha aMBhii*ii iwafc^i ajr^ha ^aacny; tha £ti|^ciMittwara^ 
i]iidltad^iliaifciofritalipdlaftwha%a^^ ifaaatili. 

taiy ^rtaMliJMll nfiHgdb bewi jo^dattnad^ tot^aukOmng^^ 
iiMiitfiaAD a « icM haCthaia % a rc fMiti;(IM>fi^^ 

L na^aaapoilla aivatijnRNn tha isiawt at nnglo Yai« 
•'«dlafbcB4iedown^ BdAnt^ -#hidi had keen nUM 



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i 



iHlT^fiMraoBpartagiiiistthe ocmuara enanj tluit threalei^ 
cd again to inTtdttlMm, the Seoretaiy icpliedt " Gowmmatt 
4P$M'4i|M nana/" Thiia ^avtmnant, with nsipact to aa- 
tiapial defaoo^ naa abdicat»4; and tht people at larg^ peiw 
fi^ivtd Am they alqif ^r^va ^ fef«f f ^beir 
aj p wi a fbii ^ g dagtrttctipn which leemed to threaten' her; their 
jpiail aaiii^8iiK»lied the defeOa and imbeeilitjr <4 MmiM^tm- 
tian;: ihqr hMtantly #9^^ thenaalv^; (fycqrci^ {mr^ 
ftedi iti iqfmed cituma; evcgry day bebahl the Vdunteerin-^ 
ali|^^e3«Mp(^. ii|diM«Uf a«^ 
Iha fpirjc-atiraiaf 4mm wa« haaid thfoiigh emg^ jgrmne^ 
mik '<tolUghlet|{faejdefft«i^iUp l^iio aninuil^ 

ili in fc riikmti to the moit aaeved of all ^utifa^-^ daAnce e€ 
theis Ubaitieacand'tbeiv e#imti7« 

* f^tmrmmAekt beheld^ with wnaYiBiiif ragM[, die^icta of 
i» tflW ianmecBale walk; ladiMiniCe the Vehnteerawaabe^ 
jmdthliri^oweiv tbeogb it w^as the pecret ol^ of their 
wJAee aad attem^ta; Aa a boclsr, the'VelunteefVtft Aatfaour 
of japeMia emhuiiaiBi, weN unawntflaUrto any bribe that 
could be oibced them i neither were they to be intiobidaled ; 
to diiarray them, Gotemment, agtt^it^d by e^t^diag ier^ 
rms, invaaioQ bn the one hand, Velomeei^ on the otW, did 
nel dare. Thii patriot «mky were at length ne lofigeFBielest- 
ad< aild inei^, df ail eendiliona and bpioieiis enrolled themselvea 
tettaTaoki^eM^naim. T)bt lothman miaet be cold sk 
deed, i^^canlook tothceedltys withiiolaBvei^aaftiifii^^ 
aa^a n^ife devatiM of mind; whep the qpiHl ef hi« cbentij 
teie l^fipmm tp her iKttrenea; lAoi «radeeevSfed^ anda 
e«iMitatfDii Waarertered. 



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jumnfistjuatm 






LOap Vise, XOWNSHENJ)>, 

' : 'emmemlEtod^.i^ 1767* 

ITTnbM been>lyocted, fb^i th^ Title which wehaveprefiied 
t» the piesepi Work dow ootpermit ua to,t|dMrth«Iai)p«iiJL 
tttc n jcd nMge, vhich we ba?e sketched out ia our prefttofjr 
•ddffOM; «hai'9e1fSietPoUdc»eiil0ged'niu«t8tmi>ecoofine« 
to the politjcfll productionfl and political effbita of Bel&at »> 
Idno; that we caimot travel out of the tifle^ and eonuect with 
Bdfiiat the geoiiia and the labors of Dublin^ Cork, Lifne« 
iUk, £Ikeiui> or Waterford* We should, however, hope, we 
m^ Mgp&i from this contracted daciaioii to the laudable anx^ 
iety of our readers, which will forgive ai departure from the 
title of this Work, if their taste be gratified, cild their under- 
•tandittgabehistructed. The politics of 'Bel&st for forty year^ 
bad^ were the politics df Ireland; and its mind and its spi* 
Ht were, the lights by which all parts of our country were an^ 
tiout to direct then- political opursew These are our reasons 
and oar Justification for oomroencing our Work With the ele- 
gant compositions of SiNOERCOMBC^i^the productions of his 
pen, whoenjoyed the confidence, and obtained the admira- 
tion of die North m a most distinguishf^ and particular man- 
ner. The great HttirxY Flood, beftre whose doquence etea 



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4M 

the geoioa of Orattan b^wcd irjih dtfeMiee/ tuft oftift irift 
humiHatioii, was the dialiiiguUbed #riMr if-UuM UllteM^ 
wUch were paUtthed in the jter ITTO^ unto tlie tide «f 

AfVpsMOMlC. >\..;^^', 

From toeh a ooDectum as At pmemt teltee wiH tMttk, 
itwouUbeia^ioiiibW^to^idiMkAetih^ fhevill 

those edsbrated prodoctioiis oontaio a lUtbAd si J nwiHiily 
JeKneation of the views and t^ pnetioes of AeBifMlCt* 
binet during Lord Townshend'a AdninistratioB, f^ Imp Hi* 
bett^ eljieidaltim of .those compositioiif ts.tke inArglsiWllH 
of e^fy -mftler of the tnteent d^, %• Aill V«lflk%iliefe 
view of the policy of that system^ by dM mSMis if Whidi 
the BritMi Cabbet cpi i »iq| d i|ed ifenr .itt|«iMli90B9Mt of die 
liberties of bthmd. The hifloence ef the Iitid UenftinMlt 



lAen siDod with elKct b«lweettlhe PeapleiUibf^bfeiM* 
moot It was too formidable an ebstads foth* siflbllionof 
the British CabtoeC,- not to prdflnAe iU Mitotmeikt, and mm^ 
petate itsj^ttepe. Lord Townshittid, flMefbr#jiiNM|lsle^ 
ed as the fittest ingtnmienl to stpplarit Ift^ itul H i>ia Irfd fatt^ 
lent IxHIi oligarchy, and tfat entire trts^rt of the SHAs fnis 
Uy^ devoted to the corraption of Ae Hottii tpf OoAnnons, 
aiM-te tfieestablMitaeni of a |[^emmeiil aaMllan^ IHN^ 
the ripresentasives of the people, ^e ontftfei | Mi | lrm o t | 
ef n^^Ml» k^^ wetyrdi i i y i m lM d MI<b«ewMiil4 
stnig|ie{ they rallied all thiir ilMgtlir^lef fitted irodM 



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idle moat dutingaished in genius aiulle<|g^n||,, TIm' 

s,^||enbei^noq|npaKdtti.|h» cde< 

l^tApmM* -All 'K*d«r will. 4'«l^^"^ 

'ft jl iyi^p»,|lwlL thwe it,«^«a:^^ intiie VJtJtf 

dMiiv>i^^iBBailiiaB&,jidihe..aaxiie comtrnctiaD ei uiot&acti^ 
iMibitfltitf^^lllMtUaBrMid th^ mirit trf Jiiniiii. .diitiiimiMlL 



.-- • ><A«44~4^UM^ f" I u m ii r H iiii«Mi»««» t » W ii II* i " 






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S&^t »oC improperTy be aded* Mniertdken. Thejr pirovidid, 
d^t die dbpoud of all ocHut-fSivorg, whedier pttces, pei»iaiur» 
or prefermehtt, dttMdd pass dlroilgh tlieir Iiands, in order to 
lEoep their suite in an iteohite state of dependence and fasud- 
age. ' An applications were made by tbe leader, iilio ASamA 
al « Hght the privilege of gratifying his fHeiMb kt ptdfMm 
td tbeu^^numbers. Whenever snch demands l^ere ndt«oea|^MI 
fAih, then were Ae measures of Covemoient sure tobechlss* 
edaiid obstructed: and the sesttdti of parifaunent beoime * 
oenstant struggle for power between Aeh^ds of piAi^ lAfir 
cvit had been seen and lamented by Lord Chesterfidd. Hie 
xesoltttion ^ preparatory steps Ar underlithiiAg it, pt6bl^ 
Uy ocditrftuted to his recal on tfie eessition of Amger, UrUcfa 
ids wisdbn alone was thought competeixt to avert. 

The primary olgeef of Lord ToWnshemf s adninKistiytttil 
was to break up the monopolizing system of the MgtitAfi 
He in part succeeded^ but by oeaae niineus to the countiy^ 
The subalterns were not to be detached 6om dieir diiefr, but 
by sindlar though more poWerfht means, dmn those by whidi 
th^hkd been enlisted Imder dieir banners. The s&eand of 
CIvor became not oidy muldpUed, but enlaiged ; conseqb^tttw. 
^ ihesoui^c^rennmeralion was die sooner ei^uked. Bv^ 
ry individna! looked' up dn^eedy to die fttfntatnbelBd. Ilteitii- 
nbvatioB provoked the deserted few to resentment: but tiiey 
Were bereft of their consequence, Hvhen left to dblrUidivldttmt'' 
sSceftiotts. They tbek refii^ under the sheltei^of patriothm, 
and inveighed against the venality of the system, Mcause H 
I&d tiJten a new direction. The bulk of die nation, attd 
■tane, though very few of their representatives in j^lismeni 
were eamestf. Arm, and implacable agahist It *' 

Tbe arduous tas1(, which Lord Townshend hatf asstimed. 
Was not to be effected by a coup de main: ftrces* so engaged, 
mafsfaded, and commanded, were nbt to be dislodged by a 
sisdden charge: reg^Iakr and cautious appfoatbed weir lobe 



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it ms jpeqniaite, that the ducf governor tbovid bte fir«| 
jpqp^hr^ th^ ppwftfful^ before he could be sucoesoful. - Hff 
loi^iiMP. to thoie e^vivial fitfcinati o n% to which the Iroh are 
PilSW^J «^>«ihk, aiipeiadded as maojr persooal favors, as hii^ 
Afgi^iesQCf^ges admitted, i^e judicjuiosly countenapcpd th^ 
CQT Ar amta^iual. p a yli a m yts ; in whicji the |Mitriois anti(»pai^ 
%ij[ t|)f| cone ^..gifss veoeUty by the returo of their power en^ 
^0Qt«A.9iwr tfmr represeotatives. Govenwent indeed felt| 
lliat liipj«oon)d]pQt decently wtthhoW from Iri^laad what Euf^^ 
lV4»bad«;tl#f|g iigqjred. 

J^* IfttW b84 ^veral titles failed in his endeavors to pro^ 
cwa A bill fiir liiiutiqg the dqrj^on of parliament N^W^ 
however a af^teiuuid bill ifas tra^smittedi and retu^n^ alter^ 
ed into an octennial one. There appears to have been some 
mSitr maaoBQvriii^in the BriUsh Cabinet^^ in order by a side^ 
wmd to deprye the Irish of that, vhich they durst not open^ 
ly refuse them. Atthesfmie^meatransmiss wasmadeof an* 

^ndence of the judges, in which 

in^r^ some alteration. If, y^k% 

ty of the Irish Commons for their 

ced tliem to riject any bills i^ito 

I introduced. The English .Cabi«> 

Commons waved the objectiqn as 

r to make sure at last of what they 

had 80'k«^ tried in vain to^procure : . they cpnsidered, that by 

olye<;ting on t^i^ very account to the Judges' Bill, they kept 

up the 4fini to their privilege : for although this latter bill had 

^een p^r^cularly recommended in the speech of the Lord Lieu- 

lfnax|t^ it WH* on account o£ alterations inserted in it in ISng- 

land, npon the report of the committee appointed to cofnpare 

tbe^biJJ^wiih the he^s of d^ bill unanimously rejected. 

TimjfgtHBam^ the octennial bill was folloi^jed by a grateful, 
sd^wy tf the. tbrone : and when the royal assent was .|;iv^/ 
^-IPWS ^^*^^S hones fromjho l^^ Lieutenant's coach. 



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52 

and ^re^.Moi to the d^stl^ wjfh entJ^ttaiasti^ et^tAtioD. Ris 

lotbfM^ £^ 4i«wfiafttb^.dttn* 

le of ftcMvii, tbp gfnOemaa of the 

j^bttalAok up ly> 4» Locd UaUkte- 

»ttt a« the iotuiidifi^e^leff of emy 

ion in the reienwe^ 40I. a year, 

coifld be disposed of but through him^ Tbttt ware the old 

^^nderlakers given to nndemtand, that Jjjk^ve #Ba andlher way 

^ 0$ dpiog buibiess, than throu^^ them. It waa not wiliioiit' 

violence, on both sidaa that Lord Townshend «C^eUd Us 

purpose. The Immadiate soffefen termed this altaratioti in 

the system of govtmi^g an innovation* whksk they aitfiifiy 

taught the people to resenty as a natioDa) grievanae. ^- 

LETTER 

TO 

; HIS EXCELLENCY LORD ri$C. TOWNSHEND. 

MY LOHD, Peb. U, ITtO. 

TOUR ancestors were lovers of liberty. Yoo^cihtered the 
world with a respectable paternal name. It was worth yoiii: 
while to ta|&e care, that it sboold descend ynim^ired to poa« 
terity. 

You have had the roiafortim? to have many enemies, or ma* 
ny iralts ; for you bi^ye been piach censiirj^. If yon ask me 
iiow could such a man, as the persons iftiom you call your e* 
nemlfes describe, be appomCed to the lieuHnabcy of Ifeltfud^ 
I will not answi^ with them, that yjMi wen appointed by an 
administration, th<5 only uniform object qf wUeh bat 1l)een, to 
bijmirfle kisaU> every pi^rt of the British dominions ; that no 
odM «Qaa would trust them, or that thty Would not' 4iave 
tmAM }Ron ; that they ktiew yoa to be ad i^tant, aa iiicapa* 
\^'^ 004^ that you woiM^pledge yooiaelf to dio|Mrtle^rMl9 



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•68 

out ft'^IAtlfibT'fbV %&at you kneV would mviiht peirformed* 
^HfeMiiM^ gr^ 6i^8ideratfeci8.~But aoi^M&rig tAw^^i^ M- 
ceaHrf.'^md^i^VtSA^: aT)rbi%y of parts f lodthet 
)MUblktt*^'ftiiiy1fia^ fhe^ would' not 

'ittktrlltttM%QlbiA(frlA*En'(^^ therrf<m d^ mcda 

- Vbublgknyoiir reign by a public falsehSood,^' atid proolised^ 
fh tlMfkp^^A fhmtf'Ae ^rone, a law for eatd>lidifiig tfie inde* 
pMkiieeof jQdgei. A bill witk smh a title cameibAed 
KooKMitt BritMitf; but Iq such a fortn^ that not one man waa 
ftondi afifproffi^te' as to defeiid it 'Tbtir Vrdings kite; not 
fUStUoMi fiift'tliia iras any spedes of perforoiaMe; «M 
therefbre Ilirfll'iM prove that it was an agp^raraCed'bntaieh of 
fiuth. Tou gave us, however, what you did not promise ; the 
Octennial KIL N o t wi thst a nding this acddenlal difirence^ 
there was a perfect similitude in your sentiments with reqpatt 

• to these two laws ; fo^^^ott iUenJlM io give neither. As your 
incfinalion was the same^ so your wisdom with respect to them 
WW etfuL . Yon ha#tbe reproach of non«perfOfttMm6e as to 
the ooe, without 0ie honor of performance as to the other; 
and yoa tadLed a dissoIoGoD of Parlia«ient loihe OeCeuiial 
Bin, U assist yoa i^-cairjpng tlie Augmentation. Do net 
oomplaiblhalyeuafechaigeAwidi AfrinsetlioQof the' 
concerning the dissolution. You must submit t» be i 
ble for every measure respecting this conntry, whSat yei»SQb« 
mitto.^gavenriL Sodi^ )iowever, was the easiness of'ltelia- 
ment, tkat this promise .^wbifh was not performed, and thil 
(MdbrftiOKie^wbMli was not intended, though Uiey Gould Mt 
dotfae yo«r ytmimstratHHi with success^ prateoted it Ibr one 
aessios^tem indJIinity. 

- Yum govemaaerit had bai one object; 4fct an gmamati apaf 
dwitony. - I oh^ not enter into the merits oi thatwasdr^ 
fttlftar I shm^d difer with too gr^t^an snthorily. Y^m^ 

aaliti«trtoosh.^))behi«olged. Bfit letrmequrit 



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*♦ 



^< 



AtwKtmjim 6ii|A«id> «nd m nnooiitiitiitioiua ^iiem^icinf^ 

BSllmM iwUmh miatfiiiitd ; «|4 juit u[^ the ipf^ nf • 
fMHrd «U€{ifl«. This in ffiifH^ of iuo^ lin.d c^qjiipsltfioi^ I 
mj, vArmaimi «v/m of ^ ^i^mr^ w<i imQwff^ 
ground. Aodw ijmgem^i fo^w.ftynr of i^di^p^ 
MKi^ ^ritfa wkifc a host had j<9f |o off^tend? ; Wift^ % t(^ 
toiided ocwoexiaD, Uie reyemie k(j0iieofe. and tjtk9 <f>eul||r 
namit^ of ona leader; with the oorngMict force and ilj^^ 
Tf frmiesi irf awj^th^ri w^ the *ait tilfe^ tl^i fts^WUft 
and the firit fortune of thenaticfo^ , in a third-l-suHNCi^^ 
|]m emem oT (1^ kingdon,^ bj the.jxipidvity of th^ P^l^^ . 
hy tl^ paifianeiMlugr ix^i^llji^ |< %rq^ 
Iko erio ihfl^ziliilitjr of hia Qyrn de|qrq|i|ii^fpo^ Yoa iMd^Jj^ 
enft of TiadfU, wmd t)ie ^:iietori(^ of Hulchio^an Uf Qfgm^,ffi$, 
And beaidea the recopdliated force ^ ,tbeae foroff^ly )WI|^ 
etuBt^^^'n W fan»«rly hostile aj^Toca^j^ ym bi^d l(^ <«!« 
widi dN ^rength l»d ipipiiti^ioD of,an,iy^de|i^de^,,bod^ 
t«Md With t^e ^qperience, thegenii|s, th^weifi^, iM.^ 
yg|waari^rfthf}rhad«rs> Qoffat^v^iotitood alo»e; iqwipt 



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is 

portBtfioJbedlri&at as yH iM^ltro^^ attA C3o- 

f e i mafeut alone waa beat ontjr by fimr. Thtis atooA ttie iWi 
of Goverametit at the end of your ftUt aesston of parSamenf : 
Ibvd^it'iftaiiffaCtbeeoadiiitidlicf thelaat?^ "^ - * 

'Ittm TMMteeV'tiere Ibr two yeatsto lay riegv io o^oiitfdh. 
TiMudi^tiro iufliiiUM^^Mgreaaes^ bot witfaooi advantage. I 
ntH iMt'SMribe ffM^eSMraioM drtanatantfa^. Ndcldly 
iktpkgt^lSgMify, %iie AeiMwapaperofaeday, WduMK 
i B a gra ee fl by a ^ktid of tmgulantiesi as mean as capHtSoda. 
tbtt A^odiNed^%Mk the )>aire^fa^, as If Oey wete inAgtAi^ 
catf;'iBd wftftteKwtOrtAfe, a»if fliey irerc<Uke j«^is«Mf 
Tte llfilkd iMllre^efy man m the suiie^ tone*- No wonder yotf* 
tAMfteVdh. AitwoiiytaocesyoasMteedtosilceeed.- 1W 
eHfedfcitt k# attMl^ on the aldtf tf Om odttH i»Me SM 
a»<MfMitf d^yoartrdisps; antflheriiarjilbiKdLlef of T^adatt^ 
< i a* i fraihittrt rfiatof'ttalfcMaadl^ wtte again lirtdtit^ in 
jMAtacto.' thtisilif, however, gave yon iio<fi«dltlhFdil^^ 
a%cM.* ^ThcyMnotdkwyoatolurreconvMadiliwei wllar 
m^ ^ m m itt a diife»tftat pwadaatoniw One giewoouktata that 
M#l#lM>Mdt6op;«Mt; aiiitiiecM;^,tfaiiitteti«atO0si0l^ 
ftik U^&jf^iMkMm. Ara%Dl(llef,yott4umldhaiwim« 
iMiC«M»lblNfiifrAMMten; itt a rtatjaman^yon atewldrhav^ 

*lMRiMaai^efi(f df <^ yoorprepaMlonl? Floift the^fte^ 
gbtadM|r tflNte winter to Ihe day on #Meii yon prorogoed tte 
| i #WMttfh i ^/ so cdiJuAf^^^yr ^ every material question^ al« 
tJtk, *yott n^ere HS^kei^ ' After ha^g h»d Hie ^werof the * 
d U^ y^ ^tat t&nds Ar tMr6 ye$x€, you wWe beat, on a eri* 
tidl nuiiSM, in tte'^ry Wwek 6f the lifiM sMion, by a 
niQbJKy 8|^ 01^ nine ttmes as great as that by irfiich you hacf 
bWlf bMEeuHii <hb A^er s^on of paitiament. At icc^- 
aMSf «r tMUtndft^'MT' loi^, whict'ftmishes a l>roof of your 
laMlim fft fliViiiMTiii?m, itttd shows that your abiKty !s equal 
to jftUr rei^ifiUiiia<m.j'?^eiih^ does it appTjr solely to the estabr 



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M 



lirfltattit of youf ^«faeter id a ne^Kiialor. Wkkwt Akmh . 

anipfe, who could hgyet lK Mif l it tlwtywtrtuMFdMgftttor immM. 

bave laft you so benighled ? * * -'^ ' ^ 

I will not ennmeralt your mmtmgm, mas 4maSbe tb^, 

It. IwiUqpodiof tint 
^omSA, iikm imgmmkt^ 
ntthcre, wlmidiillw* 



m dmild iuii« Mmobi-^. 
ipitobt^, it it aiBifPG^ly; 
Hivt oxpoMd yw( iofe^ 
ring-colHlilionB ikam tii» 
lei tIfpctkUm pi|n|Bioii8,. . 
iii%lit hMue been tomieted by a qpootanopiii^ not by a gUpuhfi^ 
t^DBdoct^ If jbi»|fi|{e^ were to dti^endtoD&aiiil^is. 

throne, ftnAtbreUiiq[uishapartofbispitnv^^>>^^^ 
aitioD of bi# troops^ it ought not to baft b^«fidon^.|i«lf|rik^yta 
make ^swom, and to aitidofor.tbaattgvientiMmi. fSj/mw ^ 
hws, the honor of a poer U6i|«if«lettt to Iba n^ost aaaiii ^eb* 
ligation; and b^ at least equal meion, se isthat ^ftb^Kip^ 
Yon auggQ^ted a doubt of its ^anCd^acy ; mid by ll»e yroAr . 
of your seoratarlr, thtt aacned iM{gation of your royal i 
was recited in the bill of supply, that his ICijesty in i 
totbat law rafght give a bond for the petfofaaaooe of bis Ifb- 
nor: and register the mortgage of his word in the raUs of {lar* 
liauient What atonement can yon make to your rlsgfadad . 
sovereign ? A confessioa of &Uy will not be sofficielit. Thft» 
are stations.in wbiob incapaeity is crifluaal. You diouU.hflw 
explored your head and your heatt» before you baciided *# 
dignity of the crown on either. If you are net too wnrfihleas 
to have a friend^ and too de^ipable to basre en emmgr, yea 
might have found one; fiom whose kindnesf erfronpi^. whose 
censure you mi^ bave^extracted'oettastL Ubbapfry man I 



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I tm^ffrioBm^f tlMitciYOiimiaitae of 7a«r gov<rqm«tl; la. 

9m^mm*m mrii0n lit oDk " 3ol that we m§f km 
liwOi^am^m the a^Mt tinej oi^Mn«o« 

L la pMvnifle Oif mSitMaa. 

Hoi ■ig49i4».y0U iw notm ifMMMe;. -tebe 
wai^tnmi^tmo piuffligytoi^fefr 
Ydte'MMr inp|iOTM# timnailMNlt in truth ; jraii> eo* 

.* nwt<ti<i ioiiitiiM ariteioii^i or:^c8priQt itt4.idnrdit]r; 
iMtk Wu pMiwifr^ Uinhifwiii.- - ¥pa lawit ittlp th»«ifcy. I 
mmiimmilbMt ^fhm tfindwiiw of onfar^iia c«miiiy<m^ or 
iWlll^^hiilir^ Bffliiitfy iiiii>lpwi liM ^moctifinriiitbl^.Wt 
jiri'ililiiiidfliU Ym^ dmfrJ^ Mia pith rf odvuacwttPt^ ]l3P> 
iHt JiiHiiMWuf jent fli0iicli4KHi' w«mf iMsd ia)«ii^.tli« permit 
Di'lJKigrili pOQO^ whom I havt j^BttjMnlMnrad. ; Ife w«« 
i<imt5pr*yp<Mkfe' Ha^vOl he «lMlaM(4!riMdio tilled poril^ 
iH l i<iia h » » ; Hoim«o«i«»tivtdMI9%^dit«M^b][ydue 
MMikl* WlKt teftvt^.yoHl^ d^iMUram«iiiic#^ .Wof it. 
tMI^ Q g 1i» j Uo i i»» i|«9bv>» lywok^ lQyo|M*ebar»ct«r? 
Wm^' i wi ^ffT r yoo. ^fcopMA iimdt your oommt^ ?. Tbota 

doi'^vUV^ i^;<aMitfl >mm^ J o h i P iV ft myk mrnM al ottoaipt? 

00^ Sa $H o j pii fcti QttWift^iarity, ioiyhodbajly is n^t tbe dio- 
nK:tori«dc of jomr mind. I^e^ sm vathe^ c^ebmto (keforgive^ 



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58 

mn of yosr temper ir m4 iatUmoft itel Cqlood Lutferdl bas 
ckdIj l^oen refierred to Ihe pirjiiinaentaiy oofrectifiii tf a poKli* 
od brtvo^ Ukejilniself ; whilst yoaifpfyi^liiiefiidyn:, whflm 
ynoL Ymd called to tax ttoeqiial eopl^^ 3^ U^onih I looitkn 
that moderation . which yoor profbwdnal jm^iadki» cpuld i^ 
overcome^ t mait meiickm that raehtieia whldi hi||har 0191% 
deratiooB di<l not iMtrain. ^fhj did yo^ fisigat ll|e aapaidK 
you itfr^AeQt ^ In the* dwdlii^ of the wyggmewngimitiyof 
tjia hietn^poHsy al a fdUu? teaetiiiy, dedicatad to peaoe^ iriqr 
£d yoii, kuiK^ 4he HMndar of a r9venioa«ffy.GhiUeiige 9X m. 
v^eiietableiiienihar'of pariianiottt, dectepk witliiofiraiilgr? The 
diihiett and nrviUty of ddenwn oriod ebaniB ujiNi y ott r . 
' Ffoai the impartid Aserver kt aetbocbne « mcmHum, toy 
lord; and jdxiredlthmgskt ibe warn yeoagaiiti^.tht av»». 
tke ol i(aaie« Nothing is to dai^esoas. I wtUmakeaiueKinr 
of your own ny example, b yanrBiind^ I Jon told^^it is joor. 
gbry U> have senred at Quebec; Take «ar» that it aM]E9M|.be 
your rfnaae. ' Yon wefe tUrd in eHttnand under die gceat* 
Wolfe. Yon 8a# the military hopo of die British nadoB ex*^ 
pire. A great man nrigbt have envied him Itfs death* Afiend* 
only cteM have envied him his gloiy. I appeal to ymr losd-*. 
ship; for in Ibis you nuist be tpy testimony, ks wdlisaniy 
themo. Yon saw him struggling, acoordii^ to his omt ex« * 
pressi^, wit)iadioiceof diAcoIties. Yoti aifw him bending, 
under a com^ic^ed and moveash^ in6mn^. He had a. noble' 
hearty, a wise head, and a pefcrming hand^ In each dsmi?- 
stanoesi and Igr sodi qnalifiestititis when ynu saw liim become 
theedpl of a/ond nation, and of an j^pgdavlding amy ; when 
yon sfw. hhn smiting in death, beesnse k was aoeompanied by 
bis connn7yvicCoi7; with what passion were you inquired ? 
Did.tbMKMaipss of esmlat^ a^ you ^. like Tlp^mi^tocles, 
4d'thataiii«ipl)aof Milliadesd^veyonorrepo^? Or, like 
Canar, 4id;yoii>weeB»jrvpr ti|e (smbof Alexander? No.^ M 
yon wen^ fo his grate, you went not-tooAt the applaase of 



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89 
•OTViTiag hoMitm t* the iO«fllriott« dead ; bat to 8tt|qdeiit fait 
mocmeiit, and cfefraod hfsi of his fiune. Row did the peo- 
ple of Engla«l feel, ike ontutornl people? Hia deKth filled 
Mm co untr y with laoftenfation. After a cottaiderable interval^ 
tile remabs cf that great man lattded in Oraat Britain. No 
hMor, wUdb the liVing ieito pay^ to the deceased, was omittecL 
As !f victory atlll followed him^ the news of fresh conquest 
Ipoon succeeded, (very pm of the tdngdom resounded whh 
congtatolatton, except one. The region adjacent to the resi<^ 
dence of die yenerable matron who had gtVen hhn birth* was 
aOent. An oniversal sentiment of heroic compassion stradL 
die peo^ ^They stiflecl even pofblic jby^ and would not snf- 
fer m aoond of triumph to invade th6 solemnity of 'her jusC 
grfeE lliiis did that undistinguishing multitude, whom you 
affect to despise; mark their veneration for their departed hero; 
mbSitt joa, my lord, a bfother soldier, and connected with 
him in oommandy had the justice and generosity to endeavor 

|p oefitme him« 

SINDERCpMBi: 

.1 • • 



THE f<3llowmg reply;" to the Letter of SiMebcomise wa^ 
generally .believed to hive come from the pen of {he Right 
Hon. Hely Hutchinson, provost of Trinity CoU^^ Doblhi* 
«id ftdier of Lord Donoughmore, I^rd Hutchinson and Colo« 
nd. Hutchinson. It Is not accural^ ascertained who the au- 
thor nnder the signature of Brogktll was ; but the Provost was 
generally known at that period to be one of the most a^ve , 
pmtiaans'of the Townshend administration, and actually suc- 
ceeded in laying the foundation of that property which has gi- 
v^ such weight and importance to the talents of his children^ 
SiHDBB^oif et'i H||6indi$r is a fine epitome of the views and the 
#|gepts of the eritire admimstratiorf of Lor4 Townshepd. 



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LETTER 

TO SINBERCQMBB. * 

1 HAD some sailtfaction in reading yonr letter,-^not that 
I' admit the anthenticit j of your facts, or admire the force of 
your arguments, nor that I think the public will be better 
enabled to judge of the measures of government by the com« 
munication of your sentiments, or that the Lord LieutiEbant 
will be reformed by the sev^ty of your animadversions ; but^ 
as a well-wisher to the person and administration of hb Excel- 
lency, J am pleased tp find, that a writer of no despicable 
talents ia obUftd to resort, f«r the niaterials of invective,*'tb 
the stale refuse of news-paper anecdotes, and the exploded 
calumnies of vulgar detraction. You have collected the rem* 
nants of both with a malicious industry, and tricked them out 
in aH the tinsel of antithesis, and the second-hand frippery of 
ittiifated periods. You have kept a reverend eye upon tBat 
great Hoftier of defamation, Junius ; and like yonr master^ 
llave created a monster of your own imagination, \n ordef t6 
show how ingeniously you cati rail at it. 

There is- something very inconsistent in the advice wilb 
which you begin yout letter !-^that Lord Townshend should 
think it worth hi^ fvhife (your own ^egant expression) (o de- 
liver down unimpaired to posterity, a name distinguished by 
the virtue of his ancestors, when, at the same time, yon d^ 
every thing to prevent the benefit of your own admcMkittdO; 
at* once throwing dirt upon his 'reputation, And wsirning HxH* 
(0 take cure it m$y Hot be aulU^. 



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61 

tnoi up eiF«rf politioil timt to * comtpted source.— AocJbrd* 
iflflf^ iti ftgectftig MMM0 pretended cauiei ^ Lord Towns^ 
bend's a^ppolntaient, y<cMir tery ctndoe is no less tnalicimis than 
jr#«f SMgntty; in tisdsg topon thht w^ieh <^pear6 to you to b« 
like ttne «iief. iTh* intinvet <^ ftttolliee is generally tbe smm; 
and * l^reur sCttioii dbtadtied by the Jdint reputation aF brv^ 
Aert, is seldonn held upon tgnominious eonditioDS^ or used fbt 
anwofthy pdrpoees. 

fbR oF the best inteittioDS towards the country he wa« H 
go^tero, he opened his first session vxth the promise of a law 
to seem% Ae independence of Judg^; and why thi^ proinise 
waa not fulfilled in its utmost extent^ luust be ask^, titti oO- 
Aiis side c^ ffi^ -Wi^, but peAaps of a quondam minister, 
^r|k6seJ(temfidd polities seldom had itiayl^hervlewj thintb 
seeoteliit^imi^letiaflmimtfrtjto byiuopedh^ 

AelMifiiesi, and dibii&isbtog the eredil^ of «m7 other* Tkr 
p«Mi«^ howev^i. bttre ttltteio regm> as no inoowcoMnee baa 
bfeen knomi td Mulf Avn fhia diaappdntmtnt; and the at^ 
lalliiAenl of leb auA laws, taseculre What was nevw iniradei' 
oould not be considered as equivalent to thati which was no* 
fsr eq^ettcwl^ thoughBo often demanded, the limitalionof 
parliaiBenla. 

' It it diStalt to determine upon what aulhorHy you so can*- 
MemMjf assert, that h1a Eifeelleney never intended, thativ 
never wUiM to give either. Is it the shrewdness of ybur owtt^ 
cbujeeture? or has it been suggested to you by that gentle* 
OAn of popular manners, whom you represent so honorably, 
co n tep< fi ng aglunst government, in its own armor, and whil 
its own weapons, h theliead df his revenue legion of edilec* 
tats, mrveytrfs, waiter^ seardiers, padcers, and gadgevif 
He at^MT Aigfct luive told ydu, Aalt lis to himself, bawavw 
Wishwf 'jnccesa t^ the limttaaon-bill, notwSthsUn^ng bfi pB* 
tended teat £» Hr i^ he bad found more tfMr ene CM^ do^' 



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on whoift symprthy he cooM wpoiP the ina in ftBt i y of 
hisboaom; aad Imoiring lillk ni«fe A» tbe jtil^ 
TownAehdt cAiclttded, th«t would operate a# it hud done be- 
fore, fortfaepatifieetlonofhieiinvale views, which werefe« 
aerally hiconsi6tent with his public ded|irati9QB;-—^'l^jere 
ihete authorities, however, more |Kmer(l^l, ^e stubborn &ot 
would not bend before them. We have the k#, and the. peo« 
filellave paid the honest tribute of their gratitude to him who 
disdained an underhand stipulation to obstrud it; whosd 
name WOl appear with unrivafled lustre in th^ ceeords of par* 
Ijameiti^' and whose memory will be^rev^red» while there is 
any sehse of Independ^ioe, or any abborrenoe of joppeemoo, 
in tli^ yeomanry of Ireland. 

You next telluf, ti^t the auccess of (be augmenialim^ warn 
the principal object of the present administration; and you 
impute dke miscarriage to his wai^ of manage m ent^ Aongli 
you enumerate a catalogue of difficulties, which made success 
aIn&QBt ionpoeiible. Thus hurried along by a rage to crimi* 
sate, .you either cottfimnd the bhaiipe wklb the ju$ti<teatioo^ 
or (which is more l^cly) ypu suppose tbe , inicautiopis nmder 
may do it for you. 

. Some j£irG9^mstanjites un&vor^e to tbe^queasure he oouU not 
foresee, and others, from a regard to nis owh digni^, faa 
could not with to pfsevent Of tlj»fintsortwd«, the dosing 
of the committee of supply (which coudd not tie k^ open 
untU die euabUng aet, previously nepaesary for tit aogmet^ 
tatbn of the Feroes, ^^ras passed by the Ici^shtofee of Eng. 
land) and the damorsTaieed against the army there and in A- 
merica,- for interposing a^ the desire of the magistracy in 
both countries, to suppress (iots and restorSL order, ibr #liich 
no civil authority was fotind su$ci^nt Of the aeieond.was^ , 
the.dauae Of dissolution in the lim|tation4iiD, i^^reeaUe to 
the true spirit <^ the hw, as such, die olject of the peopVa 
ituiji, aadtherefolfe eflUtled totbe^a^mtenancct of gov e rumc ftt , . 



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6S 

Bat the great difficulty, «nd tlie gr^st offenceof all, r^p^aina ta 
be aceonntcd £br,— the alfenatton cf panws, Thefmbl^^Te 
bog known diii was die. ital cauae of opposition;, but until 
jon wppeared, no one was Ibiind hardy enough to impute it ^ 
dkecrineofadoiittistiition.; To see the boainess of the natipa 
oonducted without the remd ooncurrenoe of a rapacious cMte^ 
dtncy, had long been the wish and A^ dattpair of the people. 
Those, who reverenced the dignity of the Crown, wiere sorry ^ 
to find it degraded by the suplnatieas orthnidi^ of ka rq^ 
sentathresi Too many administrationa had been distinguished 
by evsQts of BO gt^ater importance than new aceeasiona of in* 
flnence to connexions already oTorgrown, and the abameful 
bvler of the ftfors of government, to securaf the repose, ct 
to gtatiff the avaike of the Governor, No wonder, then, . 
when m new spirit of activity and disintonestednesa appeared at 
the Cattle, that new maxima ahonjd be adopted, andnewpre-; 
tencca fadd Out, by the cBsapfiofnted brokers in parliamentary 
traffic: without chaPjpng their prineiplas, they suddenly 
diai^ged didr cond^i amd unhed all .their atieOgth to har« 
r him/ whom they could neitfaelr seduce, nor intkaidate. 



The aiell discipline^ cdiorts of Lein^ter and Shannon fell ln^\ 
toib^ nudu at. the irat tap of the drum; and the motley 
bands of Ponsonlgr were cajoled vad meii^ped into obedience. 
A body pf independepit hragulara joilled the standard, not die^ 
cause of opposition ; and af^r disputing every inch of the 
ground,, victory was dedded in thehr favor by an inconsiderable 
superiority.' It required no small degree of spirit to look this . 
formidfible ^IManc^ in the face ; and noAing but die greatest 
eire^niapection could have prevented its beipg atroi^er* 

Sofiur^oifr capital objectioa to him as a statesman is without 
fiyn^tumj 7*t admitting, as I do, that the success of the 
amffiiaifaiwf, wrfM hfj^ ptjncipal object, I sliouldbeattijoss 
h«w \0^efand.his siifiSc^i^^ .^/l^ *g«in been baffled. Bat; 
to the confusion' of your own argument, you are obliged to ac« 



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H 

lutowk^, Hull ia tUknmsm^ htfim nieoelft^i tmAlH ^ 
wics «r irf di t0ll jwikor ;f*-rvitkiMdi ptai^iirftlicity> m 4« 
gimr.at oDcp lumt v||or|o Ae Cn>vn> .«pdii9W 9eicm»<ai 4>4|if 
Peq^W.; to uQi^ in i^ R¥pp^ the ml pi^not t^'biarfo^qdl*^ 
1^, «^ tfap.(il«^ op;^ bj hw preCene^; ,Ulf»vc even M^ku^ 
ajr withAot 9 ie#r« ap^ ingfiHMty fi^u^^ii^^colQi^i^oyfi^^ 
tjflO. But it ^9tm% yM «re as much oieoded wftb tlk^ tmm^ 
iQQ^CMtian 9C tlie nweaiii^ and the teraoia uppo^ v bWh it w«p 
obti^nfeAKtfir 4MXNii a cMi ao ^ a9 wiA Ha npl ba^nngbeeii^b-t 
UinfedataUin Aa fiNtiser. Y<m are ii^H jta aoQ M^jaatji^ dj0!.« 
•oeiKfiQf b^m the UuroDfit^ aiid ^toh»i tt g ^ath the paopl^t, 
I ham name itti4ei^iopd tbal &« awoahle ag>eafiienii>eUiaaii' 
ibe K»( and the wk^eci, .fipr ^ aawioid baotiH oiTlMhs iNia: 
l^aod jei;at csooaidered aa a dfgiDadalSm of rOyal^/ Tha CrQ^w» 
kas: often made exchai^gea of a aivilai) naliiN; annaodariqi^ 
pmpgafttve for loaaenue; andioamof thegreatoit.lttlitf^iw^' 
mento <^ tbe eODttitijilioitliavt aiwn fram auch a cooH^i^^wc 
Hlid Ua. MiQflsty, ,or hb Deprea«al)atilve> nrnmljaiipukted -vitfe 
isdivi^uala te tbe anptknt of bii aaeaqufes; andy according Mb 
lehat aeemf to b^ dtegaeaH mjtilierir of your politiiiv pio^ipa^ 
oc btibed them iatoicoBBpliaQce, the Kiog migfatAfiH iaidacA* 
be iaid to hate desoended from hie throne^ and to bai^ proa«f 
tiliMbad Ae fojal digmlyt . : . ' 

Your proaecutioD/a^aiiilt him as a atatetroan beiilg dbatfd^x 
yod prooead to armign him aa a^oator^: 1^ soldier, "^ii^ 
partial account of his i^enduct in both these, velMions woald.bo 
bis best panegyric, and your fullest refotatioD. His ample fop- 
tane and ^lendid expeetatious^ ; his voluntary engsgelnefit' m 
an unlucrativ^ mA, pedlous prafeauon/ ^e whole tenor oi hi^ 
conduct m that profession^ tlie spirit with whichi heli^dib* 
quished, and with which he resumed it, tbe'testinpony Of ttio 
Generals he sewed under, and of tbe armlea be cprnVnanded^ 
have all contributed to set a seal upon bis character ; and are. 



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Hi .pittniBttd' tb# 
t iliB.:«4At dnfct #f CmtimknA wb^po friMi to k. 

^Artr *» «■*> tti flMrtij tDBMycttiiri 

wwe to be die forfeit Wbeo tbet pdnoe dk6wtilBB e o c>a.« 
lynMie eg ^pqgepial tofhie EinliA4Pomtitt|tkn» beeppfted 
Mr. Xowivbvdt mt Mr. Townsbeod bint. As to Ifa^ mA 
l^^^^ki^^^liitietnvmtk^if y^ butnitber 

.tiMfc.9M |bv tbfiljda; of wohcb» wbidi biiviiig led ymi frdrn 
AJri0» tiieMnidff, bes i|Mi«d ine the t^^ 
ipan»ii tpo flEtfelooe.to desime mie, 
. ZhMRi.Beiiiia b«t two pevtioobM iooitt to be i^ 
dbaib0|<BHDiryMie»ecBdbiiatt. Xaf4TofrQiheDdPe€or- 
reotion of Colonel Luttrel, by a polttical bravo, is no k^ fiJie 
th«i bJa-teODC^g ^^tbwdar of « tevtraioiiary ebaDaige at 
i>t.lMm Tbe«ientipiaiegofCole«ell4ittK 
Hwtfe <rf Ceownoni, waaiaei^yiocideptri; and frem tb^ eii<« 
iMwHinMn ef tb» titte» Mid lb* ocotaioii» (onU not poanbly 
beirie hap^yertaJ ftem enggetliflli or pft^ cun c ct ^ It ie ia tata 
VuaArjfmtlpiBtbe lecisbm ^ tbe boiui» wbo tifiere pet« 
«ib Car'jfiitoeir tbe ftWMd before yte pnbliahed it Ai 
lelh^MrinnMeiafiisaiMlMhar, bia own pnulanoe drew ufi^ 
enbii9(««[4;Hiiited» wbieb bia Teinlj cboie Ie interpret kto « 
diaBewpftl jti^Loid Toemebnd^a word* boee no sncb mean* 
ii|^ Mv.iteie •afltmdered bgr enj pemon present 

jTM labor in th^ afeoted aMftia of titt-' 
lo ff^ amoomfal deooriplion of dMseeted 
eNbit^ adlbb etpeM^ ft ^ living; iuid fdmt impotence 
mtm^ It inercMe Ai froportinpi to yo^r e&ru. DMear end 

K 



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my iWiJgf fiiiifr Ae G«iianl who tvoBMdtd Wtbe oom- 
■MB4,ilialiiolBttiMtoc«ll Mch Ibwwi of ihttoric to dML 
thognraofthedepiitocl i » iq u i wii ^hitMay liittkiilf«iol- 
dkr^ .liepiid.miiioraj«didaM«rnMlotbtheio^ 
jM^if, b^^ pHUMy tort^^%. %t^iiitiviiidl^ and d^M 
t^mtkili bod enMted the vietoiy. ' 

1 mM spend A few w«rdtiriM't|Fydol^^iii9die^ eimmj 
wkidi 1^ btihfidly reCirad firooo jovr text Inter an bumble note, 
-whore jm^ acciue hho of uaorpiiig Geoend Mond^ioii'a pro>- 
irtnoey and ignotanUy or arrog 
Before the death of General 1 
curried on board a ship in the 
iKooght, mortidly ; and the o 
Townthend, it was his duty a 
pitid#ion. 

Having now done with your lettet^ aHow m^ to say a w^ 
or two to your person, and tD|fuessatyoarchisracter/bjrtlie 
marks of it fct your compostcisn^ 

Yen are not the finend of the cooKMRiity iii|;ei|eral!»:|bryott 
wish to see all po^er engrossed by a ftw indifiduals. Y99 
are not the friend of Irish Kbettj, or of English government t 
lor when you wish the force of the prersgattve inay be'rehix-^ 
ed, you wirii h at the haaard of the pfople*s afiec|ioQs^ . an^ 
at the expence of th^eonsdtutioo of Ireltfid. ^aviB|^ told 
you what yon are not^ .kt me now tell you what you^an^ 

Yoq are the friend of successfcl eorruptien'^ fed ai» m^fffff 
to Lord Townsfaend, hecanse be do^ not practife |||||ie,art of 
oormptingl You are the admirer and immbleimitatef of Ji»t. 
nitts, and a fettow-htborer in the great cause of ssditlf^f : tbe^ 
signatare you hfive chosen, ispefdiapaexpfetsWeofyeuitiBM 



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. mmatilb it 'Mf jM -be an Man ^xf.yoar ei-* 

.. •.-• '.- '9»0mitO0SiJLU -'^' •• • 

WtTP AK AtmittiSS Td I^HB PUBLIC. 

• ^ " ^■'-" • — ^' ^ • ; ^ \^s. mo. 

Tlitiii*^mifi'' my tmit'& one pttbHcatbh ; unS cRsp^ratd toge- 
thcl wfttilk b^'^aome (H«h^4 no'c^oubt^ tbLordTo^^'xnllend.*.-.' 
Wm Ui'^tel^^' toiaie iBiiigs'ihi& have happened |inoe> and* 
iviUlryilM ft ti^^ifibr'me to trouble the psblic farther, 
I Aoidi hate been tilent But before I go to new matter/ I 
wAWaftW*^(fei!he6Ut * J ^ ^ ' ^ 

• iMfib y&rUfeW me to l5e a Irriter^ of no dei^icaUe talwits, 
r am aenaible of the compliment ; and though jrou criticise 
my A<ifiofl/t*al^ ria^ to confess that die atyle of yoaf de^' 
Mtee la liifefioHo ^le fldb^ec^T^ ^'eU as to the matter of it 
Wer^ yon infUIible even in language, I should not be inconso- 
iMk'^di&i'^^r Hrtctur^.;' and your charges of inelegance 
IMiihXijhiiiAf %e{g13,^ since you speali of my ihroning dirt 
0ttttai^t\S^\^A^^^i^mn^^ and of my being hurtto see 
M^eiiyhiadMSnBiftfdm t^^ style, whaterer it* 
i^lk,^iBt^^W^Qmii '^^ if von 
i tod ^he^i if^ yiowe^ me so 
MkS^^ Jtra^SAttlm^ % s^ura smn, even the number or my 
iMi/ AH^*j^^lil^;'^^wemb^^ 

s'tA^eog/ ^'t kitn 'some apology, however. 



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MMe « A^ci^pl^ tilled j a^t^e Yideliu^^ ta ffiiipatdk/ Mfl 

HowhftireymidelkiidMilMfl^'^YM m^tMf^t^ 
u^ ticickijg which tr&s not |nshMbed befcrei Ta iwhA/ «b 
you ascribe the italenest of tt^ ittireiHKe ^ a»»ito» dcAMii^ te 
you allow me ingentifty; ' NtiT teflclMlbf; or « fflfaieliBOft to 
invent, for you charge me'wMi the motlt'wS^k¥tiaki*Bcatdmm 
malevolence. You must tfien Mribtttr it l^lliit a u gacky .ef 
malice which you frnpute to me ) and wUoh Mw, 'diattfae 
tatk ai invention, %du^ tiky, wal 1h n # etoMt iy* 11]«i>ch«^ 
racter is unhappy, with respect to whidi, "yie only dfAcuKy 
is to give novelty to censure ; and thiMpe dM-ges ore bntfili 
refuted, to whidi tbeolgeccioo istfieirjoolQrtfl^ > . . * 

You say that my advice to Ixird Towwheiid, to cansoltrflif 
reputation of^ hts: name, and the Kbertlet I havrtokwi' wWr 
his character^ ars incu nsis teiit Were you soiaalteMiPSi or mf 
inaccurate, as not to see that I intended not admomtiitt^ ^' 
that sentence, but reproof; tfnit fdid not say it it^ tat thtt: 
It was worth his while to, e^Mdl it; Aof Itf^Mi^tf bis an- 
castor's reputation^ not of ^/ md^^hmt-WlBHtftafri ahf d 
advice to repair what » i ifKs tri evsibfe, b— a gondii iiitoatjcn 
of the irrecoverable evil of hb-ealrljf, ^Mdrtaisttpimi digeMea-. 
cy. He is obliged to you Ibr recpitring me to be wte «ifl»» 
dt in my terms. 

The promise of the Judges' bill you iumiotdcagr* 
can you deny the non^-performaace of fl Yev are 4 
of the infiony of that tnmiaccionj • attd ; 
transfer it to thsi earl of Sbeftimie^ V^lAe'Mit'tfMdbwia^ 
because he Was then SecMft^ <tf Mtt^lMkMrlNcaiil^^ 
the Irish department, is t« Mr eeiMiorM4br4ft Mlir#4# *et 
law, he ought to be i^ifdaiided Artfae afttrin m w ffyfU Mii o tt s m 
nial-bilL The ttaH Who le ^Bsyflh riM eeft^ m Jl i «r t(»»»mnH, 
is req[>eneible enough t0 be ee*i*eki4Ml Sit 



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M4.. Hu l l U wi«IL«i^MMriigej>f t)««MIl.Miir 
UrbvMii ami ill hi jn». a—it it mfOmM^ (m. 

diHlrj vhMi «i%iil Immbc^a aacKibtdloMtei^ •ad"ftaAk*«t 
irtta^ «#cte i^ wi As thn ilmpirtMi nhndijrflf dn inpoilvfe 

th» aoqiria&m.br ihiitkvf, iriiidb 
>» aa Dd twij|u.;.,iriUiit h» ntfyy iwrt—dail al tiie time ti» 
iikti^^pimotm;^ «idirUfib,alMeita«iiaUi6httMBi,be 
r larilid^MJ i M iml a d s eaetpiiiiaapatchfmff 
*V*B«HI^ %p|MM h^pMW U ttuiikitvbwparogittml* 

i.Yo»«igii 4liip(tej^|tiagiat»«iditMI^ I enufaeMtar iMIU 
i itmmik rf aggiWHUhg^ jMkify Ui &Uiire wMr 
l^^MMfo^in bb IkK attflnpi. What waa. 
Xkat liMM]pitflM^of thMa diAsokiea «l tba 
<ii»«j|i»fca | » a y aaaA tiiai r w aa w wi U uttapn^f of hif fiiUjr* 
Jb^t^d^ ftf L^ TmiBabaod, lum 
a ooomioB imaceat belw een so Bany djieordaot ami 
i2 . JltodX.^ iKanalian of tiwy m$n of 
»te'tlMiiaag|ian««fe;a.iiiaMref de^ woiiU 
mqwiwliaw^ i»ya baguu jUie exaeot^ 
il^illit%i»J|li>i<liii<|i|>»Mbmtotilw iMt 
M |.i4K^«{>poaafiHranMwaiit, that 
k«Ni) hii)aar4p^HiMfM wf^ym w^Ui-^W^ it 

K I ^ | i i j | >Wi < N <<: jrirtiyw-. An if it »>• iwt0»iit 




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He tiimuttAiimtKMgm p iilw | w ji ly><ttt 
aboNt t>>^idi>l»t.>»*wriiitiiiwl.th<piM>ii*'tf»> < 

to bwre remenbertd^ tluitlol 

TMBBMBk IMi-Jittttcktli ID tUB iMMld tfliMII^ k&i0O^k 

rwy w ff^ifyW ^«» wrnc4 »Mlfr>^s4ii«iMe> aadnot>w 
hoMP t^Mn* Tilt mwim^allM w^iiirtMHi ivipiAwM 
eiifi^l jNit not UdtXia m i i h u^i Wi nn M H iii OtiatairibHt 

innmiirr dirtatid amI niiiMiiill Iw ^hftiiMMnSin^MJ n - Tk* A^a^ 
tiMtt thi hlniim itf Miir iMMeiBMAih ■JmB rJ'ffiwwfctffiHTirtirtyi 

Yoor patroo eadesvocvNl firat 1 



aiid yt ^ gird Mai t^ MienyiUf#% iiiliiftiK 'fltt^wWMi 



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n 

' ^mUr tmmim^ capita- 
«f •Mr«MBaNl%i te< it tiM 



•o*flito bme itdkitm fmrmM tuiiiU* 



¥wl iqr> -^Aat^an fafc|^mM awnub rf Jrir TT^ lilfffci) V tm* 

W t yl wfi fl'y i u jM^OMckKgncMrto WdMMMMtU ? Wky 
b»r«<yo4 ii«yliJ «ily» tfyov •oidd lii¥i jmnMlV Thtnini^ 
pfc iiMiliiie'^iAkb 7M aMnliba/ JMH avcld, wimld Mm 
liMtt'«id»«lketad.tfMaiaHt3nMr AovMii,' tf it hid beta 
flrfh Mb whMe9«n«be«iifo4ilkry fai^lfaii; hameter, we «gree^ 
l / ip p i t1 fegtfci» c h a wnwiftt t it M li r> ^t» fttt O w wwfc under 
i»bMnp ki('ftrt«4 ^»ad w4w jmrite wMih^ camnandcd ; 
■wilMit8wtoijfiil»llm>Mij vfUdhlM cmamaaAbi vatder O^ 

umI Widfr. ^Tothi^mny Iiqnpeil^ wbtAmhtJaumihe 

iWfdS ut i i d i B a i ii, otf the »0kj 1* •MMMiid? trhtdwrif 
t&aMnl W«Ui dtiwfved c— immdatido. Us loidihip ikuMt Mt 

^,1^^. •• >■ *»^ 1 • 

r^to the DtakMf Curtibtr* 

dt4«|ttfai^ hifi fo p tB m fy i^^fptCSeUy towaidrteioo of 



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n 




n 

<ii»ptniliril Th».i4*l<«lMtMBia|iM>.yiied. ■♦!■> I rt twit j— 
it. .Wiy.didy«»« a afc r» >u t > UM^ihi 
bfRlt.'tb* fm4a. ti Ua Maitol f)MnM? 

9M I . «iA, lit SntHMcjt Jiw xfMn to Mpifkn;^ tli«t jmi 

tkt «MioB-«r mMmt iM; t *M» Mm JMMMnjtf iim 
MUtnrA i M iw AM rxi lufl QiMtitpi«K| ^IM tt|«rt,f9lii9b* 

mlLmmmmMwiiffmtn Hm ix uMlcirlQi.iMiwiibiii9<}«^ 
^yrtidilrti >MpiiiMntc.tt> hitai. fimwil ^iftiiirjuiivi jmd fte 

dMaH|poQibis.8^Ml9riftlciu«iipler, WWiM be n 9iy^#u||E pf 
imUcs. ^pfi^fbm iivii6fi% lJlftif9lt%^^^ 
lMidbi»fMiirrtalhe,«tiiito: aadfk^^^ lo^ 

lymted coocnrrtntteiailit pwmnri aii #f AnowriQH» mwl gf Ife 
WiUm; Aftd f a iti B ilniiy Id Us flfilouir J^pport of gm^d 

«f his aBluvpr taeia%fe. X«t Ifim dm^ (Us, tf 

\ NotoraleiitaritlidsfoM** fm}mkn^:wt0.Tfmitit;^,^,S^ 
kit ec cuii eu B c s uMaf it mmatUk f^'Tt ^ p^Tp l iti ff k tU f ^ 
sbottldnot be misled at tMa^tafs^ JUidlfittmmA^^UM 
m^ To -ihegi, thardbt^ I iMicstt Jkti .nwrnmiw irf jbis 
kHMV which sWl«iiti|ped^t«etii0cfjreiir9^^ 
tlons. eod^if^trlamTiiJgar^aiidiwQottaidec^ . ^ 

To whatever d^jgrBdattm-his loidriup vuiy tis o^vr J^inips 



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have ^iibiioined^ yod VMSfftahi, tiMkt Ti6 Aconied the daghK&i^ 
tkm c€ vdpuJktmg yfiA liidlvUuidt. Wlhtrelie qr tutudvotxt^ 
hzve found this klea I kobW not It ki& not btteti the sj^toA 
^ Ihb predeCesRole. Ni^ is it the t^rstem^of bis tnktsid, tm 
^bibt'ry of Eii^kiid. It Is ai Ihtfe JbundMIrt^ A(»i of fair ' 
sdiniDiimikin t0»» ak in tjhe praoe^ents I havW ttWhtidned. ^ 
itiiClD'qp^k <^ ^ iBxcdlehcy'd first winter, no B^csnelr >^a4 
Ma pfeaent aecretary inteaied with hi$ bffioe, dianr iie ()egair 
tketraSe. LordLoltiia^ theh a cbtottwnnr, . wtnt td tMid^iri 
Ria*do6r was beiiieged^ night and ihotmog, bjr th^ aecfetaty; 
ItiiM terms, whU something mbre^ iriiidi haver aiiice ovi»ti 
eoni Mr. I^r^ifibrd, Were pressed on Lord Loftfia^ if he wm&ld 
IMake 'tiie Spchten - That* noiSIenian bad not then leaiMdl 
^ hjJiiiirility he wodU acqah«, by toaitoi g at onoe M^ 
tooiitfy'andh^irienda. Be answered Wdbra .man, tbtt/oc- 
^iifiiod iB^e oTre of UtOfiOO a year^ he had not leiaurtf to at* 
read an dOce Ado^ the Crown. When the Secretarjr flr«i 
(to Ivdahdy 1 adc' whether^ Speaker and hisfHendl 
( notolered the most ample lerins for an itnpltcit aopportf 
bf^ pdwadflaToistMioo? Was not the cffice af president 
of the eonncO; proposed to hb creaftel, with an cbtortHtant sai- 
larf> ftv dnr Bp^doer hiai^df» by this eneitiOr' to Oorropfioh ? 
Wi^^ not opnaidcrtfble private iemis offered to e?ery great 
powof, and cerfaMn ihdividoals §Am, hy this disdabier of tti^ 
poblioa wiA Iddtvidoals ? Neidier is this pmeiMless im^ 
j^roMbb^jdiatlltiafals^. Would fair EtteBency himself have 
pwwhaie4 Iha titntwanqr df kebnd, by resigning tfa^ Engi 
lisil Mte<i<» to ^nendlionWky^ if he were av^rso' to this 
lypdhtHif^lriMfer (^ if it ireto nut Idented in di^presom 
Jt^nrf ColMiier%fc Urdabip^^iaQit^ and^hat of . tkoft 
i^ iOmnlik U^gMh^i. Th^ ieMtte abettor of every mv- 
tMisore, Aea toed of Bute and of-evtsry dift^ 
i Ae livery of Btilb ; t3ie praduet of corrirptioii 
im ermj yj^tsLof Jna lifie^ andatle^htheaaoffovai^riino. 



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aiintUy govtn^. A Weymduth^ s Stadvicb, 9 Blgbjr> • 

Ifortfaiiigton, a HerUbrd^ aid a Holland, art bii directon. 

AieAeseifae men wl»IiaveJbibiddeiiliai to itipulate wiUi 

Mividoals? are tbc$e men averst to eomiplion ^ diraireihejr 

ifte most cenaptcoooa eznbples af Venaltljr iaavemdige? 

lio^ Ittte A» fbtmnty of die (ireienfc admbiiiltratioa, b^ 

kai« tfae gang of Btooraabtary obtained dteirofRcet^ We will 

wadBy Heliete tibat tfaej^ tddom bave rtflised> l>iit we eannot 

Mhre/ fb%t Acy nerer ilipalatej for placet. We cannot io 

vMr)y disertfit eveiy profesiiiim of oar Sovereign, aa'to attri«! 

bnte tbeir elevatian merely to bis eboice. Or have jtbe piAl!c 

be^perpetiMlly mistaken > and is itlb#HiBdne^sof Wey<^ 

mcMftb, A^ parity of SandWtcb, tbe daUenee of ll|^; 

4l»dirf«terestedan4 elegant spintlsf Horlhlngtoo, die muni* 

Aeence^r Bertfard. and the popukri^'of Htfland^ tbatbi^ 

f cc o m i Htt fcd tbem to bull o(b^, as well as to a pious and a 

d itf tcm ingprhtee ^ A i^enee to principk, fn smb a ticeroj-, 

g over n e d by socb in adnrnibtratiort, instead of being fanputa* 

Ueto^vfatue, orerentathefaypocfiqrof dimsy vice, can bo 

IMhing^ bdttbe buMent irony of i pio^afte and anda^ioim vf<. 

nality— And, to speab of tins fchigdom, was ft tbe austerity 

of Andrews, tbe patriotism of fhocbinson,, or tba consist* 

cylind wisdom of ibo Eariof Tjrepe^ tbat hat marik^d tbeia 

dot to bis E^koAency's <kvor? Th^ worU will not easily be^ 

lieve, Ihat mottvea sucb as these, induced his £i0elW^ to 

promise a bishopric to the Teeommendatian of a man, who If 

fiiferlo preside over a btoduA than SA nnfversity ; or to be 

condocted-by another, whose ll^ppery proscttutfon bis vender* 

ed^vcn Us ioOmy tidicoloin. Nor wiltthey believe, tbal^tbo 

Ettl of tytoanr, after baviiyvibhtlNl eviMfly onf^gemeAt, |^ 

vate and pMbKe, ^nlo whicb he ever entered, has been sdeeu 

ftfftr bis consistency and honor r orthat bis abifilik faiTve re- 

oommttided* him^ whan diey foftct, ths£t the elfcr Mmtus 

innatkave been a less dissemblevtbaii the Earl of^Tyrooehaa 



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7« 

t tNm ik HMml yeM^ if bis LordahipViiicapftGitjr be 
Mnterftit Bb IiOidilii|^ wiU pai^dm this tr«H of ^ 

. WfaM Lord TowwheiidfiMlaiidad. betliiiw biio^elCJii^^ 
thtanafof ^MieniiBa, whofai hk himUpga are n<fw> €ii f h | t <|^ 
to Tilify. If 19 Mffar Ifam to cottduet lli& affiiEn qC iUarcaNiir 
tqr, beciiwiid^ beuch«q^oifaie with that guilt; and j£ it 
hrw i fj thBarrcmo^hnot wortha coovoIoqul Sana tim 
aftar, iiihieo^ tHiey diffived. Tbej «jr thgr jaHnquiahi^ Urn 
in paUk grooad^ h^ njf» tfait he diaagrMLwilb tl^em mi 
fritalor Ilimalkgatf^iiisinofto^iiatitiiliqiatt^ 
tbejraaa^^adljrpaailim 1%qr who fauw |LjbHI iMnidwBd, 
taioirhgar to eaticM^a hit waantfmu But ^wittabttme^^ 
itwm iMi lhdr:piw >cq ^, hot thair daaaand^ wift wbiabho 
waadiaaifiaftad. Why then doea be tJk of. tteir ^rfaieipbaf 
lat theari have bren^vetaoBagitioM^fa^ would only Jiedie 
moK^ l» bacoDdeaQuedy who {ivafiesTed atcb paEaoio^ origioaU 
}f, and who ue«afdiaaf»ad with tham bat upau private aoD^ 
sidenHtooa The demanda of dttae gaiitianieny tnie ar fldae^ 
NwraLbeteaMod^Ae piAlio; moA, aa . stated by their eue^t 
tBom, are not very ioipfiftaiitk. The Qoverpor muft have a 
fajgb idea af thft valfie ef ai^iifice^ or mutt fksmk but apcxir 
> of bia own nieasarea» and af public tmaqitillify, who 
jbaaard either of the Utter, Sat olsjects of no greater 
fignifieance. And I will ventare to prq^beay^ th^t thfe pub- 
Ucyintheend, willloieby biaadveoiore, even in a pecuniary 
opu i i dai uli q n ef the auiijact. But be this aa it may, it ueaa • 
nolpniwiple by wbidi he wa»diree^d« He went to the nuow 
kut^ and Ua only ol^jaeM^nist not tiiatJtwaaAuifvket,. but 
tlMtJtjra^iNarfvagii^.FarAvan^pi^^ hfi 

e< MeaCTPd e d to ohifffir and to j»d»%. in ccanugyiop^ T|pia, 
una aaniet>iilg > w i4M mxian^ topiat {lottoui. He^ionaidfMrr 
rd eW«y ptftoonan m a choilaMf .^govemni^t ..^^ Ihoi:^ 



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76 

tBat ibey bad b^ pvrchaied befbw; pA^Omt thi^y i»cM mU 
«nlitled to a sactmH vahntton. It 9 'n^ a |lrtiik5pl«r of- Mtme^ 
Jbut^f venatdetpoti^ro, by whidi tb^aehtfMeflrtlAa'bliMitmgi 
gedted. (t » not the vice, boilbe .pb#lR^t»«lipiilM^«Uch 
he dislikes; He does * tidl wisb ' for ttltit eiuJlM aflli|<*lty, 
vhich disdains to bargain ; biit fof' that imjioteilt 'and tteao 
priistitation^ wbJdi inust net <ffpifAite bat ifi6iaif. - '> 

Ifeiv who o^pdsed, ' not ckily Ms otheribeimpeh batevra 
bis favorits aiqpnefitation; are rewarded; wbikt L^cnd fihaiw 
noN, Lord Lanebborabgb and Che speaker, tb^ii^h ikitymp^ 
ported theai^tnoitaftidii, arepanisbed. Bufe tbey oppitoii iia 
some other tbiiigs> V6 are ield; and tt^f were &i nihw> 
Here ia the prmdjple. Ailneil in bilice iure to be taiigla» ihat 
tlieir support inost be tilBiscrimlnate. CoTroption ir so ctweagf 
that:ii.cli6daitis any man^genent mMenmiiare«ffetiljrtasat«>. 
ed at slaves, and are ifp longer to be led, bat bMi^ bUo obe- 
<|Kepea;. It is hot now the ftnpe of adf an e au wrnt^ - biiti4he;terh« 
rbrof 'deprnmlMRi, tiiat is^to be'topKpTad, The coiroplioi» 
of m Aee state is ovter; and ^e«omi|Manof ii»r)taide if. 
vhaC we are now to experience* 

Yet even Ihts prineipfc is Qot'coaristetotly pMnied. And 
wherefore? fleeanse, ihoogb this is tbe iidal vbject, itbene ir 
anodier mdre immediate, to wMAa't e n ipomf^ aaeriioe timst 
be made. What is that f The destniftion of every ^ 
in this opnntry. And how ia diis attempted ^ 
like ancient Rome, has opened ^ Hsylum, Into wbfvh all Ak* ^ 
^ves and betrayers are to fie received A TiedaK, wmdm^ 
Hatchinson, ' Aoogh they opfHiied,.' when bMRig imier than 
weight of his llijesty's fkvors, acre taken fato^gtafee, notwMi- ' 
stfindipg their demands, becansethey have dMerled.- Lord 
Mtas,-^thbogb petaodall)^ mdi^ taLwl TownstenA, and 
though he opposed io oAce, not mdy Where olhen' opposed^ ^ 
but even where they did nidt,<-^is seated to accept of fbvoes * 
ffoia Qoveriun^i on the easy cbn^btiop of bec»ayiot*llw fi^ 



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AH ib^MoA of diftfeadittgi 
•dhi»«DMt|y; jy» to rmtm la em^&ymm%i aiHn^dMUnd* 
log Ikm .«ppp«ifei0pu if tbqr wiU fbrttke Adr ecmuesionf; 
n^ pM^Ti I h t f <D9fn wgci ptifdy Jt «08p!etoaiu The purity 
t ecaTH|ilifQ». . a0t Qii](f ifoinbt er«i7 pcdil hml 
i fHnript% ia amgroA PoUticd profligacy Imq 
kitkeit* fH'<Min4 <)|p«T«fiig«; a pffcto nce to domestic virtiie«$ 
mtA^l^imimf\f ta gtitftttde and IHendship. Our spirited 
» any resource bot that of abandoned 
The ceoaequeneea^ lUi ttnet to ministers are of 
9ardMKplincei^ unhappy « wl^ make* the 
d£ Ilia a a iw O U lb» fronnd of his confidence. :He 
I^MtrnM tirt» t* §4tikf, where othenrise he in%Kt ^d itf; 
aHA«iqrM««^'.liM ^Lo*' HoUnd> to see the principka he nu 
spit^«a«f«ited.Ca{va rnku What is the c&d of these ton-i 
»Id pmiishmenu and rewards? To destroy alk the 
theUsfdom; thutit, all national w^igfa^ 
agd iJigniyw Pinrarla tbeedme of tibe Speaker; power i» 
thn niim ef LdM ShffMioo^ and power i» the crime pf the 
Did^eef Lcineler. 

'Tb» ahHlow. eC in^nswas^ ifaart is not dependant en the! 
1^ tibm^Ommm, knot to be endured. A plan of arbi- 
r haa. bam s^^stonkicaUjr pursued bj the ctiI ge* 
The subservience of the Britiakr 
i as abea^ secured* To enslave aHi 
ll^ iliHanilmitt. it wa* only necessary to eslabUsh the powwt 
er^eC ^hefcynMemeipf oser those dependencies. This was ao^- 
' idti^iiptedii and baa neiver, been relinquished. An- : 
|4raa«|aoeasaigr.to the safe execution o€ this design. • 
Mimf .nm mH^T^tM^ jg^iwdaal; and aK the inherent stangOt' 
ei lhiMiiHWeiilTie% yu fte im faeoken. Look at England. la^ 
iWijU'tiy wm^ rf ewpyyw wiado^ virtue and alnaequeaoe,• 
l■■actibe^*• l/l-BotAdqniMn^on a collection of the meet 
tijplein eiut k««]mtaM* nien } Is it not the ambition e# the 



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7S 

rcfnrt to show, ttnt the nott desfiicible ciuuncter am lie cre- 
ated a minister ; and that the coDBeqneooe of the Midivi^uei 
it not a channd to distinction* bat the a^itrary ffivqr of the 
Crown ? Is not this the jMrinciple of a deepotic gov^nuncgnt ? 
In a c(Rnroon\realth« virtue is the only pUh to advanctaeDt ; 
and in arbitrary constitutions, the humor of t^ prince. A 
manly emulation is the result of one* and a i^enal ser^Utjr is 
the consequence of the other. In a mixed goTemnaeiil^ eo^ 

.».__. — y qualificatiens which should lepd tQ 

favor jgf the Crown. If they d^ 90^ 
AH the pasiions will be <m the side 
n of men's virtues will not be eufici!* 
iT freedom,, except f conflict cm be 
▼ices also. Unhappily we 9!ffi,fi9m 
rhe furious <pirit| which irapa|j| k^ hiy 
rery pact of the Britith dpmmioivi i^ 
to universal conMernatian for ifpirev** 
ck begenerid, so ought the df!finiQi»« 
No man who h^s understandings can doubt of thetK hifteilv 
tion. No man' who has a heart, can hesiute to resist it, fiee. 
how England bleeds under this system already. See her de- 
graded at home and abroad. See h^ constitution T^ti|)(|qp 
ruffians with impunity. See the outcries of a ml jhty ija^jop 
neglected, if not contemned. What then would, becooif |(f 
euch a country as this, if the first step of degradatiei^ w^fe. 
admitted ? — ^We should side in a moment into the vilfpl eer- 
Vflity. To be governed by desperate Adventums ifBOQit onr- 
s€(lve?, might be our first, and would be ou^ moe^ iipieuidid 
condition. But even that would bp of ahqii coftm^ancci 
There was a time,, and that not remote, wheQ the nattvea «if 
this country were excluded from office. BoujkeKs letten^ end. 
even tlie present sta^ of our appointments, will i^w, that 
though the law be repealed, the principle fontin^es* Wcfe 
the present design to prevail, not an atom, of influencf would 



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79 

teMRred UroDJun in thehandsof ajuitiire. Let not i 
iittgine (btd'ihh it o^ ho importance. The nati?et of a oomi* 
tiy mky betrqr ik; wad, the natives^ even of greatett oonte- 
qaMB^ toMj mmeime have an fanoiieat contratj to that of 
thiSr'tbdkkry. Bulnoloften: notperpeloaUy, Ckeanalicfr; 
ner miBji tte an inrigpificant native. Tb» emplojrmeQtiDf 
Ifce moat conaidaiibk nativea ia tbereAm. the beat chance^ 
vrfeHob the dommoiiiity can have far good adnioiatratlon ; and 
wfaei» dhrtaintjr ie unattainable^ the better chance it ahrajra to 
be ndapHd. The tjttem of tbete men it pimagdj the re« 
vetae. Jndge from hence how boaeat it ia in them to pm* 
poei>,^aBA how wite it weidd be in jouto^oeapt it 
• M<rman can be ao tiinple at to tuppote^ that the jmiatnt 
IfiflUtary of Englaaid hat been at the trouble to compoae, .or 
wwdd bo ^ tile inoontenifDce to ettablith^ a qralem, merdj 
hi Ike interftal benefit of thia country, and for the afgran- 
diseoiiit of our independent gentlemen. It ia,but*of late 
riHt tiiefee getiUeinen have bdcone lavoritet at ooptt, or tiiiit 
ike knittt of partiet have become the ceutrarj. The afffo- 
ttei of a pclltician are alway t a matter of tpecidation. . Hit 
todded le v e^tet of afecdon are tt3l more antpidoot. And..aa 
the IBtaitiera of England have not even the ground of a per* 
atiul ao^nibtance lor an attachment to tbete gentlonen, it 
mM^ if any thing, be their ptinciplet which have captivated 
ikttL- 'Vbt Uba it too abturd to be dwelt upon. Far from 
it K fa dttir own pride and pfvier that they cootuU; and 
net the power of the independent gentlemen ef Uvt ceuntjy^ 
wordiolpdependence of thit kingdonK The very reverte it 
Alfr ofcjeet They may Matter indepjtadent gentlemen for the, 
pmeat; and corrupt tueh of them at they cannot deceive, 
lIlBl tbf ji may be no longer indepoident But when the point 
itet itieJ , there win be an end of thi» courtety. They wilt 
tlMR be Kt^fd «• fihe leaders of partict are now ; and worte, 
ia lUDpection to theit comparative inftfgnificance. They will 



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m 

eAQcmmneolt. This i» dia mJtorft pwrt^ice^oTttie ^ h ei Wi t 
tMMt. If ifatre a. mtn is Englnid of chiracter and const* 
q waU f f whfiMaiiotbaiii wbeadled, and e^mi fr«pl into c#c<^, 
ifroadertabed^KfaM^ andntatirlbocAj^ctor ailtiiis«r- 
ttidaml inCtJgQaF 1^ Htwfc the CBpflfcaM of th» p»|*^ 
To Mhke tbem waaisraf'tkaitf piilMipal bmi, that,. liiaAa^ 
t— iiUMiiJty of Dmiaiiii inoit of d t^ pw a to dfagaa^ limy 
oaqr i6ako Aa nonardi aibitimrf. Wliat is tlia fiMto' 
tiHiF Ii0^thoiia^ofibowiiajmdmafbaiiilMiMonoti|lllosii^ 
te|iirfrafifaa^lioooiidQctod%llwiaai^ fowlioin.ttof 
caaoonfidei a|id iiol to 4iftfci' aiqr nte» to battay that ooftA- 
dMiBO^ ^lt¥k ifl^NHii^. Atid ko«v ia tak to he dona? Bf an 
tMaladtiiig <^|ipoiNtion to #ie i^oen ^vho bMay thtan, and to 
the goi9eavBuni» whicfa aMkas tham tMdiani. But It ahe pm* 
pit «i*adtropl a«d pcMlaiiiaaom ena|igh to saMnr man to ho 
lAhMstoM, who hatiaylhanhithc^ftcaa, and who baaat-oe 
th^ proitilotion, thay wit And so manjp^howill batli^^ 
thekn, tliai th^ wiH laaa M oonAlanoo. What IbBom t -A 
pvadigalo and permeiana indifimnoa iaihepoa|i|atafprtiii9 
ooncarkB, and to the man hj trhott they are cmtdncttd ; iu»-' 
tB m Irnifpk Oay fall iato the fatal add onomuMm A l mi 'd Ky dt 
tnulii^ any- man, beaaota thay think that no- nian ii to ho 
ttiMtod. When a^MUion ia ooanoto this, there k an end di^m^ 
vary thing. It ia net tbevoibre a molC^r of faidiflaxieiice, baft 
of thtfkflt HStKHtaaee^ whMi is btfyf§ y9ui Ypa cbinphunaA 
of anartstocmey, and yoo iM^dto da a t aa y ih <lhirhat atfi^ 
That the po#er whiA they oaaoiad t»uiOBa)pJi»B, iiigiit be 
Avidad among yoar^ves. Yoolrib^nf Hirilnataid» aad^llMr 
acheaao, Aoogh tWonaiy ih part, wb$ ht paH^pradfiaMoL 
Your enemies wished todealn^ that afiatoeNey tao? tbtii 
wbatend-^ Nottodivide the po^ar tfnoiig yon, but tonsan^i 
police it ^nnehrea. " You agree in th^ iilean% Wlyau diAr 
diametrically in Ate emL^**^— Ton -#iooght that yott yoofMf^ 



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8} 

bad Ipo linle influmice. Tbey jthink the mlioD his too mwitk 
You mi^mmly to ooincii)k» where in realit|r you are ftqpppvedf 
UiM^r tbif etr^, if ym ooficor with them to a poinfj they 
vill tfaea desert yim; apd .without ^v^^nodifiiQg.ypttrtelve?^ 
yott will d^pradejrour.ppiintry. , 

fiecwe tbo^ m^D hp4 thf iw**^^ pre^^miiieDce, you eiy 
imeovatyiayifiii^ thetnU tbe^xywer oCtheerifllpGiiuy wef 
liottted tp tbit^e. I i|ieek qplyjfor your benefit* nn^ ^Hrafor^ 
let JW.ipeAk^/reelyf The lyurrow sjpinti.o[ t^yy ,w«9 i^ci^4 
hyihi*nam>w eopfidfic^poof Uie,8iiJb9ect But yiou ought 
to hairei»eii, the^ the powfr of eath leader was only in, fifqm 
portiop to the nimb^ eS hie. adberenla; and that the numr 
ber of his adher^ota waa 9ply iu proportion to hia epportunir 
ties of emmg mid obliging thoae aiHierenta. What ia th^ 
oooaeqiience? The^ver of the bead waa employed in gvati- 
^fiog the menbera ; that ia^ the power of the chief wa^ thp 
power ^ hia partisans in ^fect These partisans had their 
aubordtnfte adheifntSy to. wboin they were in like manner ^ 
bilged to transmit 4 portion nf that Ughtj which they derive4 
fioot the prini9\pa) )%minairy, And thus the power and profit 
•of .this ^st^fUy thoiigh seemingly confined^to three, descend- 
ed, and F10 diffuaed to tomy. The system, however, was top 
narrow. I i^low it And- .the Qpinduct of the undertakem 
waa QoC unexceptianable. Butthis I say, that thie evil was 
ngiri^liital^ it stood; 4ind that at worst it waa 4ome9ticHUid 
the cenifdy^in. yoiprselv^ . Now, jf you i^d not s^oseor 
qpiait to radseis that g^nejrao^; . neither will you have sense 
or qpoit^ 4D|d|M|flhe grievanoe, . which may f<41ow from a 
GhfiPQgsw- Snt.tbuFfi is this. di%renca. That you. had it 
in 7ioMisp<^er.<ta repaedy the evil of tht former system; 
fa^t that you wQl not have it in your power to re- 
ntnlgt^* Cfil of Jtl)is JQr^m« if establiahed. You tl^pught, 
thai th«..$hrf|a chiefs oqu)4 t^ easily unite against you, from 
the smaHness of their number. You wished that number to 

M 



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82 

be fncretsecr to render sodi'im union difficult Bui you ought 
to iMTe considered, tbat there are othei', more important, and 
less remediable dangers ; that the circumstance, whidi will 
impe<fe a pemtcious, will obstruct a beneficial coi^cert; and 
that power may be split amongst so many individuals, that h 
would be unpossible to unite them against the most ruinous 
attack of the most wicked Adminiistration that Great Britain 
shall ever produce, te be a scourge to her dependencies. You 
ought to have considered, that a British Minister may possi- 
biy assist you against your own aristocracy ; but that he wi& 
never assist you against himselfl That in the former system 
you had therefore an appeal ; but that in thi» yon will have 
none. You ought also to have seen, that the rein of that aris* 
tdcracy waff every hour relaxing. That the number of men of 
property, consequence and education among you, daily in- 
creased ; and that this being an infallible and easy remedy a- 
gainst the rigour of that form, a violent and uncertain reme* 
dy, to speak the best of it, ought to be rejected! Ireland is 
subordinate, says England, and England is the superior. We 
allow it What form can be so proper, or so analogous to this 
mutual relation, as that the principal rule should belong to 
Great Britain, and that the subordinate government should be 
left to Ireland? And was not this precisely the case, when a 
chief governor came firom Great Britain, mtdleft deputies be- 
hind him when he went, who were natfves of this country ^ 
This gave air due pre-eminence and authority to England, 
without strippthg this kingdom of aH national weight The 
people of Great Britain are too just, and the monarch too up- 
right, not to be contented with this. And if an arbitrary ad- 
ministration are not so ; they deserve, not to be gratified, but 
opposed. 

Banish all narrow prejudices from your minds. Because 
few of you can be Justices, you think you are not concerned 



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S8 

in the dumge. But if few of you can be Justices, fewer of 
ye« can 4»e Viceroys. Even in this view, therefore, you will 
be losers. *. But you are not now to determine, with respect to 
one another, whether this or that man shall have power ; but 
whether the Kingdom ^hall have any. I do not contend for 
the name of Justices, but for the substance ; ^t is, for na- 
tional weight and dignity. In whatever form this is nudn- 
tamed, I am content. But by die present system it must be 
destroyed. Divide and govern^ is the adage of politics; and 
you will be broken by this system into a multitude of iasigni* 
ficant individuals, without m principal, or possibility of uni* 
•B, in whatever extremi^. Again, and again, therefore, I 
warn you, that if you are instrumental to this change, you 
will be txaiton to yourselves. It may smile 4ipon someof you 
fiiramoment; but the public will soon see it in frowns ; and 
fed it in its ruin. I have no interest in the matter, but that 
whidi I have in common with you alL But that is sufficient; 
«nd the counsel which I have given, I would ratify with my 
blood. Bemember your prosperity or your ruin, as a nation, 
is at stake; and act accordingly. The cause is great, and do 
not trifle with it Time is irreparable ; do not lose it. To be 
tmdone, b miserable! and, to be undone by these men, would 
be igntfoinioas. 



SINDERCOMBE. 



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INSCRIPTION. 

AN INSCRIPTION ON A PILLAR WHICH IS 8PBIDILY TO RE 
BRBCTBD AT THR TOWN OF RULLOCK« 



THIS Column was erected at the priVRte expense 

Of Good Men, 

To stand a monument of Irish Stoiy> and 

A memorial io posterity 

Of our happy deliverance from the scourge 

Of* insolence and oppressiwi^ 

By the unexpected, but not unwidied for, departure 

Of George Lord Viscount Townshend; 

Who resided in this land, as Chief Goveinoor, 

For the space of Four Years: But at length 

Departed on the 26th day of December, in the year 

1772, 

Having on that day, being St Stephen's day. 

The 15th day afler his obtaining a vieCory, 

(Which the Win called a defeat,) 

And the 2d day after he pass'd the Money-bills, 

(Which he thought an exploit) 

Embarked, without osttniaiion, 

At this little Port of Bullock. 

He came to Ireland professing and practisiog 

tevery mystery of comqitioii— - 

Waging war against 

Power, AbHitiee, and Integrity: 

And accordingly his administratioii was 

Abiurdity, Impotence, and Profigaey. 



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85 

During Uf Mndence^ thejxNifavCkrhhoHice 
Frequently compened him to coafler fiivon^ 
But a capricious nature and twrlMurous mannerly 
Defended hfan flrooi the returns of 
Friendship tod Gmitude: 
He therefore never made 
A Friend. 
Sothatinacountry, in whidk any misftrtunt 
Calls forth the affections of die People- 
Where they dr<^ tears at the etecutioa of 
Every Malefactor, 
He, however, was 
Unassisted ki his difficulties. 
United in his disgrace. 
And unlamented in his departure. 
He uttered fSdsehood from the throne 
In the name di the King. 
From his closet did he promise 
The things which never were performed— 

His conduct in government was 

A disgrace to him, whom he represented, 

A reproach to those, who appmnted him. 

And a scourge to those, whom hegovemed««« 

He was a Mimic, 

A Scribbler, 

A Decypherer of Features, 

A DeUneatorof Cofporeal faifinni^ ; 

Bat he was not 

A SCatesnuIn^ 

A Oovemor, 

A Soli^, 

A Friend, 

Or a Gentleman] 



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He was victorious only when he inrolTed 
Hit cense wiA the cause of 

priTate persons-— 

And Ihe ordinary effects of 

Sympathy and aflection, 

(Usoally so strong i^ this country) 

Became weakordoubtful^ 

As they were damped by the influence 

Of his co-operation. 

Hif wisdom was fVaud ; 

His policy, corruption; 

Ifis fiirtitnde, contemptcf character; 

His firienddiip, distrust; 

His enmity, rerenge ; 

And his eiploity the ruin of a country. 

LETTER 

TO THE EDITOR OF BARATARIANiK 

Sic qui promittit, dves, mbem sibi ante, 
Imperium fore* et Italiam, et delubre Dconim, 
Quo pttre dt natus* oum ign#tm matre ioboneslus, 
Omnes mortaks cunre, et quserere, oogiu 

ROk* 

SIR, Dee,SUirr% 

AMONG Ae manuscripts in St Patrick's libnuy, in which 
there are many curious pieces of antiquity, I happened, a 
few days ago, to find a character of Sancfao II. Governor of 
Barstaria, drawn by the pen of a contemporary historian^ 
whidi I communicate to you for the instruction of his sucees* 

PLUTAmC!Hn8 BABATABIANU& 
SANCHO, the Governor of Banlarii^ WM deeeended firom 



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87 

a nohle hooae in Spno. Boi eveo die gnmipotence of Majet- 
ty cm tmumtt to posterity no more of honor, than that 
whidk is merely iUalar. Saneho was not the name whidi he 
derived from his fani3y ; neither was it that which was con« 
ferred on him at his baptism ; bat it was a title ci eztrava* 
gant and nnsoitable elevation, fiunished by a romance, and 
stamped upon him by the nnaninious vdce of the Baratarians^ 
from the preposterous incongroi^ whidi they observed be* 
tween his stiKtion and diaracter— ^his person and prdfesaion^ 
bis duty and demeanor-^wben they saw ' the gravity of goa 
vemment guided by the levity of a ridicoloas bttfibon, and 
the sober concerns of a great nati<m resigned to the guardian^ 
ahip of a half-witted Bacdianalian.—- The aptness of the ti- 
tle was the cause of its universality; and as by the exploits ot 
his folly he departed fhxn the name, so by the degeneracy 6( 
his nature did he exttngnish the lustre, of his finntly. HisfiN 
ther indeed was a person of figure and Ugh reputation in 
Spun ; but he had anodier parental example before him that 
of his mother; which the natural impulse of his mind led 
him to emulate. The whimrical licentiousness of the one was 
preferred to the regular dignity, and honorable deportment of 
the other. And, indeed, from the first moment in which the 
mind of Sancho assumed the powers of selection, it was em« 
ployed in chusing that which waa most unfitting to him. 
TIius he became a soldier without fortitude, or generosity ; 
a statesman, without wisdom or sobriety. Thus he wss amo* 
rous without tenderness, and affected sociability without tem- 
per or good manners.— Into high life did he carry all the de- 
gradations of a degenerate mind, and mixed in humble con- 
dition the arrogance of exalted station. His arrogance, howe- 
ver, was net above familiaritjf. It accompanied him tlitough 
the streets of the city, with thr vilest associates ; and he it* 
fected a freedom of carriage wit!) the lowest of the Communis 
ty, who would accept it, undf r the title of grace and con- 



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88 

cle90tntMn; mi ytt, though he was too nMao for 4ig»ity, 
lit was too iimlttit for equal aocie^* Of thft insolence, in* 
deed, he had frequent oaoaaioii to repent ; for it led ]^im >9l» 
ttanjombarFMsiBg situadoni, bom whfadi he seldom «i(tric»<- 
ied himself, withenteomt mortification or disgrace. 

For eome jean he pasaed thiough life mmd^ the pmtfiticai 
isf cootenplihle talents ; and. wiis thought to be inofiensivev 
becanae be wanted wiedom. But he was a singnlar iastanoe 
«f aaaan's mixing malevolenoe with levity, and drflicsting 
«vf n hb sBules to the ipjiiffy of his opfopanions. His fijenda 
(or those whom service had retained as his panegyrists, and 
mho poaisod far aubsist«»oe) affirm, *' that taken asoirar^, im 
like mnUm momeM 0f mrpmt, hi ha$ bten hurrifd itUo aeU ^ 
kindties$, amd bin^/icfim)e." But it is as eertain, that he has 
iiepeitfed of them speedily, luid disf^laimed them. And it was 
the universal opinioau that so soon aa the fury of pas«ion, or 
Ae suiiBrise of commiseration, had passed away,-^whea cool 
reflexion, and native sentiment^ jseas su med the empire of hit; 
inind, die result was injury^ injustice, and oppression. And 
indeed to the honor of human kind, we most admit, that San* 
dio was the only person who had fallen within our experience, 
' whose sudden extravagance of paasioQ was the peculiar article, 
with which the parUalily of friends would clothe him, when 
Aey wished to exhibit him to public view. The crimes of 
moat men are excused, or palliated, by tboughtlesnieae, sur- 
prise, temptation, or intemperance. . Sancho's alone were e^ 
normotts, in prt^Kirtion as time, and deliberation, bad leisure 
to digest them. 

Whenever the wantonness of that fortune, which placed 
power in his hands, furnished him with the means of injury, 
he did not rashly disdiarge the raptures of malevolence, but 
held them hmg before his eyes, as a reversionary felicity, 
whidi he rather wiahed to hoard than to dissipate. He dally* 
ed, and played with vengeance. He thought it a morsel too ' 



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89 

delicious for immediate consumption, and reserved it to crown 
and coodade ihe luxury of the banquet. " * 

Fortune, however/ with tH^ her favors, was not his real 
irioML f I^^bs ndwd-Um'l^ high station, she raised him to 
piiblie obsenratioo. Jlid sha Mt made him a General, tfa^ 
^»Me werld liadl Miknown, that he wanted every qvalifica^ 
liMoC aaddier; tbif He wias only ci^aMe of warring with 
^livdead, .v4nd {doadhBriog deceased heroism of those lamrete 
«rU^ bimsdf cedd not we4r. Had she notmUe him the 
np»9tiitative ioflMigestjr, a fiswooly would have known» 
thitbe wmed wisdom, moderation^ scMety, anddaconxm; 
t h slli iBprmciphs were«otiianded in justke, and that Omj 
aretw eohwteMtof fteedom ). that tl^ only thmgs he had ever 
k si n e d .in c^aps^ he hranghtwith him Jnto the cafainet,-*Hir- 

. : ^ 99li!^cs, as goivero^r* were pert^tually the result of his 
own humor, and his humor wfts ra^^iessj resentment, and ca« 
pfipfK. In the wide rptAtiono^ i^ in{;ou$t4n(7i be has placed 
|lifl^.opQfidcDpe^j by. tarj^ ;on «^T^ ^^^^ ^^ J^^^ houshold. 
^^has oounselled Mpotj^the mystc^rie^ of* state with every life- 
^]im[{d man in bis tr^n,ri^ nu^e]^is stables his councU-cham^ 
^«jKj( as.j^ onf:;^ ma4^ Aj^ <:puncil-cbainber« i^is kennel. }i he 
eyer i(ssumed.^vi^ of dipcQurse^, it wai applied to playfuU 
j^em^ -at cbiklhoe^ ;. apdbis jokes jmdgff^ humor were the 
wilges of bis |aGl|pej;a.t 

Here we sWl repose the character of this extraordinary 
person. If the ferment of the times ever tended to exagge- 
rate the features, let it be remembered, that he was the author 
of those ferments ; that national calamities, it is true, are se- 
vere commentators on the conduct of him, who has produced 
them ; and that lie, who has' stimulated a brave people by hif 
o{>pressione, d^erves to feel the lash of their sensibility. 

- N ' ' ' 



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FOLITIt At IjUEXROSf SCT OF IREXAHO^ 
FBoa^ 17^9, Tiu, 177g. 

i^qitHM^V «mVi of Id^ «Me. of UaifljKl fhuHt«^hi<iito^ 

Miri&ii^ lflffeitni|i lite lyJHt o£ Imhtiifiii; ^Mte'tbt aidstipdvt^ 

^AtT! wi^lKi ftpntm HnwiUfaig^ J9fff»qwbi»r«jfaM CMnif i«li# 
ftt;ftnd:a.fteatiiKki iVQuduAb Itomvmv b«Ai|#. we*onlM» It 

retrospect of the history ^ llnsr «ii£B#i: eftwIuclft^^piMM 
men of 1779 and 1782 took such wile advantage, and whieh 
the ^uiY)s oP the ^miteers alMie wi^re at lengA ' dAs MlMifiA» 

ly tocombat th* HfatcAriioi this i^tesr 

THE adminiitftitfiM^ (if LoM tb#nsh^d inr sevtoteen fiitti^ 
dred and sijity-cighf wiik distin^di^ifd' by-il mater^ €tait^ 
xn'the oonsCTtution. Itf e«^j^ ti^s Mdie parllMaent of Irelatict 
continne^but for a year, Rairfiig ffi^bfllr^eJthedutteire!^<>* 
red of thtoi during that fM6tl, oi)^ ^^{MTi^htatites AsHVotNl 
tjp their delegated po^et'inrta tMi hitod^ ^ their eont^tStirctitt; 
to be disposed of bf them itt iheti^tiheriiM^ agr^eaBle^ ^ 
gainst the ensuing sessiwi. When we Itfok fiirwavd t6 IfeM# 
time^ we find . th^ existence of max parHa^e^ts prolong<Qdy 
from the beginning of each reigOji to the deiahe cf^ the aove* 
reign, unless he chose to dissolve it byan es^ertion of preroga* 
tive. .This must.have been considered bj ibt people, as a flf* 
l^rant vidlatiQn of their rights. From them their rqiresenta- 
tives derived their political cb^gracter^ 'the time of its conti* 
nuance, di^penden^ qn the. will of the crown, was absolutely 
fixed. When expired^ the authority wttd which they were 



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^1 

inTCfUd eeuBcd to e^'st. If retained logger, the legislitive 
powei; however €iipported by the pretended sanction of their 
own act, was not ddegated ; being derived Irom tbemselvea 
QMtfraiy.lPtbe aalort and to the orlgina) design of the trust, 
it iras nsnqfictian. Thft nation^ in reality had amimber of 
i^fci^it^ hi^i^pfft not a siqgle vqiretontiUivt. This as* * 
somodfo^Ql^waa^ only, in the first, imtapce, destructive 
of andieal {iriaoiide of the cpustiUitiQAi hot {ranght in eve- 
ry imt of view» with most pernicioQs consequences. From 
^ nonmt of their <e1octioo« the oonunons beca^ie aWiost 
wholly imUpendent of the f^Qi^ TemplationSy enttdng 
thonfrpd tbe iMtflit of honor und iptcgrily, multipKod. Self- 
iolsiist ho4|ta fbU <fiportunii^ of sacrifidiig the pablio wel^ 
^ at the wAolUived jhpne of veoaliiy and oorruption* 

jQovfinMMOt tcmkd itself o^ the advantage it had obtained, 
aad rwhiced lo « qpatem the methods of bribing the l^sktive 
fcod|y"P4pr^ aii^pim of a baneful minister, who directed 
tlia veaanres of sMhnhiistration in the reign of George the 
Ssaoad. . Yoa now behold a sight most (Ksgraoeful to the na- 
tioa^ raiiioiia to ita privileges apd disb^nor^le to the charac- 
ter of individttala. Questions in parliament of th^ utmost 
copse^pienoe ,^ the kingdom j^etennjned by a majprity, pur- 
diased to ifell their country by places,, pensions ^d other per 
cmoavy oonstderttiona. Various efforts were made to remedy 
t|Msev|], fud to bring back the constitution more nearly to ita 
«ri|i«e) |yinri|^ef. They had a}l been ineffectual, but, in the 
ipivprwm^Qt I^ TpwiBshend, a bill wa^ transmitted for 
&aiti^ the ^iratioii of paiiiament to seven years ; it wiis re* 
tiup^ with^Ae addition of ^ a year. With this alteration it 
passed .bqth^.l^its^. and rsqeived the rqral assent From 
that &ne, our parUaspa^s are to be octennial. Hiis cban^^e 
most operate in tiehakof the rights of the people. Still the 
lq;i|]|fi|re are very ,^pi^ch within the reach of government, 
and tempted to desert their duty by the arts of corruption. 



L: 



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In consequence of the passing of tlite octdtinial bffl, flie par- 
L'ament was dissolved and a new one elected/ which met m 
August of the following year. 

This session^ an infringement^ of whicfl they had fluently 
compl^ned^ and, almost in every instance, strenuously oppo- 
sed, was attempted by government, uponAe privileges of the 
commons. A mtfney biU that did not oi^ginate with them 
was presented to the house. They rejected- it with becoming 
spirit, after it had been once read. His Exc6lle^cy was much 
dissatisfied and prorogued them repeatedly until 'February se^ 
venteen hundred and iseventy one.' 

Lord Harcourt was chief governor of Ireland in sevens 
teen hundred and seventy three. His efibrts, i# support of 
the measures of administration wei^e so powerfbl that the op- 
position in parliament to those of them which were consider* 
ed as uniiriendly to the national interest, were quhe feeUe and 
unsuccessful. But the commons, hoVever pliant to the wish- 
es of government, were not altogether itisensible to'the geile- 
ral welfare. They saw the difficulties under which weiabdr- 
ed, and, in December^ upon being called up to the house of. 
lords to be present at the piassing of such bills as were prepa- 
red for receiving the royal assent, declared to the lord lieute- 
nant, by their speaker, their desires, with respect to thetn^ in 
plain terms. Among other particulars, they told his Excel- 
lency, that they hoped he would represent to the King, the 
state of this nation, restricted in its commerce from the short-* 
sighted policy of former times, to the great injury of the king- 
dom and advantage of the rivals, if not enemies to Great Bri- 
tain. They pointed out to him, that th|ft hardship imposed 
upon us was not only impolitic, ^lit unjust; and that they ex- 
pected to be restored to some, if not to all theiif rights, which 
only could justify them to their constitueiits ^r laying on them 
so many burdens, during the course of the session. But this 
was hot thelieasoa of redress. 



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*> 

' Mirny jeare had el^Med sSnctf the p^cb bflrebiid wa6 dU«^ 
tarbed by the cakmides of war. It'is favoi^d with a tetnpe- 
7t(te diinate^ with a fVultful ttoil, ' with a vatiety of excellent 
barbora, wiA malenals for matmftctare, and provide iHthiiW 
habitants, active^ apuited and iotelligeht. Notwithstahding; 
it was pressed by.difficulties ' the cause of which Was poitit** 
edout in the address of our ' parliahient to the lord lietiteilu 
ant a: ' . 

From a period so remote as the reign of Edward the ThM| 
BritSih kws were enacted favorable to the trade of this eooti<« 
try. Even in her treaties with foreign princeis, England paid 
att^tion to the commercial interests of Ireland. 'Though our 
intestine jpiurrections were a great obstacle to these and every 
advantage we enjoyed conducive to national prosperity, our 
situation gradually improved. In the time of Charies the' 
Firsts the custonis'very considersbly increased in their vtfue. 
The commodities we exported fkr exceeded those we import-' 
ed, and odr shil;>ping was supposed to have increased a hun* 
dred IbUL Manufactures were set on foot, lands became more 
valuable^ there was not a country in Europe in a more promis* 
iog state of improvement. 

The pernicious effects, with respect to the welfare of th^ na-*^ 
tioo, produced by die insurrectibh of sixteen hundred and ftr* 
ty one, Would have had but a temporary duration. Wfth the 
return of peace, industry would havcf restored our flattering 
Respects, but the British restrictive* laws enacted in the be- 
ginning of die ireign of dharles the l^econd Extinguished them. 
We must not send our beef or live Cattle to England, a privi* 
fe^ we had long enjoyed, and which obnduced much t6 our 
advantage. We must notexport our commodities to the Ame«* 
rUm i*olonies, nor bringtrommoditi^ fVom tUeiice v^outllrst* 
Anbiiaiiq^tb^ ih ^e pait^bf En^d of ^ Wales. By the. 
cbartM granted to trading companies we had been exddded 
ftom Aria; Ihefth iieardely^a vlil£ii&le''attide df expertatbn 



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9* 

rmf^ct toouif -cHNmn^ree, with every oation of Europe. 

Tv^ei4e the Utl»f pert of Ifae rqgo cf King Wflliasv 
the yirlieaieat of England nsatnuoed the expoctelion of 
eer inr^QoUcn mepufiieUiret hy ^n absoliite pmhibltion. By 
tUi iffitiv, Bot more cnie) And. unjust to us, than n^mae^ 
^^itb.reqpef^ to themiplveay thejr ibrced these manui^ 
tnrety hitherto^ the principal source of our wealth and in- 
^ditiy^ to fnBce, Germany, 44id Spain* The French^ ,by 
QMans of emugglingy now ^nipplied in abundance with hkh 
Wool^ were net only provided with wodlen fabric^ quit# suC« 
cientiortheir own consnmptioot Jbut vied with the English m, 
ioveign mariceti. ^ 

• When thus deprived of oar wpollea trade, it was generally 
uffderstood that England^ by way tif compensation^ would en- 
courage our Imen manufacture* That she was little interested 
in the success of this our principal remainiog bmnch of trader 
if evident from the restrictions she imposed on our printed U« 
l&ns and sailcloth^ and from the encouragement whieh A% 
gave to foreign linens. 

The spirit respecting Ireland, which prevailed ip England 
a ftw jrears subsequent to the revolatioi^ more stroiigly ap« 
pears from the following circumstance, than even bcm the 
particulars already adduced. Two petitions were preferred 
to the British parliamcaat stating it as a singular grievanoe^ 
that the markets of the petitioners were spoiled 1^ the Irish 
being permitted to catdi herrings at Wateribrd ^Jid Wezfint^ 
«nd to send them to the streighfsu 

Uo^ deeply the oppressive laws ef the Btitisb legislature 
iiyured this country, aH>ear$ from the necoidi nf our parlif^ 
meat whiph, met in seventeen hundred and three. T^j^y^qo^ 
plain of t|ietotdi^ of trade,, and ofthed^yc^fun;nif^i^ 
ftctures. In die smallnees of tbegranti^ the neglected j^ate 
of tbeeoQoti}, wd^nthe addresses of oiuri«isIa^u:p, ^ 



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puveftjf or tat kiRglfoio^ "ftv siictvrafti|f ytir^ U^ QOMjjplM* 
•uslj evident Distress, and eren despondency, stMngty 
Bttrit tile tail^fiM<)f the t^gnef Queen Annew Tbe]^«rni- 
dons inibence of wkr ahd of dOeif edttieebf nefibitiiil i^F^Nilf 
Mtt transient, tt^ erili' oeessnned^ b]^ doiMnlMiSiak Msstndion^ 
art' lasting. 4reland- tobffamed to %e pressed hy ^eokle^ 
tlMni^ the lAiblr of tbereigttof'OeorgetiiePtirst: In fiSi 
uAe, vttxp&iQjysxKt otice nf inat tf nw sooioeftsof, nie peopife 
MlbredniisenA'ty'b^ttittiiie. HF^rifc andviannilehires are 
abstracted, tnuge ndst aed&^ %st a necessaiy consecpiencsi 

In sevefatecn ffundM and* fiRj^ three, andf tiie fUlmrfng 
year, tte inflot of fbr^girr laxuries^ rkised the revenue so con« 
ifidenMy, ttat thv kinji^ont was* disencumueredoftlie natS^al 
debt* I'Bia appcajfinbe t>f ^|>Mipenry was dehistve. * Ine taste 
ffirexpensivelfVft^ iHiicbthcixprevaifed' was mosi^ eztanra^ 
fant Numberr of oor principal merchants dealt upon ctedit 
The balance of traded was eoniSderahty against us. In a very 
ihorttitnei the effect wa» iimble. Individuals fliiled. Go- 
veranent was obltgea! to* inter pose, in support of pubirc ere* 
iRt, whfch'toiterM'on the brink of destruction. Ih promotmg 
a t|niTtef industry,' shoredocmg the price of jntivisions, the 
bounty^ givto' ty^tSMttent iipon land' can^age of* torn and 
ibov to IMblih; wal^ of^li^okr use. 

■ Vj^aelAewarWeWei^hivoh^ed hi great expto a peace 
ertsblfilkinent visry bpprejiive fbllowed ; pensams increased ; 
fee reve iAie d^inetf * in bonsecfuence, a debt was conti^cted 
by Ae'vilBtlon, exceifdfAg that di^Iiarged m 8event!een hundred 
ihd fifty^ ftmr, bfeyoStf d! proportion. 

iMdw bumiliating and how deplorable roust have ^en tmr 
iHuMoit,' during a succeeding period, when it appeared that 
Irii&a h i iui t tfed iS lEnglan^ for rents, for interest of money, 
Ar i^dkriBomf, sslaHes and profits of office, a stim double of what 
she garfaed^fMiflFffle whole woi'ld, by the commerce wKch she 



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.V»ati^«iBU(»edtlOv€tvy;y<»H lliroilgh,fhf.iffdMlg^c^,pe, Great 

{NKf ^lum ♦«.?»«?«» <»f »^4wtf^ . djbOiUtfB^ itj^ ,acti»e bq,w* 

«ibl$ to.]^ o)r to exfcnf;^ j^Hppe 8(;bei)Mf9nd^cii^ to ii«tifM{ul 
. prosg^r^y:« Men b4(Mt|i^e4 to suSerigg, I^aok tobeiur theur 
dji^|ti^.wUh.a4egreex)f ^diff^^ fjpwiiiQte>a 

sUjtf f^ ixfffsxmbiijtff the. resentment. #91^^ ^^i' nPF^*'*'!^ 
^j()];t|nr4l to the.hjijpwn. lic^ luljri^i; |t^y e|fen .eeas^jliQ 
Cfl^l^Mip. £t^;in 8evepteen4)un/^^ .«nd.Mventy ;<^t, ; ibg 
c^tfpjff^faxix^ pf IieU^nd, from p^fi^ar^;mcii,r: wer^ra^r 
dere4,8Q j»epuUi9ji^ dUtce^ipg.M $9 e^dte; m, the inuuU of, tte 
pcpplQJjftropgaeiwepf, their ipi^pny;jit|wjt^ * r 
^ ,The j^me spirHiof dominfttion in BrifUun,^ \^ whicb-Inth« 
nx^en I;^,been so deeply injured^ jitre^Bpt^ ;.:lp tear ficqn^,^f 
Ame^jc^ colonies .their aiifMral avd rdie]it,xJiartjer«4.x|ght}^ 
They.resisted, England determined. to. enforce her elaimf4>]; 
the STfor^l, and hcrf^ cyj^ntries w^e ioif^yridia the calamities 
of civil war. There had hitherto been exported amiua^ly, t^ 
America. Uz^ quantities of Iiiab linens; ^ this Terytc^nsidflra- 
bl^ spiirce. of. na:tiopal advantage was now. entiae^y sl^nt np^ 
Vnder pretence i;)f rendering it more difficult for the ^emy ,tq 
be si^pplieci vidi the means^ of subsistence^ but in repUt^ to. 
enable a few Englisli rapacious cootifctom tp 'fulfil^ t^exr gf^^ 
gagements, an oml^rgo, which cpntimied^ w;as i^ sevfnt^n 
hundred and seventy six laid upon the. exponajtioi) ot pf^yim 
bions from Ireland, by an unconstitutioi^ fttretch ofpf^rpgat 
tive. B^mittances to England, on va|3ons acc«unts^ and^pajt^ 
ticularly for the payment of our for^JPS abroddr iwerc mor;? 
than usually considerable. These immediate oaui^s beisg 



i 



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«ouplfLdi«l te h$i,i ; S*^ pri^ft of ..iwt>pl ; wJm^^9^ in ftUl a 
greater proportion. Rents every where fellj tiorjumpoany 
|)i)t»ce»' waer it, pf^9aib)« t^^coDf^ct ^hf^nv A ipiiveraal stagim^on 
ti(,|)^siBes|i^i^u«4., CrfilJt.if^Terjr^iateriaPjr injured^ Faiw 
1BW« VFer|&.^rQ9afA hy flpt^fm^ftec^tyj. xxmny of tt^ein M- 
ad* Niimb#r^i9f ^iwmf^Hmf^ reduced to wiunt, woidd haye 
ptrialiedi b«d;t^ ,BPC .befn supported by public charity* 
Xbo^e of tycHryi. rflflk and mqpdition were d^q^ly effected by 
the mim^ of tl^^^gies, ijHadthe state of the Exche^u^ 
petinilte^ grtoM mgh^hm^ been made jto promote .industry 
And to iHerwOe Ae n«tii094 d^tres4» but it was exhausted to 
a very «i\oomiOR^ dpgir^. AliiqoBt every branch of the reve- 
irae had ^iflad. From want of money the railitia law could 
nol be isavrsed. inti^ exeotitioii. We could not pay our finrcet 
Aio a i yto ^mMt us topay those at hom, theiv'waa a neces- 
•iiy of bonDwing Mj thousand )>oiinds from England. The 
suodey which. psrUiment were foreiKl to raise, it wns cjayged 
to'bofsok at aw^easrbitaftintbrtst. 

Engiaad, iii its ptesenit atale» ^aa afl^cted by the wretch* 
cd condition to which our affairs were reduced. Individuals 
there who hlid estates in In^laod were sharem of the oommon 
cabmily ; %htf atteatibn of ia^viduala in the Bfitish parlia« 
ment wa* tomed to ow situation, who \i»d oven no persooal 
ioteresft in this coimtiry* * 

la April seventeen i^u«i^ined and seventy ei^t» Bail jNugeirt 
nnoved that aoommi^Ne of ^e "vlrbole house should b^appoinl- 
€d to ooMder the Inule of Irehmd. He supported his motion 
by observing that ^ oondiftonof this country was. deplorable; 
this was visible In the fallen price of our lasHlSy in the r^inoi;^ 
state of our nfamAfactures^ and i^4he want wbiflb uoiversally 
preraBed. ' He ariced, what power had behaved Uke Engbmd 

O 



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98 

t^w^Bn Aibltitigdolnf T»^f«8Uii!n by law, to confine the 
^trade of on^ part of an tmpitefiti the ben^t of another, wat 
a case onprecedented in Europe. Thd hoaae of Aattris, 
"fVance, and Splui^y i::hlerMied eqnaUy aU the itates mi^&et im 
their doaafnion. 

' The motion was agreed to almost unaninumsty, by the 
Britiah home of commons. Those afterwards, in consequence 
of it, brought ftnrward, were, that the Irish ilMghC be permitted 
to expdrt directly to the English plantations or to the aettle- 
ments on the coast of Africa, all goods, the produce or Ae 
manufactm'e of the kingdom, wool and woollen nuuittfaetuFea 
only excepted; or commodities oTOie growth or mamtetoreof 
Great Britain legally imported tfdm that kingdoin, at riio 
foreign certificate goods, utider the same oonditien. Thatl all 
goods the produce of any of the BritSsh plantations^ or of the 
aettlements on the coast of AfVica, tobacco eiceptod^ be^owtd 
to be directly imported into Ireland. That ghus, niaBiifactured 
in that kingdom, be permitted to be eipartedfhm IrrianA toali 
places, England excepted. That cotton yttn, the maauftctuDe 
of Irdand, be allowed to be iiiiporled into Great BUtain. The 
design of the fifth was, that wi^ i^espect to our sa^doth and 
oord^, we should have the same prtvHcge. Theie motions 
passed unanimously. 

In course of the debate upoir them, it was obsenrcd that 
notwithstanding the real distresses of this country and the 
iniquitous laws by which we were oppressed, we' had entered 
into the situation of England and shewn a wiUingness to asnit 
her, efen beyond our ability. One member concluded his 
speedi with declaring, that a brater, a more generous, or a 
more loyal people than the Irish, were not to be found, and 
that he therefore flattered himself that they would be treated 
according to thehr high deserts. 

Bills were ftiamed on the motions aAentioned above. 

The leading and manufacturing towns of England now took 



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«9 

tb» ilann. Any e^laigeiiwfnt of our trade tbey coosidmred mop 
only aa prejudicial to their intereatj but an eacroachment on thtir 
r^ta. , It waa their deaiie^ t(iat Iris^imen should neither be 
dUowed^to export their owyi commoditiea^ or to impoit those of 
other .oouotriea. An iavwpa of it's rights, similar to those of 
which we cooipUined^ was about %o separate for ever America 
from the British empire ; insensible to the. admonition of this 
awful ezamplej im their conduct with respect to us, it had no 
influence. 

Upon the meting of pfurliament, after the Easter recess^ 
petitions were brought forward against the intended indul- 
gence to Ireland, and members instructed to the same purpose. 
Upon this occasion a ridiculous circumstance occurred. Pe- 
titions iqipeared not only against the other Iridi bills but that 
finr alUiwing us to import sail-doth into preat Britain^ With- 
out the fcnowJIedge of the member who proposed the bill, we 
had long enjoyed this indulgence, firom which England receive 
^ QO.kijiiry. Nothing th^n this absurdity could place the 
unreasonable prejudices of the pt Utioners in a more striking 
point of iriew,, Notwithstandlpg, ^eir complaints bad the 
desired effect. . i. 

Upon the second reading, of the bills, they were warmly op« 
posed. Mr. Burke .supported them, with his usus^ eloquence, 
«nd with strong force of argum^^ Pie said, the navigation 
bills, passed in the reign of Charles the Second, had deprived 
Ireland of every incentive to industry, a^d shut up against it 
mreTj avenue to wealth. That yct^ Ireland had promoted tlie 
interest, and defended the rights of Gr^t Britiiin. She 
had assisted in copque^t^ from which she was to reap no ad« 
vantage, she had emptied her treasury and desolated her land, 
to prove fker attachment and loyalty to this oountry. For this, 
restriction .and commercial bpndage had been her, reward. 
Ijut^ lA describing her condupt and situation, he pleaded. not 
£>r pitj/ but demanded justice. The Irish requested BrJtiiin 



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100 

tb ht wise, not to be getitrtfati. The mrmllness of ibe Imh 
UCtei had, he said, be^ pleaded nigaitiik ftllowing ihem thti 
benefits proposed. But, he observed, that if the internal opo- 
lenoe end external advantages of both countries meft oompar«' 
ed, it ivoukl be found that Iireiand paid taxes, in a quad-< 
niple proportion more thata Engh^d. She wad talced beyond 
her ability, and had not the means of payment. Wkh respect 
to those who were for excluding this cotmtry from an eqiud 
share of our trade, he said, they had a strange opinion of the 
extent of the ^orid, who thought that there was not txjoat e* 
nough in it for the trade of two such islands as Britain and Ire<^ 
land. . * ' 

Aided by the influence of the mint^r, the bills were torn- 
initted, but violent opposition to them continued, -in conse- 
qtiaiee of which, they were deserted by a number of thost 
who had hitherto given them support. The advantages 6b« 
tained for Irdand, on this occasion, were of little importimce. 

Though the late ethria in it*s behalf of tii^ friends of Ir^and 
in the British' parfiameht had been unsuccessful, they teneWed 
their attempts in our Iktour, previous to tlie Christifaa^ reeiMS; 
They urged, that independent of all regard to justice and liber- 
ality, England, from necessity; was called upon to remoVe th« 
cause of our complaints. The trade with America and odt co- 
Ionics in that quarter of the gtbbe was lost, it was ther^ore in- 
dispensible to unite in one point of interest and affection, the 
remaining parts of the empire for their mutual support and 
preservation. Ireland, diey said, had hitherto faleen passive,* 
but there was danger, if refused justice, that she woilld re- 
coil upoa her oppressors and throw off the yoke of those^who 
were ihsensible to her calamitres, and determined to drive her 
to extremities. That if this should not happen, th^ tyranny 
ot^ England would be of little advantage to them, for the peo- 
ple of this country, on a peace, would desert it and emigrdte 
to America, where they would carry along with them thdr m»* 



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101 

iHiftEHiim> AKTiuid'ltidiMlPf. ThAt hf gfnanripatiny IMm^ 
kOitt^ o^bMng'imriiy d^p<IU t»ftlite'6bil: ttid JMMt&iniiig ai 

6qtQ, would i«etum iMt^k ^ Briiftitt^im i(ttufimlftt6d«tiA*M«t; 
li it fit, my ^Stity, te Musi^ae Ihe iiiterest olT £n|^kbd to Ch« mo- 
nopolf oFparticnlar dbfriai or'tolb« dabloM atld abtiml 
prejudices of my body of mannfiictuiren ivfiatevef ^ Stippott* 
ed by tftete nnd othier aimilar argtitnems, « free &ade> tfaal ^ea^ 
peethigttie wcidkte 'tnatiitffiictdrb tkeepted, -Wtai (lemanded kl 
&VDur of Irebiid. Tbe atreDgth of tIpposRum mliK^d Hia 
protped of these adiranti^es to a inotiotr made by Lord NeiN 
haveo, in February seventeen tiundred and sevehty nine, that 
the bouse aboiild readve itself into a committee to consider of 
ihe fitnesa dT granting to tbe Irikli a liberty of importing su- 
gin cErectiy fiom tbe West Indies, ft was carried, but the 
nsnoflKtorefs tif {Hasgow and of Manchester petStkmed a** 
giiust dna advantage designed tor tbe relief of Ireland. It 
nas tost tfatough tiie hiterference of the minister who had hf- 
^kMsiflften IM part-in tiie btrtliiess but n6W exerted his inflo* 
ence in opposition to iti. 

Befine the close of the session, various cffbits were madi^ 
psniailarly by dke Marquis of Rockingham, to bring on again 
thi afBfirs of Ihis comitry bell/re parh'ament. Mlniitry were 
iyteid to j^ire mnetn^ lAt^ntion to' them^ nothing motie hcfwevef 
could lie ^obtAied Mvit ihem ^an a sol^ 6t eoaiprotHise. 
Ufia ebhdMdbUBtt i^d farther attempts ahould be HNtde lit 
preHM/Stk fhtiXimeti, Lbrd<jln^er; presideht of the 'c<mttd^ 
pledge 'fiildsM; 4s far as be c6uM be answerable fbr othera^ 
^ dufililfthft're^esi, a plan ^hduld be prepsirid t» tttwrn-^ 
rMM^'^e-aUit§ tf IireIafntf,"tO'be hkM beibre lpa»)iattMhl^ 

MimtiAm^fmtisM tty^i ^&iA? ^'&r^ day 'we ftk mott^ 



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102 

tftntibly our utiutppy AuilioD and ftbe opf^mve ii^ttttice of 
EngJMul which was the came of it jHow«ver, our . fediiigs 
wori in adoio jneMure fQ«p0id«i fay Ibe bi^ 
at our affiun.wore. under considfPitiaQ of ib». Btitkii ptdia* 
iDMil; but whoo it .was. &und that the English mUmtei^ in 
vhottt we confided/bad4e«erte<) puro^^e i|nd that these hopes 
jHirere Tain^ the discootef tf , of. the nalAon» enflamed by dis* 
appointment, were exceedingly increased. Twp kws had 
indeed been passed .in our.&vour by. ^. parliiMnent of £ng« 
knd, one of them pemutjfcing ut to plant tq^cqo, the other 
for encouraging us to cultivate hemp. ..These bei^g ooipsidered 
a« amookevyj instead of. contributin|p to remove; our dissads* 
faction were received with contempt 

The admirable spirit which in a short time was to retrieve 
the d^;nity of the nation and to reflect upon it di^ii^guished 
honor, now began to appear. A raaolution was formed for 
rescuing us from the difficultiea by which we w^re oppressed^ 
more effectual than any hitherto adopted. To convince Enf 
l^nd that it was poMible for her to feel disi^preeable effects of 
her tyranny and to save a ^nillion of money anpu^\y .fj^ypfiyd^ 
upon articles brought hither from that country was a vegr 
desirable object . . 

With this view, associations which had been entered into 
in a few places some time before for preventing the^i^^qport^ 
lion of Briti3h commodities and to encourage our own:iQaiM^ 
factures became universal through the kingdom. The, public 
resentpsentwttftjhflld forth to intimidate tboae who might be 
disposed, in this respect, to prefer tbeirown pfeivs^ !?!^^<i[f^ ^ 
that of their courtly. Some who were iojbaie.iuilp act this 
dishonoraMe. part bad themortificatioa to aei^ thffw. namci 
phhUdM^ ^d their eooduet. exhibited u a nwrk for obloquy 
and for general indignation. In coosequeoqe of this effort of 
patriotiivw fifn ffianofiii^mreat. began to revive (i^d ^^ dempnd 
%.4P)ods A9oa E^lan^Jn a gg^ PfMifit <y Mw rij t.irhicbpt» 



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1^ 

disced ihett a diiporitioii to Usten to the eimplaiiits of tfrit 
country, Ycry diffiemit firom that vUdi we had *hithtrto< e»* 
perienced. 

B«t there was a Voice kifinte of one r^hts'inoveAetiA^ 
heard, a voice wUdi prodamied thvooghtihe knd Ibo tj^juiies 
of hdand attdJoadly domttidoc^ rodioML 

In co meq o e oco ofoof breach WitliAinaiea the >Iruitobasfo 
hid been insidtod and oar tBiding ihipi, mn wo lo ctad, taken by 
Aeir priirateere. The oommunkactian oten wilh £agknd> 
was in a |peat meaewio dbstmeledi Ranoe haA ne# dettr« 
milled to join he^ arins to^^oee of America wU& rtodered 
oar aitaation aM that of allthe other patta of tboettt|Rre 
iBove OfitioaL ThlitlrdaildwonUb^invadod, waai|iare than 
probable. Thaa ozposedto danger we wore deatitnle of Ibo 
lacaaa of dateoe. The arinialer told ua that diopvesentatate 
dBmtdn waa auch aa rendered her incapable to protect ua. 
Ine weakneaa of goremmentf ftom the lolknring dreanHiance 
ivaaatrikingly obriooa. The Sovereign of Belfiut faaTing traaa* 
mtted a memorial to the lord lieutenant deacriboig the nnprcn 
lected alatia of dw boaat and requeating a bo^ of the military 
6r itfa defimoe^ received for anawer, that ho coutd afford him 
no other aariatanco than half a troop of diamountcd horaeand 
half a oompaitfy of invalida. 

In thia moat diaagreeable aituation, a number of the inhabit 
taata of diia town, which had alwaya been diatingaiahed foe 
public s^ty aaaociated for the purpose of aelf*defenoe. The 
aame idea had been conceived in other parte of the kingdom. 
Upon diia principle, a few Volunteer companiea were formed, 
who choae their own officers, purchased their own uniform and 
their own arms, and, with the assistanee of persons properly 
qaalilied, aaaembled regularly on parade to acquire a know- 
ledge of the mflitary art Such was the origin of the gaHant 
hand of patriota, unparalleled in the annals of the world, who, 
are the pride and the ornaments of oar country, who hav# 



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104 

8i«tu^it.&crai.h»BcUge^aiHl disgratt, wkput virtot^ the has* 
loriaa «ni tmnaini^' with mented •ttenn ati3 ircsieration to 
potterity. - ) 

TIk fospa rtabb iypeM«n»rftfieii«I.VolaBl>ercwii|<wtfeSy 
dM iiwtfvii itUeh. iiiiiiiocd tbna to quookle, mad tU spftl 
which they discovered to acK|wt . Aflmael«tnr> tpilb ivpifelaiibii 
ia their ]ieii^:cdimet^».altniDled Ihe poUie «ipnentjy tnd 
ptxmtfid ibrlhamiittivevUl iwqitet On no mcuidnm^ i^ 
jofloeMI <lf «xiiiQ]^c¥^ AKW powenfbL lho^:tpMt iii«i 
dtfbi^ :«n4 every day bmight to Ihau. an '.aequkilioD ef 
Mw%thi MtenofiJie fitstcoMequencfrin the IdbfdiAnmitt 
fMvmd of. .'being enroled in their number^* Vmnm» of credit 
aoidntidepeiidet)! drcnwuitailc^ inatond of tMiikin|^itidMginoff> 
6il^ tonaidered itaa an faonor ta^ppeor iq die niois. . .. 
' TfafiiB nufxpectad mcteaie pr eaeni ed a new and 4adm^amg 
ol^ect tR^tl^e.mw of these mililary patriots. Thattbcnrai^ 
try.should be gnaroiiidy cf>pffeS9edby cMnneiicial realnctions^ 
and that H'ejcitttens in arms shmild use nai^efiirts for il/ade^ 
Irreranpe^ ATlpi^d a degree of inattention tcr its wei£va audio 
theiir own digmty, which appeaaed Jdiahoniirahla' to thcit 
dmractec. The thought insoiaibly.tnade la stronger inipniihiit 
en their minda, ^and they^began to. apeak' out' trith IVe ^ d oi n 
their sentiments on the subject. To defend the kingdam Atan 
foreilp invaakm was to preserse it from oidy a-trnpoiary leVil, 
le be the means oC opening to it a souroe of 'pr68pefit3r^ ham 
which it had been k)ng excluded, was not only to relieve it 
from immediate distress, but to procure for it a sobetantial and 
permanent good. From this animating idea new ardor waa 
derived to the spirit of volunteering, insomuch that at the 
conclusipn of the year seventeen hundred and aeventy eigbt, 
our miHtary associations if ere suppof^ to amount tb nearly 
thirty thousand .men. By this tiaae a dear idea waa 
fbrmed of their principles, of thor conduct and their impocw 
tance. Whilst they professed their loyalty to the King, ai^ 



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105 

their retolotioR to protect fhmr cMntry ftom foreign enetUMi 
th^ called for tbe l ajS tituti iMi ^o«r oororoerdal rights. Thote 
oftliemy even in the oMMit itnulened drcnmstasicet, beitowed 
tbal'tspente tind line ntcemuy to dhrthe tttentelves andto 
leifera tbe vae of teMt^.trithobeerfiilheat and with spirit. Though 
nA|>ft tbaooontgoi btti indiniMion; they were perfectly obedient 
toidiMipliaek Foreotarietyand decent demeanor, their beha<« 
¥iaK.WM»Dt only nnex'ceptfonable but ezempkry. Theyie« 
itimBdAo irregnhur; ettppreased diacnrdera, and maintained tiia 
cseentieii^ of the lawa- with nnanimity and with foroesi 
; A b^y of armed mete, acquiring in a abort apace, audi, 
ftienglh eaid eenaequenee, com^ian^'ng the confidenoe and the 
aippiHt of tibtfr ftUoW-dtiaena, both ^ble and diapoaed to couii« 
taaaet the nnftiendly viewf of government with reapect to thia 
comitry, woei to the atate an object of aatoniahment and Texa* 
tibo. I0 iheF inftncy of the vdiinteera, they might have been 
aoppmaaedj but in their preaentatale reaiatanee waa yatn. 
•Aa the VohmtecM could not be controlled, aomeefforta were 
made to bring them' tmder the inftienco of the crown, but they 
wm treated with merited beatonpt. It being found impoaaiUe 
ciUM.to diaielTe 6r to prevail with ihem to coincide with the 
wiahaa of govetiime&t, it no# teemed moat expedient to'aasume 
theappeaiance ef treating them with confidence. Accordingly 
. ordera were isaued to the govemora of the aeveral oonntiea to 
dinribnto among then uxteen thoiiaand stand of arma. 

Eneomaghd by the apirit of the nation, and preased by the 
diflculliea ariaing from the reduced value of their eatatee, the re- 
prtaentitivea of the people began to entertain new viewa, and to 
be inspired with^diflerent aentiments in respect to our situation. 
They met about the middle of October, aeventeen hundred and 
seventy nine. 

Tbe apeechfVom the throne produced in the house of commons 
a hmg and interesting debate in which the distresses oflrelaud 
were placed in a striking light, and the necessity orged of adopU 



i 



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106 

iog^ immediaiely» tome efibctaal nieatare for obUining reUef. 
At latf, thefentimenCs of the house were happily expressed by a 
liember who moved that the address proposed to his Migesty 
should be amended by these words, '^ It is net by temporary 
expedients but by a free trade only tiiat the bsriod is now to be 
saved from impendh^ ruin.** The amendment passed ttnasn« 
mously. The lords concurred. When the speidcer carried oap 
the address to the Lord Lieutenant^ Che streets, from the parlia* 
nient hooseto die castle, were lined by the Dublin Volunteers^ 
commanded by the Duke of Leinster, drawn up in thefa* arma • 
and uniform. The accianmtions of the people as he pasied along 
expressed ^leur wishes and their joy on this vary sii^alaf occa- - 
sion. The pulse of the nation beat high. A general cbtpectatiov 
of redress was now diffused, at the same tame^ anxiety and sas* 
picions were entertained that there was danger^ being disap* 
pointed by the iBcme spirit of tyranny in Engtand which had 
hitherto kepttfab <counti7 in a state of sach htmObnting and op* 
pressive bondage. That mediods 'of ooropulsien Wickdd pMeuYt 
us justice, was the only solid foundation oi hope. 

Should our representatives who held the national purse, gtant 
the supply as usual, for two years, diere was haaard, notwith- 
standing all our efforts, that Great Britain would so long coil- 
iiriuelierusuipation. When the suj^ly was granted, a proeoga* 
lien might frustrate xmt wishes. 

These were the sentiments which universally prevailed and 
were echoed through the kingdom* In parliament, those of the 
court party were averse to the measure. From resentment, the , 
Dublin mob rose, committed several acts of violence and Uureat- 
ened vengeance against those who should oppose it When the 
point cam^ to be •considered, a majority of the commons, some 
from principle, and others from necessity, appeared in suppoK of 
it. A short money bill was passed and transmitted to England, 
where, though unusual and moriifyingto the minister, it passed 
also. It was highly to the honor of the JMsh public creditors that 



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1<W 

€kity enlened so wamly into the wiidoiii Bndpropriely of thkr 
exertion in fiivonr of the rights of their oountryf as to acquiesce 
dieerfiiQy in six oMmths' wtcwnij, the period to whichthe money 
bill wms lunited. 

SochwAsthe state of affsirs in Ireland during the reoess of the 
Britiah parliameDt. It met in Deeemben A noble lord intro* 
fiooedthebttsiBessrespectingthis country into the houseof peers. 
He oomplained that the ministry had been shamefully nc gligent 
mth relation to it, at the risque of the union and the prosperity 
cifbodi kingdoms. He said that the time was critical; that the 
Irisli were driven to despair ; that the fate of their ooontry had 
been committed to fortune, to chance or accident. That the 
ctreonBtances of Irdand were singular whidihadlong maintain- 
ed, &r internal defence, a military force beyond her ability, of 
which, contrary to rojralfaith, she had been stripped for the sup- 
port of the American war, in which site had no concern ; nay, 
from the principle of which she had reason to fear it would be 
^mpf^M to the subversion of her own constitution ; that, ii) this 
Male of weakness, the enem^esof thecropire threatened her with 
invasion ; that when she applied to Britain for protection, i\w 
answer she received was, *' you must protect yourself." Thu« 
Aiding herself exposed and deserted, she was saved by the mag- 
nanimity oCher sons, wlio, of every class, voluntarily armed and 
united to ^ave their country from flestruetion. H^ observer}, 
that the Irish, now conscious of possessing a force and conse- 
4)Veoce to which they were hitherto strangers, resolved to ap]^!} 
•It fiir, obtaining advantages to the nation of which, by this escr- 
tioa of spirit, they shewed themselves worthy. The governme: ; 
-of Ireland, he said, had been abdicated, and the people resumed 
-the powers "which from them were originally derived, in whii:! 
they were|ustified by every {Mrindple of the constitution 8:)t: 
Ijy every motive of self-preservation. Had the Irish, sor.) 
time before, been gratified, in lesser matters, tlwy woald h» ; 
.received the fav6r with tbankfulnesa, but the season of r^cui. 



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108 

tiliatioQ and «f gMtit«k wat now past ;. wbitewr tba BritUi 
pwrluniwmt might at pfeieat grant, would bt recei^^ bjr tlie 
Irish Bot as a matter of favonr but of right He then moYod 
a vote of censure on his Majesty's ministers &n their nsgleet 
of Irehmd. Though the motion was negatived, in die coarse 
of the debate upon it, Eari Gower^ who had now deserted 
government, declared, that there did not exist* sin^^danbt 
in his mind, that the oensnie contained in the vote was w^ 
founded. He said, in his. own vindtcation, that eaiiy in. the 
iummer he had promiaed that mlief dioukl he granted to 
Ireland and had done erwj thing in hie power to keep hit 
word, but that all his effbrta had pomK totally froitleM* 

In ihe house of commons, the minister was atronj^ pveaed 
on the same subject Besides the difficulties in whidithis invel^ 
ved him, he found himself greatly distressed by the short, bish 
money. biU. He now gave notiee that in less than a week 
he would move for a conunittee of the whdle house to take 
the ^airs of Ireland into consideration. Acooxdtngiy, on the 
thirteenth of December he brought forward his propositions 
relative to this country. Their design was to repeal ^Ub kwi 
which prohibited the ezportatimi of Irish mannfiEKStoies asade 
of or mixed with wool and wool flocks, fitpn Irriand to any 
part of £urope. To repeal ao mueh of the «otof the nineNi 
teenth of George the Second, as prohibited the importalifai «C 
glass into Ireland, except of &ittth mannfaeture, or to expoKt 
glass from that kingdom. To permit Ireland to ei^HXt and 
import commodities to and from the British oc^onies in Ama>- 
ica and the West Indies, and her set t leaae n ts on the coast of 
Afiricai subject to such regulations and aeabrietiona asahouUl 
be imposed by the Irish parliament Influenced b^ die. ciiv 
cumstances of the times, he now took a decided psrt mtfawBom 
of Irdand. In support of the wbove propoaitioDa he enteved 
into a teain of argument which pointed out their psttpnety^ 
their justice, their necessity. He now spoke of wr natural 



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109 

Ae iwtokt ii^ ilaMaft which iNiuld rf«ttk to be$f) emmcv^ 
BOls, in exact conformity «» tfat aevtrri pftfticukom in #«f 
&i^or ym wio d by tlw uittttoo were brougbt in and fMsaed 



Wben iii«eUq;^nce of th« rrikf ve bad obtaioMl ^nnb thi^ 
^Branwr cial b a nd a g a; iy wbieh we bad bean ao long opprpwad 
MMkd Irebuid, tbe pleaaaea wbicb tbe people feb og |b» 
happy occaiion -was expcM^ed, nnaFttaaUy* io die noataaA- 
aiUe uaaneR. SatMbdian appeared in cveiy conntenanoa. 
Oar fanigbt protpect caiised tbe spick of ilie natien ; indmUy 
jpetrivedand thii^ ataomed a new face^ even he&re we oeald 
nacena^ in tba way 0f eemmcvQe, myadioanli^fironi tbf ftiee 
Jtrade me bad abtainad. 

Butwbentbefisebnfa'natond to men in ^ueb a- aihnU«ian 
anbiided and miectian look place, tbe pobKc nnnd began to 
be mipifed by the bope of obtaining a neitr and mare ifllpertant 
object 

It was anggeitad tbet a ftee trade coold be of UtUe Ui^'if 
lidd by apr^caiioas tenuce; to be of any realadmitBga it. 
nmat reat opon a aolid and permaneDt fotmdation. 

The repeal of 4ie lawa by wbioh England had fkm&Bdioaa 
4»mp ief ce waa not » iwhwitary act, bat the eSeet ofcneeatihy ; 
wb enthat neoeatity ik> kmger existed, the British pariiameat 
Bttgfat recal the beneft^ we bad received^ and fetter Mir tmda> 
by new, periuqas^ man oppaessife vfatrictions^ To aacqee to 
« d» admmtqpet wa at peeaent enjayed, she muat rdnqnnb 
tier nsarped jpbam of a right io make laws to Und ns, and 
jrestoae to ns tbo prtirfli|(es of a ftee oonstitotton. = Ow tbo 
^irit andtbe ^ice of the Vofamteen, wtese palfiolism h^ 
WBaii seveiad^aDd wbidi Britmni, in the hate instance, boibliBk 
smd aoknowkdgad, tbe nation diiefly depended fog tbe gfadii* 
£calioD«f tbeiHedeaiiea. T^y wese not deceived*. No idea 
^ookl be moca pleaaieg to these goardiane ofonr lih i rte^, wbf 



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ne 

determined to exert tlienaehres id aotttse to beneficial and le 
honorable to tins ooantry^ and wo worthy of the repmalion 
which they had hitherto maantained. 

The dceire and the proqpect of obtaining so glorious an dject 
encreased their numbers. They percdved that the time waa 
moet critical. Besides die force of America^ in hm ^brts to 
anbdoe which she hai been hitherto qntte unsoocessfbl, Eng- 
land without a single aHy, had to contoMi with the united 
bnnehes of the hoase of Bourbon, whose fleets tlie preceding 
Summer rode triumphant in the Channd, whilst tliat of Bri- 
tain, hitherto master of the ooean, was obliged to retreat to 
their own ^»asts for protection. They saw that firom the 
comparative weakness of England, which was augmented by 
every accession to our military associations, we could alone 
iwpe for acomplete cmancipBtion, Here the cause and cfiect 
of die American war w«re pregnant with instruction. It had 
originated in a determined resdution oi the English to tax the 
Colonies without their consent. In the course of it, the Colo- 
nies having demonstrated by glorious and successful ezerdons 
l3iat they were not to be dragooned into slavery, were offered 
by the mother country full security with respect to the exclu<^ 
iive exercise, in future, of their legislative rights* 

Other oauses had conspired to increase the number ^ our 
Vblnnteei^ They had received die thanks of both Houses 
vf. parliament ; this sanction induced many to enter their lists, 
who, before, were scrupulous to connect theniarives with a 
iiody of men that had armed themselves without any positive 
law,, or the interposition of the ordinary, magistrate. The 
aame principle whidi had induoed government, in the begin- 
ning, to endeavour to attadi those to their interest v^hom th^ 
oould not direct, prompted them to engage aeveral of dm 
^riendS'lin the Volunteer cause. Hence several new corps 
were riiised. This oligect of dependence was a broken reed, 
lor wjnietla9er,ro%ht be the views of the ofiicer^ of these corps. 



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Ill 

tli^ private men were mmaMd by ibm same etttchment to 
their eoantry wUeh distingiushed dMif fellow dtiseiis; Be* 
sideetehioDy a tense of honor and of dignity^ which was now 
inseparably united to the character of a Volunteer^ operated 
most powerfully in &your of our military associations. They 
were become highly respectable^ not only at home^ but in 
the other eountries of Europe. Impressions to their adrantage 
wiSA also contributed to render them more nnmenras ware 
made by the neatness and At decency of their appearanceii 
The use of arms rubbed off mkcontb ankwaidness and polished 
the address and manners eten of those of them who had been' 
accustomed to the most clumsy occupations. 

Several puUidstions tended io diftise and to invigorate this 
patrfodc ftime. Of these^, letters under (he signatnre of Owen 
Boe O'Nial, distingmdied by boldness of thought and ezpres« 
moia, by a warmth of patriotism and a cast of original genius, 
engaged^ particulBrly, the public attention. 



LETTERS 

• TO THE WE}I PF IttELAND, 

BY OWEN ROE O'N/AU 

THESE celebrated letters havebeen attrBmted to Mr. Joseph 
^FdOodi, the present chairman of the County Down, with what 
justice we cannot determine. Those who have been die audi-^ 
tors of that gentleman's judidd powers, or of his UlenU wi a 
public speaker, may give seme guess at the reasonableness of 
the conjecture, that 4ittributes to his pen the production of 
the ablest pditicflA essays ^^^'di appeared in Ireland for the 
last forty years. They buve the merit of <»rigtnality in thou^t 
jindln expression ; no affecti^tion 'in style ; no humUiatiiig imif 



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1I£ 

tetioA tff fthy wril^> b&me^et dMba^ aad AdmicefiL . Thef 
hftcl the clestred fffisct* Tbey cumsd the balm fe •bike.4)ft' 
iti thasbery and assert itft pkoc anionic tJie kingdom tif Eu* 
rtipe. 

LETTijl FIRST. 

. IF. aver tl^ere was 4^ ofkonif nt cErtipf^t ^;?H^ ^« ▼^^ ^^ r 
of anjr nation, tbe present is tM ipcpieiit to IrelfmL If ever., 
there wee • meweot wMii to interpope, with tbe eaergj of aoid - 
apd hoAyh l>eeBiiie every iacliTMoM ^ t^^ 9t«(Qr.wtio hju^.a^ 
understanding to perc^ve^ a heart to fee^ and au,a|m,o|i^efi^ ^ 
ent to hi« wil]> the present «^ that moment to IveliUML Jffii 
pceaim^ then upon nj^^frn wisdom^ but) thinking itix^vr^ 
nppresuinptioq to offqr mjr prjhca^ opinioi:^ and» in the pfn^e- 
of the nation^ to oa)l iipon others to give lh^ii;s in coropera^oifc 
or support, I take up the pen with the boldness of a freeman, , 
lior shall I finally lay it down, till the object appears to me 
either attained or unattainable ; till I see Freedom established, 
or must lament its extinction; convinccfd that boldness frill be 
not only unavailing to the state, but fatal to the individual. 
Sunk as is England, unhappy as Ireland has been ever since 
her connection viritli England^ in this one respect, at least, 
each of them enjoys a portion both of dignity and happiness, 
•^the liberty of the press, that censurate of the people, yetrie- 
midiM miviolated, fiic juries yet are judged In their brHsCs 
lies Chat coastractien of ntuUce, which ee^stitutes thtf iUegidi* 
If, as^ it dbea the giult of ^rords or of aetaoAs. We heve jAe 
whole field of inquiry before us,' aiid we m$y question tbe ■ 
prapriety of tolerating the existenee of these powers, whose 
bare extent to question was once, I mi^ say, admitted a blas*^ 
phemy. The Magistnale is now beginning to be. sensible, thet 
theactions alone of men are his proper object, forthey are utu 
equivoesl objects of sense, and may be restndned.or punished 



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lis 

by die laws; but ilut opinions acorn bb ooerdon^ and^ even 
where their tendency » datlgerous^ come not tinder his cogni- 
mmntb^ till the aettoh fcXi&rts the opinkin, and the law is actu« 
w31y infringed. He has besides learned fhim experience, that 
to pttniah the propagator of an opinion, if indirectly to own 
sta troth, and its likelihood to nake oonvots. Should^ for 
instancey some rinonary say to the world, that a great King 
unperiid, bom of an illustrious race, a race invited to the glo« 
rioos task c^ confirming and establishing liberty in a country 
6iat tnore thtn once had risqued its $Sl for the obtaining of it, 
aboitld he assert that he understood better the construction of a 
4y-trap than the law of nature and nations; that he had more 
tiie obstina^ of a mule than the perseverance of a man; more 
of flie low mischievous cunning of a natural, than of the a- 
apiringaim, the steady dignified wisdom of a philosopher; 
«iore of die insatiafaie rapadousness and sull^iness of a tyrant, 
-than the enlarged and wdl directed seal, the glowing benevo* 
lenceof a patriot King:— -If, I say, some visionary, or some 
ittreling scribbler, should tdl us that sudi a creature existed, 
and bore the name of King, would a sensible loyalist be in 
' vrrath with the (nvtended portrait, or could the minister but 
smiled It is not in nature! would exclaim the former : The 
latter ^ould calmly reply, we know it to be fidse« If, then, 
my countrymen, I am absurd; contempt both firom you and 
the minister wOl be my portion and my punishment. If what 
I oSmt be reason, it cannoTbe a libel. If, galled by the seve- 
rity of- truth, die mmister would listen to the suggestions of 
an imprudent revenge, the sound of his first step will be a 
vralclh^ord. Ye are Msn 1 I wHl ^et insult you by instruc* 
tiflo. 

There is a timidi^r in pcditics, as in every other art or sd« 
ence, whidi, IHce tinidity in common life^ stifles in concep- 
iioQ dl grandeur of design, r^bs resolution of its hue, enter^ 



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114 

jNTUse of its pidi, and mntt^iid in inactioD» if not ignommf 
and remorse. 

He wiio sets himself down, and weighs every possible ac- 
cident that may thwart his design, and where mueh good is 
promised, allows himself to be terrified at every ttjppeatwact 
of evil, such a man may live harmless in a solitude^ but he hu 
not virtue for society. Let him retire to a cell ! be was not 
made for action, — ^he may be sainted by superstition, but a 
spirited reformer will expunge him from his calendar. 

There is no occasion in which this timidity will be more evi« 
dent than in times big with event, or on the eve of revoluti- 
(MIS. It is in such cases often amiable, I was going to si^ re- 
spectable. It then behoves every maii to weigh deeply before 
he decides. It behoves him to consult the senability of his 
heart*Btrings, before he takes a step that may rend the tender^ 
est of them asunder. It behoves him to consider well the va- 
lue of his object, and to compare the probability of attaimng 
it with the danger of the experiment A thousand things Jjt 
behoves him to consider, and, long, very long, must he be toil- 
ed in painful uncertainty, before even firmness can take oou- 
nige, or decision can decide. 

1^ us then pause, weigh, and consider our situation, as Veil 
in ourselves as with respect to others. Let us consider the cri- 
sis. But when we have weighed and conridered, the gosl is 
before us : ^our part is firmness. 

That the situation of Ireland is capable of improvements 
that it is not exactly sudi as the warm imagination, the bene- 
volent enthusiasm of a Plato, a More, ^or a Montesquieu, 
would have formed in their dreams of perfection and hiqppinesii, 
we have not *a bankrupt trader, a half^naked peasant, or a 
starving manufacturer would have the courage to assert. We 
have however reason to be satisfied with our bankruptcy, our 
nakedness, and our famine, since Manchester and Glasgow 
are satisfied with them, since the Lords of England are om^ 



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115 

tent, ttd the ConmoaB have joined in declaring tiiem comti- 
tatienal and rightfuL But they have not yet denied us the li* 
berty of tfiinking, I propose then to inquire, as a mattered 
mere {^lOesophic curiesity ; firsty^-Whether in th^ present 
posture of afiiirs, it is probable that Irehmd niight recover her 
Independence f and secondly. Is Independence worth con* 
tending for? 

Itlnay seem odd, that I do not first oonsUlar the value of 
the object before I am at the trouUe of in^iring into the pro* 
bsbility of attaining it But, besides that there are fewer per* 
sons with whom the latter can be armatter of doubt, it would 
he of little importance to inquire, whether a certaut change ' 
would be advantageous, if the improbability of effecting it al« 
most amounts to the impossible. Were I to institutean inqui- 
ry, whether it would be useful to man to have power over the 
elements, I believe I should beable to find few fellow adven- 
turers in the speculation. But if I begin by inquiring if such 
power could possibly and easily be obtained, the very novelty 
ef the subject might perhaps procure me a hearing. 

Bcfiire I enter upon these questions, 1 must beg leave to 
premise, by way of lemma, or introductory argument, a 
principle upon which I intend to build much, and which I 
shall therefore beg leave pardcularly and minutely to discuss. 

Hie principle is this, that political bodies, whether sole or 
aggregate, whether composed of cme person or a multitude, 
act %iia£o^ly from the narrowest kind of selfishness, and are 
totally incapable of a steady or unifcnrm principle of generosi- 
ty« The observation may be farther extended to individuals, 
(diough no body pditic) who from their situation have been 
nnder the necessi^ ef acting more from political than moral 
motivef. Morality is fek. Politics must be studied. The 
conscience of the man is natural. That of tfae politicii^ ar« 
tifidaL The habit of reasoning only, is not favorable to feel* 
apg. The habit of being cftnnipg is not favorable to strict- 



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116 

nest of prindple. In gflneml^ tbea^ we csMMt expMt psiiiki* 
ans to be eitber generous cyr just To see how oolleotm b»* 
dieewiU be most likely to act toWMPdU etch oUier, but littk 
puns ere necessary. AH penRms ave salicienUjr sdfiah, but 
ft w afe in any degree generous. The affbctions of most peo- ' 
pie are at dbmestic as their d^ontjy to oekbrtted- by Swift. 
«' They scarce ever travd abroad." They end where Uiey 
should begin—-sit home. Some hoWerer can feel ibr the little 
eoramumly to which they belong. A lew for their country. 
But how many afe they who are bom for the universe ? Shof- 
flb these men into conmmnities^ and then will it be asked, if 
communities can be supposed otpable of generosity ? Can the 
majod^ be supposed ekher generous or just ? Take the mat« 
ter as between an individual of one nation^ and the body of 
another nation, can it be supposed that the Ibw attachments 
which he can have with a ibw of thit other nation^ to the ttia- 
Jority of whom he must be at best very indifferent, will ov«r« 
come the force of selfishness, and that he will dtvide his fa- 
vors among a million^ because he has a friendship fbr one? * 
Even the geneitms are not displeased with gratitude, but here 
the obligation is -scarce Mi by an individual of theoMiged, 
and the merit is lost in die number of oUigerfl. There will 
be ftw favors, and gratitude will scarce exist. But will this 
individual be as little likely to injure as to serve a nation f I 
I cannot think so. Se^shaess is eternally in arms, while be* 
netolence often bleeps on her post. Ii^^a thousand acU of in* 
justice the individual will be sheltered and even applanded by 
the mohitade ef hib attociates. Fear of disgraoe, which a* 
lone perhaps keeps htm honest m private life, wiH make hhn 
dishonest in puWc. A palpable injustice will be hwfbl poUt 
cy« Polities viUany will be loveto his coontiy. The honest 
man wiU often ghre up hit private eoascienoe to hbtenteof 
dttty tothe ttate. The tame tacrtice wfll be pret^ided to>by 
thevaUdn. iftuchwiUbetheprObtUelineofeeMtt^t whidi 



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IIT 

mn mtfTMaal «f M9 oittin otcmammmty vBI ( k mn imr ui f^ 
wthw aatioa^ vhat moit one natt^i cocf^ect irom wMb^r f 
^AMnottlitcluMKet^ nay tte ccrttiatifi of ;eoUb»e«i» WMteti* 
dfaiM% iojufltieiy cud inhnmmity^ incareusd fimmi to m6m^ 
ty?* The vttkarned fai crithowlic wnki h9 mUtmlrnhbi «l 
the uneent of the cenhmalMML The tt^ ef uitioM Imt 
been e^tr pkated in teUEahDetSy marked with ii^iHtiQcw i»d 
mi^r be traced m blood. Their eauNMimeiHe ate diflolatiei^ 
Theirfloiy tttfaebtflinof ht«MQky.«-.>L0t et c^aqpanr Aieli 
tHtk reaadniiig. They wOlaaMfiraiitto a eumde! Andfifa^ 
aa ta' indiTiduab, whe h^e bean pelitidena by ofceiiily W 
cbeiee. Meat Cathottr Kings heva Ihej eotbewi the eneataae^ 
garaof heee^? Has neear Presbyaar rehMfl wM) the i^Hde.ef 
eaai^ieraatedhuhop? Did eeTttr Re&rmer puU dev^n tbf api^ 
litael cfewaoftfae Pope, that be binasdf might VMrit ai|>an 
ef hia own, or enjoy its power under lank hair or a nighHaim^^ 
Oed'a ricBgmnU en: earth bare ftmenled ithattm i^ii^st 
princea. Despote (those steady friends te the peaeil» gppder* 
der, and aebatdoMtiQn ef society 1) lwf€ in the demjeiem ef 
I aowathe aaads ef anarchy ; or, what aeaaof enidi mam 
thoae whose mean ambition randereGi them ane«> 
laiea |0 eqaalsty, end whe eoidd have wished faaedem had 
hot eM neck, M they had held the sword; these man Imt 
planCed, fostered, and pielected fiepublicanisoi. Can Gaatir* 
moBiB hunself, even in the generons arder of his zeal, and the 
fife ef his eoasiimingind^;siaidon, can be restrain a tear ftr the 
weakneas ef hnmanity, when he rrfetes what I am Migpi ia 
add, liuit he whom no alknements eould shake, no dat^ri 
oaeld diaauy, who brightened by difficuilies asMl gained hNtm 
fiosn defeats, whe reAiaad the pcnAeaed aeirerai^aty ef Mi ' 
casm^, and tseated wkh eaatempt the auppois and&kii*thi> 
of her enemies^ who, rather than see her ruin, eeidd here em^ 
fafeead with a greet despair, <' Death, in the laat ditch cf ^ 
€einitfy,'^«*-liHl; he, even he, ef 6iwr ghanoea memeqvlbm^ 



L 



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118 

Wer to the petition! of Iiis new f ubjects, wbom policy mide 
it necessary to cdltivate^ could declare with the cold blood d 
an assassin^ his deliberate int^tion of ruining the Irish wool- 
len nanufiictttre, that the English might profit by it— could 
declare in effect, that he would wrest the morsel ftxmi the 
nkmth of famine^ to give another provocation to the sated ap- 
petiteof gluttony? Can you believe this^ my countrymen?— 
It is a fact, if there be truth in history, if the records of Eng« 
fand be not all as false as some of them are disgraceful I— But 
heroes have been men ; there have been individual villains in 
aUages. Nations will affiird us a more amiid>le prospect. They 
cannot, as one man have conspired the ruin of virtue and liber- 
^! They cannot have been so corrupt as to bid deiance to 
shame! They cannot have been so fixdish as to show an exam^ 
pie )of tyranny, that might one day be turned upon them- 
selves ! 

I grant there is a difference between nations and individuals. 
The difference is great Individuals have been often and uni- 
formly generoni ; nations never. Their uniform principle is 
policy, either real or supposed. Unless this is understood, 
tiieir conduct will appear a chaos of inconsistency. But what 
will seem extraordinary is, that those nations who enjoyed most 
liberty themselves have been ever the greatest tyrants of others, 
and the provinces of a despotic King have generally been 
treated more kindly than those of free states. The reason ii^ 
that in a free state, every man is in a degree one of the govern- 
ment^ and few men in power like to part with it Most are 
willing to abuse it The proud cannot bear spirit in others,, 
and there are more men of pride than of dignity. To adespo* 
lie King all his subjects are pretty equal, provided they pay 
him his taxes; and if his government is rather mild, the pro« 
vinces will share it The free citiien of a free state will hard^ 
Iv put liis subjects in the province on a footing with himself 
their Hofid and Governor in his capita). Common interest. 



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119 

ftnd erta oomm<m calamity, unites the provincea tulgect tod6»# 
potiam. They have bnt one maater to satisfy or guard against 
-—opposition of interests disunites the Lords of a free state 
from their subjects in the jprovince. These have as many 
masters as there are men in the superior state, and each would 
be satisfied, every individual would stalk in the mockery of 
Cuicied majesty. Every individual would enjoy his revenues 
and his taxes; every individual would propose his laws and 
his restraint ; and all restraints would be salutary. The cry 
of every bdividual is unconditional submission ! and the sub* 
ject nation has no hope but in the impotence or subjection of 
Its masters. 

But to facts.— Athens the brave, the civilized, the polite^ 
1^ lettered and the wise ; she who defended the liberties of 
Greece at Marathon and Salamis, how long was she the ty« 
amt of Sicily, and how cruel was her ^rranny ! 

The wodd has seen those who for their own country dfSfn- 
led death and were suppliants for torture, who in their own 
city ^ could brook the infernal devil as easily as a king," even 
tiiose has the world seen impose upon other nations a multi« 
tude of tyrants, each of them more insolent^ more inhuman 
than a single one. 

England sat by, a tame uncoooemed spectator, while Cor« 
aica was sold by a republic, and deluged with blood by a mo« 
narchy. That same monarchy is now protecting the revolted 
eobnies of England, whose tyranny forced them into a repcib« 
lie. She is protecting a republic, the very contrast of herself 
in manners, opinions, religion, prejudiced and spirit, while 
tfiose who took from a king their boast, that " they were free 
as their own thoughts,'* and who have sacrificed kings them- 
aelvea at the altar of freedom^ they have driven Indians from 
their own wooda, through zeal for civilization ; Christianity 
and Juatice have carried others into captivity, because their 
complexions darkened under a fiercer sun ; and are now cair« 



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186 

tying Sre, nrord tnd sodpmgwkiiife into fbe country a^thtit 
hmOnrtn, because they tbouglit the leacUng^^ngt of en m* 
ftnt en incambrance to e men ; because they coald net be 
grctefbl to them for the retafled* fftta df natore^ be ro love 
with porerty, and in taptores with slavery. 

If Honesty, an inbred steady principle of honesty, were to 
be expected ftom any nadon, it might sorfely be'leoked for in 
•ne that was ignomt of the use of money; in anation, three 
ktmdred of whose citsens, headed by a king, devoted them- 
wives fi>r their cemitry, and repulsed the millions of Xences; 
fn a natiem where all the weakness of the woman and the mo- 
ther fled at the name of traitor, and he was no hmgera son 
who was no longer a citizen. Yet the Spartans have bad 
(heir Helotes, and the English have their Irish ! Were the 
blood-hounds or the barbed arrows of the Spartan more severe 
or more keen to the body, than are the insults of the Briton t6 
the mind? Boys hunted the Helotes: the Irish are the Scoff 
tf fools! 



LETTER SECOND. 

SUJE quisque faker fortunse est, is one of those troths which 
th^ experience of ages has handed down as a proveri>. 

What is true of every individual must be so of nations*^ 
'* Their fortune must depend upon themselves." 

It is a truth well worthy the deep consideration of Ireland^ 
I have, in my former letter, endeavored to convince her by 
ifeasoning, and an appeal to historical facts, of what she should 
Kmg ere this have learned from experience,— that whatever 
Justice or generosity exists among individuals^ it is vain to 
look for it in the mutual intercourse of nations. Their prin- 
eiple is policy. 

It is time for Ireland to take thought fbt fterself. 

That Ireland hath been, and is, subordinate to, and deptn- 



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m 

^ieptp^ tKf,if9fQi^..ffn9^ ofGfnit Britain^ ap^tluittb^ 
tff ffim^ j?B(m io V^'ifflPPt, .41(9^ jawer ta wake Uif « tp^ 

f j.^at^riiiJaQf:; ,M«t op ygi^plM^ or |^9i^4»f,,j^e.fta» 
yiiiiAty tlwtppriiWK It iyyp iMieactaf msuomw Jag^^ w*r 

%(p»MO-«>tarafH!PWI-;^ (Tfffie, wkh ii^t wiaj^ . gtvei a 8a- 

#**«hf -iTOPf^^f^^f vW^b- oopqjraflpiiTd a Lockf tQ fPfflffWt 
«P f»#m^ dftroWS Aepo»ta the achod^ , , 
':,lri^jipf;d^ waf^itb the dead; iicr jiball, I c^ffi^tbe 
^liea^,,(|^ ,M;^ngIisU J|i^^ by doubting t)^f ptopn^^ o»; 
^'^'^if^tNklW^PfSP^^'^^ of au EoglMh Act of Parliaoient^ 
7t|a^ Yfof^ ^J"^•flBpo$e pj jprurirte Irjab Jiid^;«ieiil V>;pub^ 
He English antboritj." And, in to plain a ca^e, the oppoaitim 
/f, 9)pi^}^,ir)4;3i)]|filj ^d fact^Nta." Antbortty ipjMt iM^evei^ ia 
A* jHgfcfrl Xbii denmpd of M#g9a Clbana. ?iw but a.^iff^jcfM 

thtcMpA; j/^l4^e#9itbor of Cl^yjff|i#nify, Vftf ft}i#r«*ffrffi4 
« traiunr ! Irriand then t^. ari^t 4Myifbt to Ik^ ^ f|^ nfora^ J^.e<^ 
9f9^,«l9^ be, )ifi|bordinatf to the aavfrreign ^gJMUtif^i^ydja- 



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coifiiteteilcy of lief jnrfgdi^At ^* *8Ite tbhtku ItttrfTlomMl ftjr 
Aatut^ nn istimiAW attendanft^ ttpon ' England. She <irdudie« 
tindet 'what A^VBWiiiceiiky. * fht loyrity dtm i^o^ ibrm • 
xmhfbrihiff^irese^fttlcmdfbercitiirik'iH'theHotM Ranoi*' 

prehefids, would be rnin ! 

f6 H'/ jr^t ^ an 'ttltHid 3%t%tn«Mt on thftl -^yftHtidtt, ^i^ o«i!y< %ir 
b^jlHt >Clf)^'«^c|yefHcn^^ ttblf MtifiSMonal^10'inqid#e« 

rtglktii; didrd^^dttr^ id tn«nd'Atirkf6n^H^Mi. iOtioia4vamig« 
\5il!'bc*tam!y*rtJult- iVom'lhe Iti^ihy; 'wbich <4htiol*'<lil (sf 
prb^%Miccc]^tiWe to a pwitJte, i*!io Iiav^btt!iiirto¥i)^fe4 
m6redet])<1iteci T^ith tbi^ir'^^rs, %^in wMfr.artjTtl^^fMb^ 
of ^^bbUn^dtVlreaH. K i^U feiifr Us^^'by tb^'tMMlM^^ 
oliY strperiHr'tt^oiirc^a, ^to efiihaMi MRUIWly )h^ t|uktftiftU^ 
natWhiiffa'nl^iWnt, likdy tabesuiyeiradifedi^toiM^ )iMmI 
burdens, by our masters^ the '|ttr1!ahieii{ if Qtiik Ikliitft, fer 
' (he feUbrtfe ^of 'tlifs "^ay, trhcti their KiKirc khil'abAirKr i^ 
pen«nt"thcm( to^ turn their thou^^ to lia. ' lii pnJ|io*Bcrtt to 
<)Wy^pfer?(ir'{}bwCT ori-eshftihg, \mt the meWif l*^if JliievAit.* 
ri^^';iitfrtiluro,' rtiepossibnfty bf %eo|teditftiri dfitfcfif^ii teii^ 

''A %te l-espefctirtrc^^ ^f Ar hai^'alrea^ j' wummtfcPlbir Mtn- 
ftf l^iaTftag^ tif IrelaM^/ ' It appeats tilat Aif ^ptissMB wkk^ 
M b^iMif, oi'^imtoediatc^jr >r?Uiih her ft^eli,' alnioar^vefjr ad« 
▼ailta^ that^hattrreiofftittratfon ' can gft(e, orltet I^ ^^IHM tfry 
to'tdi^eMHbtiofinleA/^i^iiAitodtiappr^ - i I- 

!^'ciiAiate oif i6e'fine»t*t«r^i4^u¥^; a«o(!«( lm)#faKMtt^ 
dinar^'RMiUtjr': -diinei'fAiat ^eirtc(>ura|i«inent ttfjatfi^ )*oi(^rW 



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Via 

itfiatlann miik fisb; harboc9]iofBex9qit 8a^» amoQodi- 
OQ^ and well situated for eqauixerce;. .an^y. ta cancli»de, a 
peqplev'with capacity for every t^g^ wbp ,)ivast lj|ut leayj^ to 
acquire b^diiU of induMiy* «8.per9ev!epring.a#.s^ 

T^ae ,are llieinaUii^^yfntigea^of Ji^daiML Hgw few 
va^oD^ caaJb«9(it,ao ippy^ to great? ^ Cfipi^e Jier rank 
ju4 ^>"^^y)i^^ ^ ibe wovld, whb what .^beseadyantages 
niglit eniitle tm to. Ipqulre tbeu whai)ct,ari«fft tke differ* 
cmy^ aiid;thaiA EngUfiAr if ff^ c»d, ipf^i|ie.g^nei^tyof 
b^ppoti^ianJ ^. . . , , J ,.,. 

Are eitber (be UmD^ Frovloces^ or; S^itaorjbiiid,.^ beeofo* 
|#red,tp Ireland in aatiun^;il4vi|ntagf8f. I cannp^tluok Mu^' 
are. Tiie fanner is but one^bird^ U^ )al|er on)y oq^^f 
betipc^ Ireland is. an ia]«i»d» 41^ Sfich.ao^eas I haveda* 
sei:U»cd; rich ip cUniai^^spU», niinc;s,#ii4 bf^rbors; Switaer- 
land if in the heart of tl^ Contmenti^, &i?d is poor in fU theee^ 
the latter she cannot possess at all The Dutch S^t^ are 
JGyuoi^lp |fae Continent ; . th^shorft is dai^roas froin^ts. flats; 
d^/|j^^cr4 ^^ a single good haijbfr ; ^ifl thetCvoit-bindft 
ifjp.S^^CPiyipierc^ during a, (fonsid^n^ part of thf W4i|t^. 
lp^i|9^mefi(ionl)if^,^ Fbjfcb.the lak^ of SwiU^rUnd 
a(^* , "If^ fifljjcpes o<^' HalbiM lie .^pfn^our cp^ ^ -T^y. 
tnjoy more from their unchecked industry^ than .we fix)fflk,tt%», 
tiife . and '^4)^i>nt<^9^'<^ ^ £ng)aii^.i .The Di^ch h^§ |ip 
miiies. I Tj>(i{j.§iii^./i(9nti woclf ;tb4^ ^xcf^t for ,,t^p: iiacii|»^ 
aajry in?MWWi*»,#%W*H^- «l»dr <|g»icultMre. ^itbi^ HsUk^d. 
j^ ^w\t;^ffijffd |Mroduccs.porn|formf ihei* inh^b^ja., Jn 
^ Mtfff. Wfli^^f^^VFsVir^<>^M^ ^y; f stubborn soil is ofi/m 
4wfn»|6Afry «^fiBB»» ,fnd:!;^^.p«rt.pf¥ie;iW)ainder,ia allows 
l«»ihe^faiflW^t»flWn^ . ., .,. ,. » ...; , , : ;_ 

. Tiie,Swia9{^>|]r be s^ud to baf|^ neither, coovperce; nor navi* 
^005. ^sj^iK; ^^^*^H^ M^^ have. aj^yonj^irlak the- 
fosmpr i^^crijwJ.wljoljyiAqffi^^ 

Of the timber of the Swiss I need not speak. They can 



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124 

have MO navy, w^ do tbejr require otic. As to^ HollfthcT, the 
tpoiigy produce of ber marehet is useless in trade or haviga* 
tbn; HernaVy bttitbe pnn:hased by indosby. Mland 
may be affkidastriOasas Holhmd, buMherequfres'ftltns. 'She 
ihay fai^ a nkry at boine^ if sh^ cannot witb niore adi^antage 
bring mateHida fhmi abroad. Tbe dtmate' of SvHi^^land . 
TD$iy inake a fiatdy raco of solcBers t>r bnsbandmen^ bott to a 
nation that would aim at itoore than a^ penbtioui extstetaee, it 
MntiM be a aub)ecl inf tn^. The ditnate of tiMsnd, iam^hy 
in its soil, and intersected by so many stagnated cknals/U httt 
wfidlesoine. ' Gdme 6f tbfeir to#ris are formed on the Ic^ left 
by the stJ^riUtion of rivers. In others' the soh'd foundations dF 
the earth seeteed to have' fbrsaketi 'Vttem; and they laid new 
ones. The sea threateni to bverwbeto then)/ They oppoMf it 
with mounds, which requitie a conthiaat k*ep^f,'ahd dream not' 
of danger thotxgU thefiilur^ of^ BaiMrii'dutd^U^ ihekd'afiie- 
conddehige. - '"' ''• ■'• - ""i "' '* ' ""* '*"*'*'^ '" ' 

Labor and indattry arent 'HbHand necessiiryi-^^hey can-^ 
not otherwise exi^ Thl^; \t^h true, wiH'kee^ Aenrlldxiri-' 
out and iiidustriou^ bnt What Htvtykte fknm necessity; odie^ 
riatlona may be fit^ nobler motives, ahdJreland s^ boCihm^ 
a' point, wtficb in Holland it required the labor and industry' 
ofy^yhrstogahi. ' > ;. j 

BoHlatid ibudt be'a dmdge^ as ^e aiibsista kxt^e watttr o^ 
other nations, and^flM^s^, we Ichcm, are mostly artiSdat. - She' 
is their (a<9tor and carriiM'. She may suAr iKim thetr caprlde. 
She muift kn^^h ht theit Ql^^humbf. their ibdnftt^, or '^ 
^to D'ogality, would starve her.' Irriahd ia'ibore indepen* 
dent She- can sttbeiM By her ihtemal resoikrtetf, diough tbii^ 
world should refuse her either oommerce ot ea^Ioynti«^ SfiKr 
is rich in hers^. " Nature that made fajgr an islahd, and j^ave 
Ker fertility, qoidifedber equally for absdbti^* indtepeniliJhti^.- 
and imlimitad iotf roonrs# wMi |Mat natiim. S6[etiiHii&^' 



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diawtoli^: *' ^''".^ '-* ' ' '• ••' •' ■ ''■'-"■ 

SttcArftfeth^liiMtfaPiiUytnhig^ t^'IMlM4 Aii MHlMM 

liii^; 'anJPtftcIt ike they M^pftr«d^^ridif ffMMkl. ^ ikumUm^'t 

shtU briefly consider heresfter. Each of ^ ftHnlk tiitt' 

pren^byiitf the rigours cff til$t¥itf. lAuk df them fnoM 

tfateSriM(^povctfte»^'to^ap1^ro«^%^^ Wttfl fh«*<ffMlMi« 
W»y of fate. • ^ - •• : ^ M /' r , 

mi^, ffeftitn^lof f6 Ii^and Ml ^«r^ 
equal to about a third of her in siie, threw off the yoke of iHtf 
iiuit'tfowtirAI ilidnarch theii M Europe. ■Tfa^'ffMvMft mi, 
&Afn^^'lr8fA' '^' dnit^fayed iHir AppM mere^e to tiMM 
tM9ii«^^nfti^[^^'^^ ihe pow«i' bf chthtftiaimi. Th« 
tfitfti phit^iAsA if a dH s^kfng of iorAMfuntMt ev«fy'd{Bcid. 
^149^ tKadght Alsy eoufd defend tliMselTet. TIM teti oi» 
tW |lMvteies/ii^«'-Td3ftaire; wotif^have afimigtl)9riD^t# 
pt^eert «^;^W<f ift?n «ljit^% 

fiiipM^ tit^yiM& they applied M tMkiMMk; wm Mite^ 
Mtf 'a<^lft'tiJbiYit WiiM, Atid yet t6ttercd on liif thtti^. Thr 
txtnnw CAKron of^iftMnCT', iflrroitn^'nitcrj^Hse, coirisipoRa"' 
<d ttdt^iH t|!)tt['*fa(# ilfif^aniniftjr and rssolutidn ffr do^MM^ 

Heme of Commons, for presuoirtig'tb )ud{|fr ofthe do^tfaejr 
wnvaarariit^ RI0 nndiM HMdt Ineijr to Uxtfjpt'Vbo'imibi of 
i|M4ftr*fyl(iDMor AniiiitMi6ir«ri^MQfi>in iFlM itaewra 
AicKM^iHI^'lbtoi ir«c'l»tordM^fy fcr-ft-'llMit»tlili« fteU» 
^' il>iall^kiilife''--T« oldi^^ftpdil^SiMbtatK^ JMtt'SMibeth 



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Spaiiiy the dykesond sluices had been opened, lupid.^ T?7 
pBiisnlt> ^s HiMiief, h94 .Mn a6|iye ianunii^t^ovn 
MiBibfm inmdnli^nbr-lfaey pi^si^^vred the^jn^y of waters 

tXkih^9itfmm' . * •• 'f ...... ^ • 

. : TkeM senie pfopteluifff f^ce 9rili)stop4 tke^HM^ jfbrvii^^^b|^ 
ittadLS'Ofrti ttuniMndl wbatl)«lig^hU|Kkwmeq««l^ri|fuveiv 
salMfl^iiw. . Thtj^im^ fmppofted tl^eipseWe^ withJOMH^thaii 
eqiNiLhoiiM^ $Vmati die.coipbioed feeU of Fnaice and^^E^g^ 
land. They have swept the channd of England, and Ibeir 
iMiltafK tha Tbanm bt¥a pained ooost^midijpn ^^dMrvca* 

^ In litUe ffipre tlpan l^ljf a ociitui;y,Qrom the 4fn|f^ 4 ;^h|<^ 
u^pfep^redm^hey niasthai^,bfeep,.tfi^ fi^ v^flfiyd to,ti^^ 
i4|l ansa i^pinst. Spain in di^epep ;aC l^ir.l^ip^jjj li^jj^ 
one of their fannidiLbl^. t armadas; . ^ Jh^,, ob^g^ ,^^.. tp , t^ 
shelter i^the Downs under the ^i^glish Sag^ ^^^^f^A^ 
%rsinA)rcenienlj they resol^ep that l^^^pfJB^^a^sbitU 
no Ipnger protect their enemy j ,they;retarn^^ |e|^|;^^ i^^ 
tbe.3paaish4ia^ ip^itt flight rec^v^fiw^^^ j^ 

at Oiis ji^, . aftpr near a ceutupy m^A h'iffi'}^,^^^,^^ 
W»yere4 > A f^w years ^noref a^isl^d )fy a j(fe|[^jsjprii ^fit«»^ 
softened the obstinacy, of Spain. >^^^^^^"^^4ffiPtf f^^f^^ft 
pawlepceof tbeStatcsy aod in.t»«^Uy^fi)fi.ii^|t^^ 
tcctfdierp^i^vifjceiragainstJ^r/fpfjB. .. .,„...,..% ^,^x^ 
, The §wifs,, mm #1^» ^h^m ^ «^e ■««?? WHR ftw* 
attack«< tbfip whflii^y^fi;^49pei^danL Thgf lurf ,f(e|^|^ 
by tlvtir mfW»t9N> ' «nd tl^,Mari«nResf ofi^^hw.f^ppljgj,. by 
their payei^+f>be[r,vaift5^Anjii^ thf^pinUuAi^^ffff^ 

J^a tiytiAf onn<i » t»d , tha» of.js»tl^ ^tajff^iJL.i^B 
mm^m9^D lW» wI<t ^^p^ «* rt» »Unf .iha.Mm^of^J^ 



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ilon>Qf tfitir dmtf^ ^'Tht Mttiot «f ' power uras^ tbea kM 
mi iu f Hi iAl,. ^^ 4t»>tt<BJtd tp> J aii* tMr-ptfVffCsrMdkcoai^ 

tii»liiii>ittiiii irf^tJrirCTrithboytg; Acwtdngiydifl^^Ud to 
work out their own Uberty, and above three eenturiet dapteS 

[ iirfv.wiK4N«E»f«M». Amerilibi hMhhuUy 
t;^(|^hehiifcnMF net tdaier'bTer ani 
ibfirflfilal^the CMl^>a£fjBa9biil,/ io£iPtoliHd;.«ift 
d» VHfMfii^ity oil a mtt^iMrofs» fppmttMi: amUMiackne M 
iMrt^ 4ctoDf!Ariiimentac)iiMHMf| Figlfaitfii :«oprhiiBa il'ain 
•^ to>traai wiibiatai^d lefccll^ni t h e^ r r d a a e A to titalnftli Enf^ 
i»i;cT^haAiprocaMMnMbb> 9^ thiy.f>i(jwrclilh<m^ 
kj •fibrilhteitaalKm.of AiiMikaln.tb»b^iM 
eeaiiilU:hoarfher«M uaenv^feMefl jdbMni^tte^^^/^^^ 

, iMacipii nr ^.. rtrenaep 4;oveapfaittifc» otjaMy; 
t of eoanacra^riBii^iftthe itrnkfrnB^mtfonOi 
t^ f^Jwkfarmrataff.ODd waUng^onfy/taheildaMk^^laite 
wmsm of. tbe^iOril of iHoi^i t^ engage m gig ml iy « |vaaiaiy» 
faepiriAa>iaBfpourt% : boaitiB^ of iiieetren{^th^ airt afisrheii 
O f e « m^^|i ^ wjm 4ei A woe grMly afraid.'^' .: ?i . ^jijrr' 

. Wtmiam^tavmmamMMnJdl diS4dlie^' wkkb^ odd is tetept: 
ed to think, icqimts mtle iddftiaoi ^Mb^^h^ lUNowveg % 
yat tfaoitt cd^niei. weio not mete -dieuiiitcd -fadf'diataifte o( 
-plaoi^'^hen bjrdiiinrMee of opinion, nitrtnert, 4jpkk,^i6di§t9o; 
aad fOffomnant; thafr tfaigr *were so ^diittn}teilii» all thtse^ 
tlnir'lt aeemedJtha dreun cf a dotard to4hink of coonectiflf 
iSttm in one intioMtl, ^r-^f bringing them-totivoptnite, if thef 
CdnUbejoonvmed that theirJntastetwMi the Mcoe; thai thejr 
ymme oxpoeed to the navy and armsioC England on.their aea-i 
Oteiti, tn'tiie incurnonstsf IndBans (perbape tdo fmiCf enra<* 
^gwd> en th^r i)ear,, and, .in aome pffohrinee^ «o tfaeaMne dan« 



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MUdwiI AMirfiifMM aolinalMMU 

.iiM« tMMJidbf :jiilic//|iMtMiri iHMfifiiimfeTiJinA^^tiriMi 
fcsxce My, that there it not a maritiiiie power in Ewraper«Ab 
jAMU^^mtl immm^y0mad,j^i^l'm^ faMMv^eetdMolii. 

be ■■nhidedi.gr.ai ilfrtwy |h 9ioteifl>>''JB>>A^k%'<l 
BgliiiiiliLMd afedB^gAiiwfftfitintti^..»r«iftilotb» iimM 

fr:>^riiiRit'4or oeiit/«# itliejlidki^ig^ IAonmImw te-jieteftd 
b^jiiiifeft^eyeiHiihiiiT 4ifii ^itrr'iAi^E^yi i^Mfit^Tjiir%ii 

•ytq<ejy?'V>r, ifti»iy<iiK A ^pMkiJdMif 

bfiiMigodftiriluOT npQ — l e ttey ait^iit jmbr tmAkmvmmmc&ia* 
htiemMiten '«rf to tmirfL AeiriHieHlMe tti|ti)ia[i)rMdflbiU« 
cUfg t > ie i b .mitb etfeCyi l^i jpy bu uiitff jM W ie vdh>te«tfwip— 
e ki etiil^ jpecyiiilpiy ai y iipi i il i ^f i MjjpwMlK i i i, iii 'ft^T 'mW theeMMwt 
t0<m«aMeeeMiry I €diiTk9tiefi liei'leQ^ bpeojoqnfemedr '^4n( 
resolati^ is alreadj^titkini; ■'^htk-mnmrmknainewdfimiAnm 
tends; r.Tfaey herfr q^eiiudighe :ft<thmt«<Bg»theiKdwit.JMittt»t 
eoiilbrttiektftailMtien of fiagiimdi rWitt.s.fnr leogiiee>I^H 
f^f tkwai W)^ their echeene ieao ncv aniyiii^xt dbuiitiMk 
beped ^.^perfedieii ! Thmp W9f9 then, at pimoe> )ret ihe9"]i% 
faged in- waA They arernoee at wan ikUithey-notcan^t'H te^ 
11^ tote quesiloii with thito at present itiiaCtbdnAf ?:lKin 
they ohme toi vimt us as vntmiqeor ae.^0ddt^ Eer mk: «ie 
they {M)>ably will.— WMl they attenif^t. a eenfaeie ieiJiileeh 
(hey mre'prohebly naequal ; or WiU. they chdaerche eemv fomit 
attd 0ffe^a• ililaiM^/ :wfa1ch w3t haire every reil aAinantege 4q 
1ie evpcMid f roei dontinfcin, ^thowt the: danger of ao^tiiMm^ 



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cnfsul ttterapt, or the incoriTeniencet and basardfl of tbem<Mt 
9tNK;eMf\i1 execatioii ? Will they not offer an aQiance such an 
tibeir good sense Iiat been coitf ent with from America, aiMl 
whieh they ha^e thought worthy of rapporting by a war with' 
Eofiaml? Socfa ati alliance as, from iu liberality, it will be 
Uie interest of the other European powers, at least, by a tadt 
a^uiescence, to support ? An alliance that will not contributa 
more lo th^ weakening of an haughty adversary, and tfie disap- 
pmutment of an insatiable mom^tis^ than to their own ngtl 
power, aggrandizement and glory ? 

And bere^ my countrymen, occurs an awful pause ! What 
Inductmenu bath British policy suffered tcftake root in the 
hearts of Irishmen, to enable them to i^st such necetitty 
and proffered protection? Nontf, my IKends ! Lqyrity, tbo 
ftirest flower that can ornament the bosom of a prince, finds ia 
Inland its happiest soiL Personal attachment to the King of 
Ireland, and his illustrious house, is the cord whioh binds ua 
to our burden, and furnishes to a British peofde th^ occadon 
of loiding us withodt bounds or mercy. Had we as little mU 
tacfament to the House of Hahover as Scotland, or Mandiea- 
ter, we had long since in despair implored the protection of 
odier powers, for so long as the '' Parliament of Great Britain 
can bind ua in all cases whatsoever,** the worst that could hap* 
pen to us would be to change our masters.* The word is not 

• It msy be seeii by Bbdrstone, B. I, p. 100, what an Eiurfish hw. 
rm ^tAtJks the necesmy consequence of sli dependsnce upoo Eo^rland t 
We are bound by ererr law she in her wiadooi or wantonnesB thinks mo- 
par to proscribe. We shall soon, I suppose, be on s footing with tbooe 
riaves of the Romans who were bound to the glebe or soil!— £nft:knd will 
Mnk proper that we should not depart from the Soil, but be transferred 
with it bjr deed, roll, or indenture ! This wiil save us a multitude of dis- 
putes about our property, for we shall then, 4Uie the Roman slaves, be- 
oome perfect tuikos, and cease to be raasosrs. The £n|^l]8h prinU will 
tbco afiord entertainroent to those who can relish it It anj of us are 
wMmg fWrni our stalls or lumber-rooms, we shall be advertised fWr, and 
liwrntrd as */of^ ttrayed^ stolen^ or miilsi^^'^Wtf ahall be taken dam- 
see fMant, (perhaps rider and all !) and if we happen to die of cold and 
buBger, in an.open pmmd, it will be at the suit of the owner 1 O Ir» 
land! Ireland ! Dost thou retaia one spark oC feeling, to make thf op- 
tof tbteacriiae? 

B 



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130 

my own. It is by an English Judge and commentator direct- 
ly applied to the situation of this kingdom and its tubordina- 
tion to England by right of conquest. But has England learn- 
ed nothing from her late experience in America? Will she for 
erer trust to our loyalty alone, and will our King for er^ leave 
«s at the mercy <^ a British Pariiaroent ? As to. the English 
people, the power of God has been displayed to them in, vain. 
They seem to have revived the age of mimclesy and to have left 
the Egyptians at a distance. All that should have ins(Nred 
tl|em with awe, humility and wisdom, seems but to have darit- 
ened their understanding^, and hardened their hearts ! But let 
it be our duty, my counttymen, to consider the crisis, and pro- 
fit of it ! Let Us adore that wonder-working God, who, fai the 
intoxication of our oppressors, has laid the foundation of our 
relief ; and who, in the miscarriages of British tyranny beycmd 
the Atlantic, has taught Irishmen the practicability of their 
owu emancipation from the authority of an usurping English, 
Parliament. 

But fve are nearer to England. I hear my eountrymen It* 
ment it, and often have I lamented it myself ^Yet (indulge 
me, my countiymen, while I explain my paradox !) on that we^ 
ry proximity does the meal of Ireland depend^ 

We are near to England ; but we. are near to assistance al- 
so. The Atlantic rolls not between us and England ; but nei- 
ther does it roll between us and her eoemieaw These leneaiier 
are on the way. Before the wind changes they are here. Oar 
proximity to England is to us, in the present posture of affairs^ 
what the distance of America was, in the beginning of the 
c^ontest, to her. The latter was a barrier against Britain ; the" 
former is a bridge for her foes. In this respect then we are e* 
qual to America. We have however an advantage from our. 
proximity, which she never can derive fWwn her distance. It' 
it a Perpetual Guarantee against the ofpression of any^df- 
'•reated protectof . It is perpetual, btfcaus* H dq^ends not om 



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131 

the policy cir capriot of kings or of nations. It is fixed in the 
Batnre of things. 

America might have been ruined by the treadiery of France^ 
or she may yet fall by Congrefs^ as England has done by a 
Parliament. 

Let Ireland be subject to her own legislation only, and one 
might venture to say she is free for ever. Her situation and 
aise fit her for that moderate degree of strength and power 
which is most likely to be permanent. 

Let these things be weighed, and perhaps that man could 
not be acquitted of presumption who would venture to point 
<mt another spot upon the globe, to which Ireland should now 
wish to be removed. 

From this proximity of England, I would deduce this truth, 
which I wish to be engraven on the heart of every Irishman : 
Enoland is the only power that can either enslave us pah- 
THER, or ki;kp us AS WK ABE. And this is the important mo- 
ment when our own firm constitutional resistance will derive 
additional support from the dread of her enemies, towards 
shaking off the ahackles of an usurping English people. 

But, unless we entertain for each other a mutual and gene* 
ral confidence, unless we lay aside all rancor of prejudice on 
account of distinctions either political or religious, or attempt 
such A relief from those shackles, would be only to solicit con- 
cision. 

There are, however, many instances of states differing very 
much in religion, and yet united in strict civil confederacy and 
union. Scarce six of the cantons of Switzerland are Protes- 
tants, the seven remainin|; are Roman Catholics ; and, what 
ae^ms a little extraordinary, the greater number of the Roman 
Catholic Cantons are democratical, that of the Protestant Can« 
tons aristocratical in their government In the United Pro« 
vinces the majority of the people are either Presbyterians or 
R«man Catholics, and though Presbyterianism is the establish- 



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132 

ed religion^ jet tl^e tolation or connivtnce which dl tecta 
meet with from the goveniinetit» has produced a general hmk 
deration and peace^ and in its natural consequences^ has add- 
ed power, gmdeor and stability tp the state. The state of 
Pennsylvania is equally vaiious in its rdigion. The kws of 
4bis province are more liberal than the spirit of any other pro* 
vinces. They give no preference to any sect. They tolerate 
all sects. All secta ate therefore not only peaceable, but coo* 
tent Most of fbe other states of America, so firm in their a- 
nion agiinst England, are scarcely more opposite than they 
are inveterate in the several prejudices and opinions which 
ibfij carried with them from Europe. In short, fwrni all the 
facts we can coUect, our uniform conclusion must be,— >that 
that nation is most likely to be great, powcrAil and happy, 
which finds political and civil moderation necessary to its very 
being. Where there are no sects or parties, I may venture te 
say, there cannot be sense, science, liberty or commerce. 
Where, ^n^ circums|a|ices internal or e^it^mal, different sects, 
are nearly balanced in power, the laws must be moderate, and 
the spirit of the laws will become the spirit of the people. The 
nation will be in harmony within itself, and that moderation 
and good sense vrhidi will distinguish it in its internal govern- 
ment and policy, must characterise it in its conduct towards •• 
ther nations. 

|t is very sensibly observed by a Roman Catholic Priest, (the 
Rev. Arthur O'Leary) in a late address to those of his ow]| 
persuasion in Ireland, that *' conqueim (and, let me add, tra- 
ders and politicians) are of no religion." The English esta- 
blished Popery in Canada. The Frendi entered into alUanoe 
with Presbyterian^ in North America; and, I daresay, would 
have done thf same if their deity had been the sun or a serpent, 
im onion jor a numkey. The Dutch, it is said, tread upon tbe 
cross at Jipan, and the English make a)Iianees with Mwn and 
with Indians. 



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133 

The French are, perhape, even in rdigiott, as liberal a na« 
tion as aay in Europe. I judge not of them by didr cre^i^ 
confessions, or articles of belief: God forbid that I should 
judge by these alone of the hearts or understandings of any 
people upon eardi, who have public creeds, confessions, or ar* 
tides ! These are not always formed by the wisest or most re* 
ligious people of a nation. The wisest and most religious are 
generally better employed. I judge of the French nation by 
the general conduct' of the people ; and I believe it will be 
owned that they are more liberal to Englishmen, than English-.. 
men>-4ire to them. The absurdity of supposing that 
even conquerors would make violent alterations in private 
property, and Involve themselves in the perplexed diq>utes 
and antiquated claims of families that have suflbred by 
forfeiture, has been well exposed by the reverend divine just 
.mentioned. Were the question indeed between two pretend- 
ers to the crown, the case might be different. He wbo suc- 
ceeded must reinstate some of his adherents, and gratify o- 
then. This must be done at the expenceof the opposite par* 
ty. But a eooqueror who is not able to crush die subdued na- 
tioo at a single effort, will think hims^ ^^'VPT >" preriiKng 
upon the people to remain quiet as he found them. He will 
make no alteration which he can avoid ; he will avoid every 
alteration which can disgust or displease. What then b to be 
expected from even a powerful protector, that ofiers indepen- 
dence to a nation so divided into parties that no one of diera 
haspower to crush the others, supported as they would be, by 
die nation that formerly enslaved themP I say, that in this 
case, we nught expect such a moderation as would overi^rule e- 
very petty distinction or jealousy, and would unite the nation 
by coimuiiiTT OP intbbsst. To make an ahemtion in the 
established religiott, or to deny to oil denominations of PMea* 
Oaat DiiseBtcit that toleration which they et present enjoy. 



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134 

would b^ Ae madnefts ot folly. ThoM we 0pQik of are BO« 
ther fools nor madno/en. 

The Roman Catholics night, with justice indeed, expect a 
,inore complete toleration. But it would require peculiar deli- 
cacy to grant this without offending those ProtestanU who at 
present enjoy but a toleration themselves. The interference of 
Soman Catholic protectors, conscious of the prudence their si* 
tuation required, mist be of the most temperate kind. The al- 
lerations made would be gentle, gradual, and rather the effect 
•f an insensible alteration of opinion and removal of preju- 
«[ice, than an act of force or power in the state. And, from the 
tt>-operation of all these causes^ I am inclined to think there 
, Would joaturall J arise a mildness of government, and abenevo-* 
Jence of toleration which is unknown to the l^ws of any other 
ix>«ntry in Europe, and which enthusiasm itself lias scaro^ 
tUred to think consistent with the littleness of human nature. 

But, i^hatever may be the natural dignity and strength off 
Ireland, ^r whatever advantages she might derive from the 
present posture of affairs, there are some who cannot readily 
j[i7e up their attachment to the people of England, ^ 
think themselves justified in resisting them in their present 
^te of mlrfbitiine, while there are others who yet dread her 
power^ and tremble at her name. To the former I shall speali 
more particularly hereafter; and hope to show, that we are DOt^ 
bound by any ties of duty, gratitude, or houor^ to rfmain iQ 
fiubjectipn to the parliiiment of England* 

At pteseoiit I would address myself to Ae latten*^Th4t tb« 
power of England ie not yet an ioii^iiiation'I readily will owv, 
.Great even yet is the power of England, and grea^ is the xoft^ 
pxorj of hergliry t h^t her glory Utes but in oiemory, ai^d th^ 
ainews of her power vt withered. Exhapsted an^ foiled bj 
America, wh^ro, in the hour of her insplence^ i^ ^r n at gd i 
with #iwM»JP^ that wohM biiTii Mibbpd vjetory pf iu )ioiior. 



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but iu9 cohered defeat with aggravated disgracie, retomin^ 
reason can suggest but one consolation for her ibllj ;— -that 
«omethh)g yet remaim for madneBS to squander, that there ic 
yet a remnant which penury may save. The avbitress of eta^. 
pires may yet ezidt among nations 1 the ptoonesi of nation^ 
may yet be a housewife ! 

There was a time when the World iiii the' fiottiati EttipiH^ 
were sjmonimous terms. I'beHfUraa a tkxi6 to<> iHien the rerf 
name of Rome kept the Provinces In awe, though %hit could 
jcarce have defended hdr walls. Eti'^asid has fUleii by h«f 
own weight, which she wanted wisdom to Manc0. ThiMt9\ 
days are past in which her hMory went hand in' hand with Uh' 
mance. France has struck terror into her cottquerors, and. 
has diakeA the throne of her king. The Englifth' channel hiif 
become a term of mockery. It has seen the tavy of Enghmd 
in its flight! The navy of England has left her coasU td Ul 
insulted ! That the navy of England was able to secuit^ the 
protectiim of a Port, has, to a sovereign of England, b<lcome« 
Iheme of -congratulation 1 

While England thus protects hersieif, need I ask what pvoK. 
lection she is likely to afford to Ireland? If we remain by 
her bad policy in our present empoverished state, can At pro^'. 
teot ua from the arms or insults of her enemies ^ 

Have we not vaen in arms already ? Men whom Engkuut^ 
and the slaves of England, would long ere tins have dtsannedi 
had they dared to do so! Men whose spirit they now affect ti^ 
approve, because they find their approbation is indifferent to 
them ! Men whose spirit must obtain a momentary protection^ 
and to whom a very little time will render protection unne^ 
^iessary ! Men who may yet teach England, that the soil of 
tliair own country benumbs not their courage ; that it is not 
«n the plains of Flanders or America alone that nusg^KR can 

CONQUBfll! 

The anl^tct, my cog&trjtom, haa risen opon tte. Thkn 



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83« 

(I hope jou will think unavoidablj) been led into some de« 
tails. My indignatian^ upon other occasions, I have found it 
difficult to repress. You will consider the design, and pardon 
^j involuntary failure in the execution. But^ before I take 
my leave for the present, allow me to ask one short question : 
Shall we trust to other nations for a temporary protection, 
which (judging from human nature, and their particular line 
of conduct) I aver it to be e^pally then* interest and their in« 
dtnalioB to give, and the bounds of which, as I have endea- 
Toured to ptove, they cannot exceed ; or, shall we Jepend to 
eternity on the generosity of a nation who has shown herself 
^$ incapable of gener o s ity as of justice, and whose folly has 
diaabled her firom performing the duties of either ?— She thun- 
ders forth the mandates of her omnipotencs; but, is her pro- 
vidence 80 particular, so watchful, so active, and so benevolent, 
that we should leave to her more than the God of Nature de- 
mands for himself,— that we should leave agency to her, and 
address her but in prayer ? Is the night of religious supersti- 
tion passed away, and must that of political id<Jatry usurp the 
rightful vicissitude of day ? Our night of both has been suffi- 
ciently long ? But the sun of England, in whose meridian 
beams our feebler light was lost, is now set, — perhaps, for e- 
ver: and the Heq>erian star of America, which set with En- 
gland, for a time, is now risen, a Lucifer to light us into day. 
It haa moved, till it is rertioal in glory, and points to oum ro- 

lilTICAl. aaLVATIOll ! 




LETTER JHIED. 

YOU have beard, my countrymen, the speech of the Minis- 
ter! You have heard it, and I hope it has sunk deep mto 
your hearts, and added fervor to that loyalty which is now (be 
only cement of the empire, and which the consistency of mi- 
Bietcri has therefore labored to destroij^,!. 



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1«7 

You must also b^fbrerthls have been acqiuDnted with two 
p<)Utical phenomena which this 4^6 has firoduced : •ome of our 
Irish cofnroon-law Judges detect ao vouch all English inporta* 
tions, tl^t they will not, on a constitutional qvtetdon, admit a 
single constructfon that is liberal ! But there is a second to 
-mhith the first is as nothing. A Ckaneellar of Ireland^ an En- 
glishman, entertains such a regard to the Irish laws, (in their 
present state ef purity) that he will not venture even to jndge 
of them by equity and good ccmacience ! Nay 1 where his so* 
vereign has been unguarded in approving of exertions not the 
most constitutional, he will correct his Sovereign though 
speaking from the throne I 

Lest, however, so rare an instance of int^prity should be o& 
fensive to the Minister, I would beg leave to oflTer for it a very 
simple apology. His Lordship is keeper of the King's Irish 
conscience. He knows the heart of his gracidus master, and 
that, if he erred, it was but in words ! 

:But to return to the speech, (fVom which it may be doubted 
if I have really digressed) I could wish, my countryoaen^ that, 
by connecting those parts of it whidi are, accidentally, 
thrown at the greatest possible^ distance, y«Hi would collect its 
banning and end, its sum and spirit For there you will see 
that the trade and commeroa of this kingdom are objeets too 
' great and important* for an Irish parliament to deliberate on, 
till the genecal tranquiltity is restored, and England can aa- 
sist her, in the deliberation, by her parliament and army ! Bat 
you will see, at the same time, that it would be very proper 
to give serious attention to the Protestant Charter Schools and 
the Linen Mannfacture; the negulation of these being wise, 
necessary, and above all, domestic i-^^hey relate not, it is ac- 
knowledged, to your dearest interests, but, to compensate fur 
this defect, tliey * will not impede year efiorts,' (as an attenti- 
on to ' great and important objecU' naightdo), by caUing down 
npon your heads thtkiiijiiisd ananipatence of England* 



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168 

Sucht my oountrjmen, is the manow of this dabonite and 
truly miniaterlalproduoUonf I should bsve psssed it over, 
as I would do all productioas that are intended to have as little 
meaning as po8sible»^ lest the oscaning they have should be dis« 
coveoed to be a bad one But amidst its labored inconsistent, 
and in the conduct of its oftcial supportsvsy there appears so 
much of Ae genuine spirit of English tyranny,, of a tysanny 
- Aat relents not at our leyahy or our poverty, and pa3r8 a mea-* 
aured deieience to our spirit, that I thought I could not chnse 
a more proper introduotion to my proposed letter on the inde- 
pendence of Ireland. 

A sensible, and, I believe, a very honest member ot the En« 
glish Parliament, (Sir Cecil Wray) after giving a description 
of our manners and situation, concludes with telling us, that 
^ he has little hopes of our ruin being prevented.** 

A late most able and spirited writer observes,, that ** the 
constitution is now reduced to a state in which no i*oblic bc* 
K9FIT can be obtained but by the collective body of the peo* 
pk." If thb cannot be doubted, the question is only con* 
ceming the mode and object of the interposition. 

If any public benefit can be obtained^ or if our ruin can be 
prevented, it must, I think, be by one of these three mea- 
sures >— By a union with England ; by associations to consume 
our own mani^actures, and to learn the use of arms ; or by 
throwing ofiT all dependence upon the people and parliament 
of EngUmd, disclaiming aH political connection with the lat- 
ter but through our common Sovereign, and protecting for the 
fttture our separate rights as Irishmen and as men. These ul- 
timately lesolVe themselves ihto^ die fidlbwing question, " Is 
kidependfcnce worth contending for ?* If any thing short of 
independence will prevent our ruin, or obtain such a pubKc 
benefit as should content the oolfective Body of the people,, to 
aim at indepcindence woidd be either villainy or madness. I 
shall therefiwe consider each of these meataies separately, and 



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with perfect freedom. If the kwi allow not sncb fVeedom^ 
they nrast be aensSble of their omh weakness, and we should 
be eqnallj so. To tolerate sadi laws is to solicit their fkrther 
cormption. If» in Ireland, and in the opinion of Irishmen, 
it is become treason to our Sovereign, to add to his dignity bj 
nskiog his People free^ I har^ lost dl idea of loyalty, and as 
I have lived a traitor, a traitor I must die. If it is at present, 
in Ireland, and in the opinion of Irishmen/ a pnUic crime to 
dunk too well of one's country, it will soon be scarcely poesi« 
ble to commit a crime in this country. Irriand wiU soon have 
neither government nor mai ! 

The kte Mr. Hume, in one of his political assays, I think, 
has said of Ireland, that '< it is an enskved nadte, the indt« 
viduak of wfaidi are free." If the individuals of a nation are 
ftce nnder the government, they must be very unreasonable 
individuals if they are not content; for the government is mn 
Udng lo them but as it procures them this fteedom. But I 
will not scraps to affirm, that the observation is a oenlradio- 
tion in terms, and one of those contradictions, which are but 
too apt to mislead the inattentive^ and to be abused by the de* 
flgniog. The individuals of Ireland compose the nation of 
Ifdaod. The nation is enslaved ; yet the individuals that 
compose it, are perfectly free ! 

A body is composed of parts or particles; the whole has a 
certain quality (of slavery) yet not a single particle of that bo* 
dy has a portion of that quality ! This seems mightily philo* 
Sophie; and yet Hume was a materialist I I do net think, 
however, that he beUeved in an infallible church composed of 
Millie individuals 1 That IrelHid is enslaved, few who know 
its sitoation can doubt; but to those who do, the course of the 
subject will furnish proofii but too inconte8table.«»Her people 
dien, as individuals, cannot be free. 

As to the English constitution itself, (that boasted model of 
perfeetion'and IncomipttiMliQFJ) its ttodem history will, to 



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140 

to^mi pedpte, I bdieTe, Appear strictare sufficient.'-^If perfect, 
it could not have been oorrupteiL If it did not admit aud-ad- 
ministration, it coald not have been ao ill-administered. 
. The prophecy of Montesquieu is already fu)(Uled, The le^. 
g(sltftive power of England is became more corrupt than the> 
executive. Through that corruption the executive conHnandft 
the legislative, and in effect they are one ;— this is nearly the? 
destruction of despotism ! yet I allow that even forms are 
sometimes material^->The Grand Seignior may tnke off the 
head of his stfbjeet-— '' but he cannot force him to drink. 
wine !" Could he do every thing, his power would be intder 
nd^le^ An* English King cannot tax his sulijects withknit the 
. coment of their .representatives, who roust at the same \\nm 
tax themselves, nor can he take away the IHb of a single indi* 
vidual unless convicted by his Peers* But he can induce tlm 
Representative to untie the purse of tire nutton, aiid.he may 
misheathe the sword of war, which may involve the half of 
his subjects in ruhi, and expose the other half to the invading 
sward of the enemy. 

When Sir William Blackstone, afler a formidable enumeni- 
tion of the real powers of the King, through inffuence, the 
standing army, and the perpetual revenue, tells his c6untry« 
men, almost in so many words,^ that their chief dependence is 
on the personal character of their King. It is not entirely m 
compliment paid by the courtier; it is a truth extorted ftonk 
the lawyer, and which the courtier would palliate. 

if such be the gdvemmentof England, what must we say of 
that of Ireland?— Montesquieu doubts whether a slave be capA- 
blecf a single virtue. What then most be the virtue of a nation 
that is enslaved } Honor may support the individual,*bat the 
abjection of a nation k infamy indeed ! When this afc^ectioo 
is once establbhed, a virtuous, independent and spirttod indi^ 
fidual is, if I iday be allowed the expression, one of the 
miradci of^natuft^^l Cmms^n in.a dependent nati«i. tribe 



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▼erf malignity of oorrupttQu. la pam9g through « miUtitudcw, 
and.througfi the senwnU of servants^ inttrad of being filleredx 
it acquires ; successive contamiiiation. 

In this Ungjdom- the pover of chusing HepreseDtatives. iik 
Parliament^ the only public and constitutional ezartion oC 
Itbertj in which thepeople^re allowed to bear a part, is uoder 
EogVsh govermnenty reduced it this: — ^It is I'the liberty of 
duising the men wha shall betray U8> or act as mourners, to 
the ceremony. It is a gloomy picture^ ray coantrymcB, if that 
can be called a, picture which is almost all a shade. In draw- 
ing, it I have felt as variously as the man who retnM^ the, 
ehiuN^cter of a friend of whom the world thought, ineanly^ 
be c aus e , misfortune, that expo.^ed his vices, casta shade ovei; 
his virtues* The days of your misfortunes^ my oo.untrynien, 
have- been outnumbered by the insults yoo have suffered ! 

But a chai^ is at haoii ! '' Everv man wi]l. bring ypv a 
a piece of money, and every one an ear-ring of goId«-*Ypur 
latter end will be more blessed than your beginning !" 

But how may those things be ? By a Union-»4>y Associ« 
ations— or by independence ? I feel the whole weight of the^ 
sufajeet, and it is the censcipusness that I am so far not on- 
wae^y of it, that urges me to undettake a question, upder 
which I should otherwise despair. 

The author of the letter to the people of Ireland, which I 
lately mentioned, has on the subject of a Union thrown into % 
¥pry few pages what might furnbh an ordinary writer with 
ssaMr 6r a volume ; a few of them I shall repeat^ siqce il. is. 
il^leult to add to them. I may, perhaps, endeavour to iUus- 
teste some .of them> and to this purpose I hope the ebservationi^ 
jmt med^ imlV^ooiewhat contribttte«-**« 

The irsi kadtng and cfrnprehensive ob ser v jM o m tipon » 
wiii«p#.o9e indeed that makes all others appear unnecessary, 
is thsU by H we loae our own l^giplatiyr. aasemUy* and. take 
tbtmdieOr mem^^ deftsoying ^ onlyr^pe Hm, dieP msi 



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142 

naiB of the empire. * Already, God knows, there is little 
occeiion to add to the oomiption of the Britidi Parliament! 
Tet what mast we expect if we pour into it such another 
^ uniform and potent body of oorruption*' as has flowed from 
Scotch Representatives! 

Wa have now some dender ties upon the fears^ at leasts of 
otir Parliament. We should then have none. Our present 
Absentees, ^raen as dependent on the Minister, as diejr are 
independent of the people/ are not likelj to be more inoor^ 
mplible than the deputies of Scotland. '' Upon die ruins of 
(what remains to us of) national consequence and pobKe 
sentiment, we should have a few individuals, insignificant in 
England, engrossing the powers of Il^land, jobbing awaj 
her interest, never residing with her people, and, of course, 
ignorant of her condition, and unawed by her r^ntment."* 

That no representation could essentially serve Ireland, may 
be collected IVom Ais; diat her number of deputies bang ne« 
cessarily small, in proportion to those of England, even if not 
eorrupted, they would be overpowered in every question be- 
tween the two nations. 

The tyranny which England now indulges against Ireland, 
contrary to every prindple of the constitution, Ae would then 
display in apparent conformity to it Even a union could not 
make her fec^ for Ireland as she does for her own most insigni* 
ficant village. 

We are by nature her rival, and, in some respects, I may 
even say, her superior. Our quota, or propordon, of taxes 
must be fixed. Can any man then be so bigoted to the i^fea 
diat political generosity existi, and exists in Enghmd, as to 
suppose she would encourage her rival much beydnd whs* 
would enable her to pay that quota of taxes^ But, allowing 
England to be generous to us, at present, must she not toon 
hate us widi as much cordiality, and as much jusdce, as she 
Aow does ScoClandf TheeonAictortbeBatiittaiidlierftfyt- 



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143 

smtativet would justifj it.— Natioos will not rHmm good ftr 
eTiIy however usual that may be with iodividnala ! In this ai« 
tuition^ is there a noble scheme in agitation for the improre- 
ment of manufactures, the opening of communications be« 
tween different parts of this kingdom^ the convenience or es« 
tension of trade-— is an island canal to be cut, a oollitry to be 
promoted, a.quay, a mole, or dock to be built— >is it wished ti^ 
improve or put in a state of defiuice apy of those harbors whidi 
open to the world, and have capacity to receive it,— 4mmedi« 
ately a host of petitions are opposed,, or the Minister is threat* 
ened with an insurrection, perhi^ raised by himsel£ The 
scheme drops ; or it is procured by means the most disgrace* 
f«l or most ruinous. Jobbing is seldom gratuitous* Compli* 
ments must be returned. The empire suffers. They waSat 
who receive justice as a £svor. At any rate, their spirit is de« 
strqyed, for they fe^ their dependence and their hnpotence.. 

When to this consideration, so sufficient in itself we add » 
nmnber of others, and none of them inconsiderable, I think 
there are few who will see cause for a moment's hesitation. 

Such are the incumbrances England would lay upon our ia« 
fimt commerce, a burthen supposed too heavy for the maturity 
of hers > such too is the vast increase of absentee interest in 
ber deputies to England, and their connexions ; in our nobili- 
ty, and all others possessed c^ large hmded property ; in the 
Yotariea of pleasure, who now ^nd part of the year in Dub* 
Hn, but would then follow the legislature andtheddtyto 
London ; while our manufacturers must be so far unemployed, 
ai^culture, so intimately connected with manufhcturers, must 
suffer ;^ the tenantry must groan under rack renta and agentsr 
Sach, in consequence of the proceeding, veould be the ruin of 
I>mbU9h without any very essential or comparative advantage 
k> th« other porta of thiskingdom, alt of whidi would be pro* 
portionally deserted, imemployed, or injured— sudi as remit* 
ting vf the revenues to England, with the sopemomerary ex« 



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144 

pencH, mtking a preat part of revenue ; with a land-tax ih 
Entirely Hew one, ftnd inseparable from an anion, and all the 
* (Mher indefinite and ruinous payments ; so that Ireland would 
*1ieac6untry consisting of merchants, lawyers, revenue officers 
mud peasants, annually remtttiilg to England the produce 6f 
Mde, land axid revenue. 

^e come now to consider the eflTects of AsseciAtioNs ; and 
'bete, though I ifaould allow die writer so often quoted, thatdl 
"die advantages he expects, or all the nation has a right tode- 
inanld, would accrue from them, if rigidly aclher^ to, }et I 
'Ctfnnot help thinking that the Associations themsdves will 
' ihortly melt away, unless they have a fiirther object than 
merely the freedom of trade, or what is generally caUed 
''^fhe -defence of our island" I nieftn not to depreciate Asso- 
ciations. They were a " measure of necessity," and they arc 
How as necessary as ever. I meaa not to depreciate the merit 
of those friends to their country, whose generous indignation 
and zeal first convinced her of their necessity. If there it a 
spirit now in Ireland, and if that spirit is likely to continue; 
if Ireland is not sunk beneath hope, it is due, under Heaven, 
to the spirit and abilities of those who first roused her froitk 
Uat sleep which seemed as the sleep of death. But I still 
must think that Associations are but a first step which should 
lead to the final one ; or, to express myself more clearly, that 
the object hitherto proposed by them being insufficient, tliat is, 
not aiming at the root of the disease, they will not only be 
' unequal to its cure, but perhaps occasion a relapse that may be 
Inveterate or mortal. 

/' Firmness alone can save vs." For the opinion England 
entertains of our firmness, consult the Speech of the Minister. 
Is it not temporising and equivocal in every sentence ? t)oei 
it not applaud and condemn, flatter and insult us in a breath ? 
Look to the government of England ! Look to her govern- 
ment over OS ! Ix>ok to our people suffering under both their ; 



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145 

ihcn uSi me who can, that while thoe eutt oor anodttiooft 
can be lasting. 

The same radical fault in oor present consHtotioii^ whidi 
rendered Associations necessary* will* while it continnes* de* 
ieat them. They will be sapped as the constitution was de- 
stroyed. The same power which renders abortive all barely 
■^ioCemal resolutiops of individuals^" will gradually under- 
mine our ''written covenants;" and I do not think a single 
aigument can be used to prove the necessity of these last* that 
will not demonstrate that even they will not bind, if the pow« 
er of the English Parliament over this country shall continue. 

In all the Assodations the^ is a conditioD either cip wses d 
or necessarily implied. We associate* during the time that 
England shall continue her unjust* illiberal* and impolitic re* 
strictions, &c Were it otherwise* we should but imitate the 
eonduct we condemn. 

But who shall determine when England has ceased to be «n« 
juaS* &c.? When she has taken off a sufficient number of 
those restrictions ? When the people of Ireland ought to bo 
content for the present, and should accept her promise* for the 
future ? Who is to determine all these points ? Every indivi- 
dual for himself. Are the subscribers bound expressly to wait 
the decision and concdrrence of the majori^ f I believe there 
is no instance of it, and if there were* it would be nugatory. 
In all voluntary associations, where there is not a power esta« 
bliabed to keep men to them, (which power, though formed 
■poQ the freest principles, roost, to be effectual, be in a de- 
gree arbitrary), the Associators will judge how far the mino- 
rity itself, whom they bound themselves to obey, adhered to 
the primitive intention of the Association, or what they will 
call the spirit of the constitution. This spirit ^ill be what 
crery individual conceived it to be at first, conceives it now 
to be, on maturer reflection, or chuses to conceive it* (or mo- 
U^€$ Juiown to himself. Some may for a while be detained ia 



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i4i 

tht 'iriuA ' by {ittlo{at6B, by dntanlr, or irant of ^lint ; but 
when once a few break. through the nilea, and gi?e thdr rea4 
sons with plauiibllity and bc^dneit, eapecialfy if the mnitw 
tude feel any inconveniMce fWxn their virtue, or tfaote whd 
ckraw off) gain any advantage by tbeir 60eeiaien,-^-tfie writtett 
cbvenarit of all degencntte* hito tbe intenuiT reacititSon of eacfi 
indi vidukl. How fWcible that is We liav^ ' lizard powerfbHy 
explained ! Kings #h6 tnigted Coo ftr to an o«th df afl^i 
anoe« in which the condition perhaps Wai notetpresaed, but iii 
of necessity implied, have (bond that they could do wnnig, 
and their subjects redress it It the people take hot the hinV 
tlie wrong that is done they may be unable to redress. 

The two ways by which we can enforce the covenant, wilT, 
I think, scarcely bear a close examination. We may ^ agree 
never to vote for, but ever against such persons as refuse t& 
sign.'* But when those who sign, may have plausible reasons 
for drawing off, and few can judge of their sincerity; and 
when those who are to judge are little more likdy to be sincere 
t>)an the men whose conduct diey examined, and perhaps have 
imitated, what becomes of ''the people*^B balance in the (pre* 
sent) constitution ;"* or where, especially in the beginning of 
the peridd, is the great benefit of the Octennial Bill ? Are we 
not again and again betrayed, and do we not again and 
again return our betrayers? None waiit thetr sufficient reasons 
for their conduct, whatever it is ; nor do any want people t» 
whom their reasons are sufficient. Where the Govi^nmbnt 
is corrupt^ all are too much alike. 

The second method of enforcing the ceven'aiit will turn out 
as ineffectual. ^ We may publish the name* of the draper 
and merc^ who refuses the covenant, and persists to import,, 
and we may agree never more to deal with him." But drapers 
and mercers are of no country or party. The body of theni « 
witt go with the crowd, and l^ave the custom of tlie virtnoout 
fifw n> the virtuous mercer t a custom very edifying and t^ ^ 



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147 

profitable 0h9lb parties! Suppose, ^ofrevf^, xrhat ia not jre- 
^profaaWt, t)iatwe,abaUiiQtbeibtleredoylofour Asaofrif* 
$fmm,l3Y-9oam. ,9iltry,oofiai4mtiQii.; auppo^ that ^ur Maoda^ 
ti^Mi will aiipd tiie rifook of avtharitj^ aod the un^enntninjir 
ff Jnflnafiffff. W91 Englancl|prant ua the advanta^ of an U- 
WMLjmhaawe anbiqpi talhpbu'^bn'*^ Wf *^11 probably. 
vodte^embitUiacy ; (lor berobflioiieyini^ be axdted !) cor- 
diaUtjr between die natioiia viU be |;iiiduaUy diaaitiished; 9111: 
^wanpt.gpvcrninfiyit cfiafr bie rendeced^U jtrone bydbatmc- 
ti9n^ no adMiac-bmog on foot to improve it; t^e na$ioa, un- 
ceataio of ita iaterea^ and uiMtes^y Jn ifM wisjbiea* viU be ex- 
paaed. to it^ enemiea 4A bonus an4 abroad; aod if yr'ifi eithe^ 
be teased intowufupn, attacked with advantage by foreigyi 
aoMgoifij oT'driveo, at a more unfavorable timej into an at* 
tmpt «t ipodcipe^deDce. If it ^appears then, that .of the only 
three meana by wtvidi . tl\e people can interpose^ to prevent 
t^ir ruin^ 4 union wpuld be almoat in every view ineligi^le^ 
ai^ thai the moatlaatipg Ajsapciations, while the power of tbf 
Eogliab Parliaoiep) over tbia country shall continue, will be far 
$rg» a^ori^ing us efbctual 4nd coqiplete relief ; Fe.are ^ven 
ppofi ^odepepd^ce^ aa < a ineasure pf necessity/. The alter- 
Hate is Ic^^f^lati^e 4 Nz>apjcNi>Ej«^c pr a^i n. 

I might. here,, ^loy countrynpien^^ dose the arguniopt. It i^ 
almdy pomplete^ If we can ti»ce all (ov^t mif fortut^ea, the de-^ 
ftruetMaof o^rliber^ ap^ the^ilui^ of every jp^bli^ ^c(ii^e^ 
ta the l^.eR of Ejngland and our ^jp^ortuoate conueptipp wiU) 
bar, we mastl^w^i' bpr po^er and alquce h^r cooq^oo^ 
iMifive (vr cao,«ji^)^be free or liappy. 

:Stifl^V^«iY^y /t,^W aqriyil^ may reopaio witli ^ome, ioid 
IP eonpiftate a ft^v of ^e.adfanti^g^ «f l^islotive indepen^ 
dcpee 1^11 not only sfiow vtSfO^A mpriiisk va)i^» bjat evince 
el^jg^er iU sifp<|cioijty tp aU that qin proqeed fVom the JTiosI; 
plaosiUe. Union, and all hitherto propoaed froai the moet ef- 
^l(U^ {saociatioo. ^ ^. 



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148 

I begin with the first and most comprelhenslve advantage; 
that« in effect, which will give rise to every other. Ins^d of 
being alh'ed, or imeparably united to the fntdretti oT'ftti dd 
empire, tottering under a decay of tfliture, hurried on fff fc«?r 
vices, we should enjoy in our own renewed constitution, all 
the soundness, virtue and vigour of youth. ' That worst of all 
eorruptions, introduced by the wont of all tynmnies, tint of 
the corrupt Parliament of a superior and degenerate nation, 
would be removed. The interest df the go ve rn o rs aAd of the 
people, now so opposite, would be recoocfled. We shonU be 
our own governors, for the nation would be A^ to pursue her 
own interest under her sovereign, who would be more ftee to 
indulge her. Public spirit would shake off die despAr of cen- 
turies. Public 'virtue would have an object, tod private vir- 
tue, the virtue of the people, would at once be the spring, the 
effect, and the cement of the Government 

I have endeavoured to show, that' our peculiar situation, be- 
Tng divided internally by difference of religion, and being e- 
qually near to oppression and protection, must naturally pro- 
duce a government of the very mildest ferro, and whose first 
and ruling principle must be toleration. How far this would 
contribute to the happiness, greatness and stability of the sUts^ 
as it would afford an asylum and enoouragement to arts, f n« 
dustry and virtue, let the former errors of France, the pru^ 
dence and industry of Holland, and the great and amiable 
virtues of Pennsylvania, unfold and enforce unto the minda of 
all who have hearU to give fair play to their understandings ! 

A consequence of osr legislative independence, and of the 
youth, wisdom and moderation of our government. Would be 
our being unconoemed in the wars of any other nation, iVonv 
which we reap much danger and loss, but no possible prafit» 
no possible honor: and we shoold be ndther tempted nor ixL* 
dbed to enter into aHy ourselves. 

In every unhappy necessitj dT that kiqd, wt ihonld i 



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149 

Mnrivw ; wt tliduld be prepared lo da to both bf landaod 
by tea, iofltead <^ being left exposed and defenceless by tbosa 
«riN»h«d bfos^ m into danger, and being abl^i^d 1o ao» 
knciwladge as a fiMTor the almstff onr superkn*. 

W« sboQid have a ftee and nniversal trade, ondhecfked bj 
ihe raiitakan Jtalaosjr, or real rivalrj, of England. All parti 
oi the naliab wooM be ecpially attended to by al^islatm« 
thatlHMian equal hitAett in all part% and tbat wooM be na- 
tife, resident, oncortaptod, and unfettered. It is here to be re- 
marked, tfaarftiMQ the Terynatureof trade, whichr is an es* 
dmnge of thoeiiperflaities of one nation for the wants af aftOd 
tiler, England is the last conntry on earth with whom Ireland 
can tsade to advantage, ''^and Ireland is the last country .upon 
«ath whose trade akme can be an object to England. Tha 
aptrit of trade is a spiivt of equality. It is equally inconaie* 
tent with a spirit of monopoly or rerenae. Now, the prodaoe 
af England and Ireland is the same. There can be na tradf 
between the nations that does not «ise from the inftrion^ of 
indastry or skill in one of them, and in trading with other na^ 
aions diey mn iivris. The inferior natiosi must th^ be op^ 
pressed in exact proportion to her comparative advantsgaa. 
Henee we may account for the freedom iuf Ireland under £»• 
gUidi government before trade was Understood, and the labas(» 
ad ^MourageaieAt which her industry has invariably received 
ainee its progress in Europe. 

Trade assumedvi new foce in-Enrope, itan the discovery of 
Ibepaisage to the East Indica bytheCapeof Good HqM^ 
His happened in the reign of Henry VII. and in his re^ 
tlnrottgh Ae influence of Ma viceroy. Sir Edward Poyntng^ 
IrefaBidgavettp her indepeadMoa by giving up the propoaiiv 
•rUiws, whidi, an every free govemiBeot, bdoogs totfiapeo* 
yla. They *i^feo give up one important right will see odiers a- 
aprped. IMand then submitted to the tranuaels of Englan^^ 
^n4i-ai«ri|t(AtM««l^ected, aha haa-nat only worn tbenavar 



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150 

£n^ MaiMffhrne hem wyikriy ttid imc(»>itifait|oarilf ^ 



> llfcjiilliM of S^Iand^iubd mhett htr ibibBrml < 
«0d. Her injustioewiUeiMl but with her fmifer. - ' ^- : 
^ Wrwtttfccin J e ti e itteii ceoflrrfkBd^ wUck wOI iJM iii^)b- 
Jet^'Mipe/aa ^diorvrts, iadbttry «nd i^m^, wtAM 
MK ^o M j l ec iM i i the feetidtnee ^ our freafc piep, ^boiMFiIl^iid 
iWt N rffc n w i %o<faagreaabte and Beeeenry to Ihiir iiMemi^ 
hwt^'thiiH aeqifireUmiiistiie of wJUdi we am not harely 4^ 
fi»t>v«d/ hot which hdghieitt the ionleiiee and ineidtrof -fmr 
lyiiMiti. fiiiglandfK>w ahines wtU light faoCTeWedi^ 
iatallitkr • • 

r' <<f.T|H*eis>fl[ ^iA in taan aa well aa an Mnderataodiiif T 
Bfaey atri^fndly laapfed hy 4be Abw^htfi itad hewh^Wifi- 
ftividaapint. to degenerate, aa> mucfc aa if hea)|ewedthi»W»» 
demanding to 4)^ comqited^ dishMiafa hiaCoMor by:bia ^tfh 
ywttghiaJinage. 

V Bait <i>e AkUgfatyatafloped feUf jipailtheierahfiad^^r WfiA- 
^an coward uponihe heart of ao fafiahananf la Jbr an «aa, Ibut 
ll^ Abldkl ciendi aiii4er every buedexi? 4t m abwie, lh«t4^ 
i H HMitd <>e ioaemifali? to kiaidt? Aae fingKabown godl, ihal W(K 
fAeuld worAip tiiem^ Shines tfaeve ag^oty rowid Aewi 4t»» 
ftre wbiilh the fiM»4)f -on IririBnali ah««M beUd ? 

-Seidoni, «ay cottntrymen, {and ne#er in tiMeeat of oiw 4f^ 
very) have we |inet them upon .eqoalleniiaj bud when ww 
Wij jrawwtTtfe haiW nel faamr dia g ^ a oa d ! 0«r whiffy «x* 
ilaa, hriotitetDhcrpeUey* haaie l^ropod thate there ia^a^i^r!^ 
jwaribucian, of whidi the wiMt «fea)«rawjBir. Tjief Jb«y^ 
yuikri -thai ithooa aaayaveii^ge their .coiinWy whoin th^pmi^ 
ipry^lffoiiraied, fWwhMI tb^ffllicOf ^^rf* iia tjm^ ^ DPR- 
daM it nud^a loimpipoffft. 

L ifidie^tbelnaelatefAMacfQeiitfWerio tf)^ F^ewf^ 

jbdtlhaC they eeataiia Mrindaatty^fby the umv^liDtt ef thfir 
yadiiipwtt^ And twimm Jft4l 



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i 



J5I 

tinMiDveitoiiie«aK!sttaiiit8? Whence is it duittli^d^efema 
*• int6 an iaequiuble excbMigecir a nmnafiKfture i» wbidi^^ 
exceBed, for one of which upe were tetaOy ifpoiauit; «d4 
when we toquited mxprnotAy m the new one^. reUbed.vttoT 
the peer pAiduoe of that inequiitebleibai^n 

Wbettce le it thai they tfaeught duvf tmit suSht ftoAeoi 
freedooi^ and robbed* us of iiA«ira'<mMi<P4r theoovnen^fift 
<tf ikaluie, confirmed to ua by 0119 King?' Wbeneeosittbat 
tt^ ioppert tfaeitf imtifationS' by ^vMiting every |Rineiple*tf 
Ibe ^onatilttlien^ tiyhigns^twieeier'theMme.ciflSsttOi^ aiidtdM 
priTing OS of triid «' by our oountry «id eitrpeers?^ Whenbe 
ie it thet ibeythmkoaritidwlfy cbk thrvaenndev«vMy re# 
attahtt^ and thgt they net only load na. with poariana to Ihaw 
biielings^ but hand us over ia Uie 'plunder e£ thei^'needp 
txiedai and^ei^iioabie odTenturer* ? Whon> all thete qiMtiont 
areantfwered, I wiliibkaQether.^^By what lie of 0M|itM4i 
«r hoDor^ are we bonnd teeemainiaulqeel. tetbe peopW^ 
England ^ 

Yet/my conncrymen^ weowe themaUthegeatitwle whieh 
injutkfl and inaelte ean bwpire ! They know 9ur forces ami 
iiteir art hae been esdiaoited to nuike us^ appear conlmpliUf 
bodi toothers and to oorselvee. 

Are WW not dironieled in all English « Abstiactft of the timet/ 
na bhmder^ and blockheads f Do weerer appear upon their 
elage but to divert dieir mightineasa^ by absurdity, and to 
ficUe'their hot vanity by sdf^eemplaeent comparison } Havn 
wecoorage? It is the courage of a bmte. Sense? Itiathe 
^ghdy half-cansidering sense of a madman, denerosity or 
AeKng? They ar^ Mntinctured or nnrestraioed by a single 
imncfple of morality. 

The OnUkmm, that charter windi marks the man^ and 
whidi is ftattped with die uniform and universal carrency jof 
ages and of nations ■ that-chamoter haa never yet been atttit 
bated to an Irishman ! Meannesa submita tatbe impntaticfit.' 



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152 

Oood-bamdr keeps up the jest Iti euthoTt, however, ere 
lielC-dispeted to beliere it (they have too much reaaon in our 
poTcity of qpjrit !) and tbe edquette of the atag^ and pf je* 
rokrity it as establitfaedaDd as absolute as the court of a Vioe» 
roy. Those who have not dignity at home must expect con- 
tenupt abroad. Ye who have travelled, sigr, which of you bad 
the coun^ to announce yourselves as Irishmen ! 

But, we need not be surprised at the insults received by 
ttose whose passiveness seems to court them. Other nations 
meet the same fkU troon English justice and generosity. They 
allow not gallantly to a foe; and for rttia/ they have scarce in 
their language another name than that of naiural enemy* Let 
«s appeal to the same brief chronicle— 4he stage of each conn* 
try. We shall there see, that if the French sometimes throw 
Into an English diaracter a few oddities and eccentricities, if 
they teake him eitravagant, or OMtre, in his love of liberty and 
contempt of authorityi they still give him the superior qoali- 
ties that command the admiration of the understanding and 
die enthusiasm of the heart The English never introduce a 
Frenchmanj but to flatter the spleen of their pride, to enter- 
tain their galleries, or to. heighten the brutal prejudices of 
their mob. They ornament his mind with every thing tb^fi b 
ludicrous in vanity, mean in cowardice, and trdckling in ava- 
rice; and on his person and dress they exhaust caricature. 
The French give the English all the firmness, spirit, and dig- 
nity of tlie man. The English confer upon die French all the 
meanness, mischief and mimicry of a monkey. 

If then, my countrymen, we have the feelings of men, and 
will not be insulted as slaves,* if we aim at having a rank, a 
character, a name in the world, let us re-assume them in the 
fkce of the world ! Who are they that shall oppose us? Is it 
our sovereign ? It cannot be ! He knows his interest; he re* 
members that we are loyal ; he remembers that we also are his 
pjBopIe* Is it the people or th^ parh'ament of England ? Tbej 



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155 

dare'not — The prophecies of t&ofte getierous mdiWduals, vho 
cried oat against the excesses of the nation^ will at length 
hare gamed Bom^ credit by their completioD. If they should 
not - b ut I cannot nii&e a supposition that would be absurd 
and nnnatural ! 

ShaB we sacrifice' our own great interests^ the great inter- 
ests of posterity^ the first-born, tha'gifted, of every age, of 
every art, of every science, at the altar of that idol, £ng« 
land? Shall we aim at an unmerited, an unprofitable, a tni- 
nousgetietosity,— or shall we, by taking care of ourselves at 
present, make it possible for us one day to be generous to o* 
tber s e ven to her who never was just to us ? Shall we con- 
tinue the slaves of a sinking nation, and, as such, infected to 
the very heart with her vices, but incapable of her virtues,—- 
or shall we, by one nobler effort, throw off the dead weight 
upon our virtue and happiness, and encourage every seed of 
greatness, which so long has lain unvegetating under a load of 
fotility, or which every wind lias wafted to the soil of our op« 
pressors ? Could we, by joining England in her struggle with 
mirfortune, prolong her hour of liberty and virtue, the world 
might gain by a fHendship which no nation ever yet has exhi- 
bited, and we should be justified. But her fulness of time is 
come. We cannot prevent her sinking. Shall we allow her 
to gr^Mf or in har dying convulsion, and poll us with her to 
Ae bottom ? When her very breath is pestilence, her touch 
is defeCb; siiall w^, with the absurdity of a Turk, refuse to 
diange her Atmosphere !br a purer, and cling to disease and 
tdre u f fup l i onr, as if folly weire virtue, pr^umption piety > We 
stem ikk,' my i^untrymen ! Our eyes are opened, our spirit' 
irHsM^^vnd oar representatives have caught a portion of the 
t§astfp Tfaey no kmgier can be satisfied with 'temporizing 
aqpedMotsf They win strike at the root of the disease; not 
Mnapt^g to'sUn arid' film Uie ulcerous part, will they leave 
E sffll a pr^io4l»e nmkness of corruption I Their' 



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154 

j^p^^imi^ if glpriouif and their {mdence^wilt f b f iO ht 
Jhejyfjll notleaye tb^ PeoRl^ tq consider Aeir own digoitj^ 
||or lay up for iheniselyea the vaio and mortifyin|^ r^^x <^ 
)>eing UL^le to gpyem thoi^ ^hom thej ^MUed ^iril |» 
lead. ' 

Targui^^ ^^PJr .^^^^ ^P fajther af^ broilier of ^ 
^fSt firutvs^ too^ higy ipto bis <^re, and, in Kindness to bfp 
^lofff nsive sipiplici^tj, pr 19 pity to his folly, seized for J^ 
0^, |be landt a^d r^enues of his family. Ignitus was tbm 
s^p^pg jf,st of Jhp Court B<^s, dunogs, doti^n^ ains^ 
t^eijr <jt|4ll pointless jabafls at ^im. If he allowed hifu a retorf» 
]^ fyifj^ g^v# surppf e> l^ut f^pited no suspieioo. It was tht 
];^l)t of ^ fool shql ^y accident He repressed his indig^atioi^ 
ttid ,^d l^is mighty soul lie still :; the time was yet anripe. 
^t \^r}jg^ Incident gjtre the word. The dagg^ of X^ocret^ 
Droclu<^„tli.i|t c^Secty which poetia ftm^ has given to ^ 'f^ 
of Jthuriei. The fool started into a hero !. His smothered in« 
dignjitipQ burst fmrth like a torrent The tynmU bsd seamt 
^me tp be aipii^. T|iey were swept from their sef t^ ; and 
a nation q( slaves became a nation of heroes ! 



«»%'»»<a%»»^%% 



LETTERS aP ORELLANA. 

THE Lettm of OwR^ Rox Q'fTui. p«»p»re4 % fHftiitC 
Ireland for tbe diaousioii a^ tfie great que«t|^ 4/ F(i%> 
ipcDtaiy Befonn<— they struipk at the rootpf Inah Tnffft^tir t;^ 
WkI vpokp la a lai^age to- w}iioh koth Gnepimpa^ a^ 9^ 
pie h«4 been ittaiifera. 7^ cw^tfOifNi af 1791^ «|M.««Ka|ti 
acbierement;. I^ut witl^tjffqnn i| .wHofenoust Oft cpmI»* 
^tioa WM b|it a nam. Tjie Ij^ iEirf^ft^ bawnagu ip^ 
^Jl.tlie apjrit ^ usert;}^ ffff^pf tfa^c ffpd tUA^i)^ 



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155 

ioAt tfieir XSMkoSc ooantrymen full lAsrticipaters in the libeiw 
ty diey oEtahiei. They erected the teiniAe of theiif fireedom 
ib & nasnaw and eonthictad t>Me, 4md it was not tol>e won* 
diered Aift ^M cornipt hreath df the minister should hay^ 
hib4ed it flrool sofltmsy a fbtfndation. Efen the greit FTen^ 
fy Flood, wh& was the mostpoweiftd {Mrfiitaentary debated 
in finrotr of lUform, could never be induced to admit his Ca- 
iieUc coontryiilen intethe botoas of the constittttion.—Thft 
aw mgaeacf was, dliat the common enemy despised a deluded 
people; and At Mbiiler rose on t&e rains tf the Itefor* 



The LMers of OttLLANi, which we are now about t6 
0fe, eofrtnbcited, in an eminent degree, to the iUoroinatioii 
4f tte national mind en Ae question of Reform. They came 
than tlie pen of Doctor DatuNa^-^a name idiicb, as Ed* 
iotxtit Cbffce s^ of another great iasan, makes the country 
^ gaVi^ itlHTth flkistridius in •every other en the gldbe^ , 

Oarum et nbbHesidmea, ^et nmltuiii nostne quoff pirodenit oHu. 

Or. DbAnk All still lives to etqoy the confidence and re- 
ifett of^ the people he has so long kbored fbr; and his po- 
litical woilt^ wiM btf hei^^after'referred to as the true measure* 
of political vittM^— the pmU consiitutiotial theoiy, which, 
AddgA DMveied 4pon tis tlM? Allt SKtelit of iu author^s wishes, 
i<^>€ie ijp t ibly suoeeeds in rcMtaining that Ueentiousness and 
tMtupdda widob U cannot entiMy destroy; 

LCTTEll I. 

' A*<SnORt time Wilt dilidtt^ whedidir thepifopleof I^e- 
hfl»bi?tlllr A»«C malUmlMMAis,' drffaten&AiftM of ufthkitid. 
tmbfaid dtehmri* H nat ^stAlished in a1^ yeStU. lit^. 
ifSMT edll Iwgcff 'Mie tV'^^thiUte wiA pre^sion the chkracter 
^fe-Mftion ; Hktli *>et iuR been seen of IMMd ^9i^Uc; 
mAA^Sbd^iu\kcAmek^y6k^ achBdish 



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caprice^ which jomHmies devi«tefl into rig^ asw^iufima 
(be duraUe lUbility of inanly.prindple. I^ loy^ of ffnuM^ 
mentj a passion oon^oioB to thie savagt and to the oou^tjisfy t^ 
{orca of ijympathy wUcb kindqas so qutddj, and cj^nmiiiii^ 
$atM so rapidly diro^gh the, warm and Ught tezt^ra f»f yontb'^ 
fill minds, a bojidi fimdnesa for Ae semtflanct of wi^r, 4l|« 
applanse of gaping mttltitiide«, the benadictiaoa of the ag^ 
and the flatteries of die hh, die natuial love of! ord^r, d|q 
hope of oommand, and the influence of fiishioq rosy hava 
produced a t|ransient political phaenooaenan^ called^ Volun- 
teers of Irehmd. Indeed, they made a m^hty pretty sbo«r« 
and poor Ireland, whose diief pride btjd htkn the. whitvjhirt 
that covered, and scarcely 'Covered l^ecnakedn^kfdLffdwm 
drous wellin her.redckKthand hfr (oUi lace. Her story ^ .a 
short one. About six yeaiia OjSpow the J^onest gentlewoman »« 
woke from a trancp, drest hersi^f ^j w^iy qf (Mijcin rtgiifjmm 
tals, entered as a volunteer into tbt F4iglish ^»rvice to J^lpp^ 
the place of the, invalids i^ were sent 4o guard our coasta^ 
marched up the Moiis Saeer of DwgmBumt mairt^ ^inv^ 
again, became a strolliag playo*, went to ' enact Brntna iit 
the CajMtol,' toUUy Ibrgqt her purl, threw of her iwariOce/it- 
tire, and sunk down again— a wreftehed woman. 

Letnof this nation yet dare to d^itaslf patriotic I tbeie^ 
scarcely a nation on the fiMO of the earth w|uGh at eertafofe* 
riods has not burst into general nottee, and flhi mb m d Ae bia* 
toric psge with a gleam of i^ory ; but this glory quickly pasa* 
ed away, and the brand, wbieb peijiaps had tilled the world 
withito flames, still sunk, like a taper in tbe sstiket-; eve* 
Corsica has twinkled In die Mediterranean. .T%fie nmst be 
a certi^ tiin«> and that noit a short one^ invMob throopw 
stent agen^ of puUic spiiri^ sbsll have p sodu o fd ^n habitaal 
determination of the pirfiUo will to thr pubUegood, powf^nl 
enough even to ipfiiye^eo the maimeci and a^rda of a peepk^ 
be&re that peoplff Ihottld boxUfuiMvridithoifigrliimltlllo 



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4f^ ihisweftft, .their 9pentiM^.iiMiit.UJi^l|t^ «i,w41^ f^ 

TliofliMi«w^;fddv^pet.^mi^aAve! A» I|m conditio^ 

ieoribto <rf At^onnditian Tba bondage jnnit be lelt be^ 
^ c^ia (GSii be hrol^eiL I.caU tbat lei^tiuie bejoiid ftb<^ 
fover of jgybnytiq n^ .vheve a callous- bodlyJiatiiiiited to a 
yiteeleisaiupdy a|id vbere man iatrai^iftpcni^iQtoe^ell- 
ll^fittied bipei^Mthiit gpmws fiit in the intenral of rblovs. J.^ax^ 
not ^ a Ji Mt yl tOifsjcpHfff the ac«te senaation wbidi I baf e of mjr 
mi^oftiiliji ,^av^, becai^ I coiiii^ hto |be M^ of u 
i^e a p f oi oi w ijigppil flpsm tb^ bppd of b^av^j, that I am atiil oa- 
mMe jtf ft^vdw. I groolmte mjnelf before that Being, in 
yakfi^.^f— tfr^rjralav^BMi^lMaDidoUler, and oFor whose. 
r%bta every lyi^ant must be an naurpeiv beseaobiog bii9 tQ 
p ifltiqe Ihfrjheptaof py dear ^wintrywen wjUb tbtaame aharp 
aaMSe.aC tbefareimdhiQntiMt.I Jiave of n^y 4»wn.~I riaeup, 

• jJ^vRiy Jiatian mdar the aip mmt be pla^d in me of two 
MaiililiiiMa, II nftoft ba tern, or endaTed I make no aero- 
]^ of afttiidog that there U 90 medjom bftween tboae twp 
aitvfitapBi^ a9d|f va are deeeiTedHitp the belief that there b 
apebani^ilaEHOQdialeatata, ityal^ miftaHiUig the prudent mo- 
4eratiapi^ j^j^nmlaf tba mildneaa of modem mannarf,^or the* 
Ifinllo h9$ fimpfffA io0imicepf religion fyf pnblic liberty; 
m aatiS«Mr»fiiUlai!pm^ jBir anfidant aecari^ in tbe^njoy* 
BBont of tbat ljbe|i^y-*^r tmn willai ^, whifh ought to be 
4m mwm lWng » Ibt piII of qnr yapraa^tatiyeai dther paaaeea» 
mmi fdfgp ile 9tlii« ui the awpifma legiaWliTa poweiv or h 
^m-^^ U M ^hua pio|» wa ara alawfa. We aie 90. Celt 
yyarivwt JW i »li j a iim ^ by yonrtrne tWa. Itia thaiifiillaei* 
ap9 wn^mt^ ^^ of fteamaii in4fiilla^f»eitis«)8t which. 



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15^ 

HBHAd. Frieoas and Yen6w-%iliiBens, ii tlie aSdrest liied hj 
tki Tehetlab* Aristocriu^y to tlte timpfe popii1ac» ; and wtten 
the edict came fVom Caprea, Tiberioi did not hesitate to call 
Ate ithile whlA registered ii, Hbni&s. Tdor boyhcod and 
fibat youth were led astray by fidse aSMxJations, and blinded 
0jr^ refined' d'Aiisicm ^ histtiry: jfeii dtimed retiitionshij^ 
4^' (he Sazoii AlfiM, jitho established jiiries, eroshed con^* 
Aij^od^ andliid the fdnndadon of th\s English dohs^tiitidn: 
iki\lh Ha&ipden, whd Had a head io contrive, a heitn to con« 
SSti, AlSi hiiikiict exMte; and SjrSney, wlin dbobk thS" 
JbUf^ld infCfirUSi niidain^tea tfeUd, was, to be siircf, otie of y^ 
^teat phigenitors! Tis all the fUry-tale bP inlkncy. Yai 
gift sfli nitlvA IHsh, iinder tte confroiil of an Englisfa fMOtf/ 
Ihd iyttrf rotten boroagh in th6 Inhgdbdi is tid&ing nooiW or 
Kss tbah ifeiidil cisile, aiO^the cbltecddn' of thted p«ity gifir 
fifatigndes fii tiMAng nMeor toss ihln dte^odm. 

t know no idea #l&li hm bMI i^krdillic^e of iai»k hOvT 
ths^ otile wfa&k took its risi^lkim 4lies|}^tatldn» of sdiAeftrti* 
dful foreigners, that there was someUlll% of Si^arJnMur 
£ecelli!nce in the frame aiid ednttxttft^ df iTItotis tidM Air 
pUiHdd dbiisdttition. i^atlotial pxi^M:^, m iian pi ift rty 
ibittoriU Iitg6(ty, ha^odaiiled thii idtit wiHi citih^blb, anS* 
Aipmtftibiidy adhered to it^ Th« mMsMk^^h&r^^b^ 
lefyhift biled thrown over civfl andfeligioikmiiMersr ihut 
tfeesiihe ^niiOity in qn^s&oilfKg ^ su^)pfllOfr j feAfc tflte h of 
Aiti <«dm{^^ 86rtof being, ddlMttfnIf, Icv^ tttf Hohislbasr. 
Mf b(mh^ dWh Its totoiiM iiftd A Mtr of iJUMM liindage 
dlfv^oiiiijr df freemen, and taM of fVW tiUfUghi Tfie idl& 
anCii^ Wili^&n dMrdi lUltf AM Ins prMfvM Md SMMlflid* 
Ae abiMs bf bodi; aMOeMuA^d^^nMdil^^Mi;^ wMdT 
^IfeAlish^ fbr itf fbtWF g^nrntibfls d* ttMik i^Ukta » iW! 
^SIM ^Itef/ iialrtralltffa^-Md Cir «i* ^vfr OflP Hi tm u f <rf <q«r 
^tekbrity «vft t^ nff^ of ii«Mr> tft^sartfri^KiMiBee' isreflt 



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fibipisaiQD to irti^ ha»a cep^iiiy or tFO fyrifllilBpo^ &• 
for 18 lis apcient as truth, an^ Jhe ^ogd^ is «l yet pOfi^^mDg 
in political experience to repose upon any plan of govfrmpf^^i 
with unbounded confidence. If there be a progression in the 
arts and atuinments of iQap]|^, ^gcasioned by the discove* 
iries of one age being added to the acqnMlionB ef A^ past, 
9^ if t(^ ¥9^Bce of polil}^, qn^irf tfe^ ffiflft iffipgitaitf, be 
jfct ^eluded firoin ibfi name •4K1f^tMft, I f^jffalfi. i^agyot|?j^ 
flt^Tftion, P^rovided it /iprings inw IW^i'C qpwif>9# P^ fe«| 
(ejr^oii^ <^rice, hasa gre^^ c{i|ms^ qf it^f^^r^ing than qf ^ 

f^ri^ir goierhiTCMistt. Wbm tbe i^rfi^op of our pooftiip^ 
^op 9 brpugbt us a reason to QQudlude ti^at it onghttoJ^Hi* 
|fQ]ilT4J^ .1 insider tbe persons .who DMke use of tbia argu;? 
flieot.as pov3Cring tlieniselvep with a fe-leaf> ip order to Jbid^ 
^fir .iqdo^iiM^^ .t|iair ^tiinidity or.t|i<|ijr corrup^op. ' A* }% waf 
ID ^, beginnings i^ now ^d ^y|rr sha}! b^/ u.tbe •!»& ai^ 
gubstnnce of ibeir ppliiical cree<). r 

' I Jmyo called you ^ves, and yoo are fo io efary acipfpfta^ 
tion of the tcnn, exc^ iniiaviog a capabiUty of beipg free* 
aien. .Whether that capability be improved into \be energy p.( 
aadependenoe, or whether it wiU qidy serve to accnmulelt 
disgrace upon your dastardly souls, twp little 0ipi\th.s w4U d^ 
termine. The freedom of your present mutilated constitiM 
lion is only to be found in the Utopia of ^ fiyicifid Fren^ 
nan, or the political reveries of f Genevan |ihUosop!^.er. ^y 
Ihose wretched multitudes I swear, who wander w^ ^;^ 
fiaiow^i>ni^ through the fertile pasturnge df t^ie jfoci^, Jiy 
Ithose miserable emigrants who are now ploughing a.blea)( an^ 
boisterous ocean — the democratic spirit of the constitutdop if 
BO Qpre! 

Hear ipe for ^y cause !-r«I speak enly seeing that all is si- 
^nl.— I speaks because the wannest wish thi|t fwells Mii^ 
kiMst is ^he welfare of my eountry. I speak wit^ a feeble 
yei^ ^ could 1 add the yoi^' of millions ^p my pwp, J9\\h 



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tt9 

Ae de«(iBtlM«rf«»r|f of tUMBJiier; I ^oitld cry doud to tM 

FKOM flfty ><ttfi<Mt tool do I ^mmt Unt fd#e of hiqiiliitiTe 
Mioktutt^ fo odomioii at|ireieAetn Olfe ceontrj, whidi it "perw 
yiCI«tIljf'«dBing tte p6ilarili|^ qiMtfon, Wtiatnewt? Whif 
tiMrif ^ Tli6^ quettfoii oMita fidm'm clartcttr maclr «p of a 
twy^ ctn-iMky, a girrttteiciqi^, atid a doCahlVgamilfrjr. ^ 
jMlMitMD; to wboitt I addrtM myMlf, mate newfe. Tbew 
ii% oMifti quMddiM dtipoiitkm of ttifaid, wlilch enHs fivtltt^' 
flM; aftd dMunktatieei toglra it dfilbiMlan t the eAterpfC: 
afa|flq[iiriCm«kiMlheoe«jaflion itd^sireif, and tums ever^ oo^ 
tavrenoe to iti own adnmtifa. It it fiaiticalarly iatmte^ tf 
popular oommotioD, that every m&n may gtv^ wbattheaMrts 
caQ-rtfti^ and ek^ddo to bit diaracter, beieelt the teca of 
Ut^toali andTbet above die dement he livet in* lEtea I; 
little known; and where known unnoticed, tritmi]^ in the 
eeerer doeet of my heart, over thote abler Wfiten who am'tfti 
Imtin tuch a tpiiit-atirriiig teaton.— «' A poor litde aoUier 
hadtH^en the tcandfaig ^]e^ of his nMitary compuiioftt* ftf 
tfbe^of battle, abatt^saddenlyopenedontbecoipet^ 
whidi be belonged ; grenadiert and all, in a panic^ idl ptoa^ 
trate on the ground, whfle the little fellow ttood erect aebitf 
God had made him, and looking down with a smiiie of oeb^ 
Mnptupon the fidlen heikyes, cried. Which of utietdieil 
now r ' 

Constitutiond rightt are those rights re^pecUng life, libei^^ 
ty anci property, withotrt which we cannot be free ; and an 
ateemMq^of thoserighta,^! call free codstitutioii; ' £veiy 
art and sdence has iti fundamentd axioms, which, bytheW 
intrinsic evklence become wnrdijrof unhremd acoeptatibRf 



> 



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1«1 

vhidi if l»t exfres9e<1, ore al««ys trnderstood in every de- 
ihtctifNi of re«9oning« and to wfiidi, in all dnbiow ctfH, 
there must be made a last a|^0al. The science of pelitici, 
net less dei m w ^ ra ti ve than others, has its first prtndples and 
jdF^vident troths, which are axionn to their natiire, tiw 
s o urce froBQ nvhenee all reasonixig must spring, aod dittin* 
gvished by the name of Constitutional Rights.—- It is upon the 
sotid basis of tliese right* that every, system and plot of f^ree 
govcm ment, however vartous in form, must be orccted. 
These that rest their liberties upon certain imaginary diecks 
HI tiie machine of state, are more conversant in the ctfnstita- 
tion of a elock than that of a comroonweahh ; and it is a ere- 
dBlous reliance on the operative virtue of tfiese eomplez con* 
trivanoes, which too often lulls the interposing power of the 
people into fancied security. This is to sleep under tiie sha^^ 
dow of a pile, where, to speak like a political medumie, tfie 
eentre of gravity falls vri^out the base. The only efficient 
dieek salutary to the nation, is the check which the governed 
keep on the governors ; and if this check does not operate, 
thelbrm of free government may remain, but the soul that a* 
tumates itis lost for ever. Let not any high-spirited and mag^ 
"tanjasotts nation rely upon the fbrtuitout collision of three dis- 
c6rfant esutes, whost accidental opposition of private inter* 
cats may, perchance, promote the public good, and may as 
pnhMy counteract it Away with the liberty th^t hangs 
pendttlatiiig upon a perchance ! An equal balance of monar- 
dual, aristocratical, and demociutical power, on one common 
' quiescent centre of gravity, is hard to be conceived in theory 
wmd has never been realked in experience. If government 
he constituted for the good of individuals, the balance of pow« 
^ must dip into their scale, and the people will then, as they 
A» now, enjoy a virtual constitution which has no virtue in it 
TInxs the only solid piles op which the fabric of fVeedon^ re^ 
> mshflken, are eonstitndonal rights^ enforced by the cov« 
T 



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I6f 

IfottUag ^fl^j aad noDMiHiiai of that wightj mut to wUdit 
those righuiiekiag-^<'.<piri^uft iiidu attt^ tofMiiqae agitAl dm- 
bw." 

FroathoM 'r^tf« the kwt in every free eottntry ought t^ 
flow, e» the itmiiiie ^ life fivin the beort of man; pkuiljr 
ifidicatkig in every branch ef their prc^^veea, the aowroe fiBeat 
which they derive virtue end energy, and in their rcmpteet 
deviations alwave capable of being traced back to the fountnio 
of vitality. As. the pnip^lttiona of Euclid are dednoed ^«ia 
the eelf^evident axioms prefiaied to the work, the hnve in a free 
ooontay are so many political theorema er problema derived 
fitun a ground ef certaimy equally incontrovertible" the 
rights of huyian nature. These first principlea of fVee gover»- 
mentaris by no means numerous, but their value, on' this very 
accuimt, becomes inestimable. On two commands hang all 
the law and the prophets; ami the principles df poliey aw 
not perhaps more numerous or more complex than those of 
religion. If one axiom be questioned, mathematical seienoe 
drops to the ground : if one constitutional right be usurped 
our security in the rest becomes preearioua. 

If I be asked to name one of these constitntiooal rightly 
I cover my face with my hand» and I mention the right of bi^ 
ing taxed by ourselves, or by our representativesin parlia- 
ment ; without the absolute enjoyment of which pretsgative, 
what is the distance between an Irishman and a Freeman? 
Not less than three thousand miles. UntH you obt^ the 
practical enjoyment of this primary, necessary, sdf^ei^plent^ 
uneontreveriible right, you can have no constitution, an4' 
your just title, compUment ycmrselves as you pleaae, iariavee^ 
If indeed it dkn satisfy your puny ambition^ you may eai- 
brace the theory of a coB|titution, jost as Ixjon tmbrmt^ 
the painted cloud, while the goddess henelf eluded the gr^l^ 
and mocked the impotent mortal. . A Frenchqian may have th» 
same enjoyment in Montesquieu, and. a Genevan in* Do i 



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16» 

1 eill your Mttuden to •nothct'qndlcjp tteeeMirlly inherent 
m riglili of cwm i tt KiD n*-ilieir ineMmnnnieabnity. Theee 
IbttdtmeBta) priTileget retpeeling lift and Ubtity are ioooiii* 
wamkMe, and govwiunenl ii iMiilatad to enforce these 
iigfats in U8^ not to exercise them theniMlvet. Liberty can re* 
■MhiKberty eniy while it it ittowti protector; the moment it 
iwdgmu those primaty fights into the hands of others, all that 
remains is nominal and delualfe. If you trast the ^eld^ 
yo«may present the bearer with the spear. Freemen cannot 
while freemen, dekgsde to parliament the use and posseasioo 
of any one fandamental i<ght &t IVandiise, for if they do^ 
by what fight can it he reclaimed ?«-^I^ thereflnre, any one 
CQOiritntiooaLffight be notoriously infHnged open, the eti^ 
tenee of the rest being in the certain prospect of destruction, 
thty most, on the moment, be all called into action ; and they 
OMi ^brought instaiftly to our assistance, for, being in thehr 
notofe ideapable of t r a n s ference of delegation, they stay with« 
in oa)l« Their residence is tht homb of a courageous 

Now die infringement of that constitutional right of repre- 
assitition being so manifest the majesty of the people may, 
a»-tho emergency of the moment, without deigning to ask 
leavo-from delegated power, exercise the constitotional right 
/Of assembling together, and agiuting the most effectual and 
practicable means of redress. I may not be lawyer enough to 
apeak in the reined subtietyof that dangerous profession, 
wMiasspoetto tlM strict legality of conTciHional meetings: 
1)sit if i be adEod whether such meetings be not contrary to 
hmh i should answer, impossible, lor they coincide with the 
flpirk, g g piw s , and principles of feee constitution. Must I 
jdhnafrt haireo Httle peftifegginglawyer at my elbow to advice 
vith in such cases as these? Blessed be God, whose finger 
baacagffwfon them on thie human heart, the principles of fVee 
oro -pkifaiiy p*^cttous, palpable, easily under. 



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164 

8lo«a by tbeiUkiCftte, and fit to be inscribM^ oa the b«rn. 
book #f iafiftticy. Shwne afaa the man iibe it net as weU 
acqaiaittted with the first principlea on whicb tee governoKai 
i« fiNinded> as the Attoni^-CeBeval er any oiker AHoongr 
in thisku^tldiil! 

SoBM €enatitiiti<»»l ri|^U are exprdMtd bjr <he law, ethtia 
wbich may not be ot prea a aJ are underatood ; fer^ beiag ^fe* 
cedent to tbe laiwt, tbey we s^poted, and taken lor griMed. 
Seek 18 the right of tneMng^in popular attembUesy and. audi 
ako is the i%bt of addreaaing legislature for redress of grirr* 
ancea Even an idjowance that sach assemblies are unprtcc* 
dented does not make thsm UlegaL They may be thsir own 
precedent and justify thamselvea. Theyara not eetttsary le 
laWf becauee they may not be aocerdinf to^htfir. Tbe hm doss 
not intend such meetings, because it is not thair natora to 
take cognizance of any measuiea which may iii tibe kaet i^ 
novate on- the present established fisrm of gotemmatlt ; no 
goiremmentSt^ except these in America, provide ibr theh^ own 
reformation, by the institution of a censorial power, whidi 
at certain periods shidi become the saviour of tbe coMsttanCion 
and the restoratiireef the state. Ware recourse tobe hadonly 
to measures, acoording to the strict and rigeroue leMer of kn^ 
no reform could be attained to all eternity ; aa Hitleas a walch 
with its main-sprbg broken, could by its ewi> agenqr ee^on 
tbe power of telling time. 

To what power, then^ is an ii^^aed pci^ |o apped ?--«l» 
the genius, the sacred bnd venerable i^ius of the srwastto 
tion. Methinks 1 see his awfiil figure, habitaif like a Af% 
and iM majestic ruin, siuing like the Danile «f dd, Mwen 
the two pillars that suppoet tbe bidUing ; btoodiig over kia 
imperishable strength, and iuffiinng it lee n Hose 
sport for artstocratieal arrogapce. 

The object, then, of coit8titntfopalipeatk>g% ie^t 
tional, Mud the meeting itself aiMiherafilae be i 



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Lei it, at the same time^ be constantly remembered, what tbh 
object is. It is to reform. It is not, therefore, to subvert, 
m«ch less to introduce that anarchy among the people, whidi 
must overturn all govemment. As littte is it the object to ere* 
«ie any tteir ftm* of goremment, mttch 1e89to invest any one 
^estate of tbe legtslatare with an arbitrary power of creating 
tim new form, a power which, it abused^ mqst end in the 
ooopkle dettmetion of the very essence and substsnee of & 
berlf. The lAject is to reform, and in the means employedf 
fer ks afttaimnen^ we must avoid anatthy on die otie hand, 
tmd dtespocism oi> the other. 

Wlwn die Shevtf fif uses to eaH a eotmty^meeting, it is mil. 
vosrtlj «&nieed» tha^ the freeholders hate an inherait right 
ef e umi en wi g theimeltes into c on ve n t i on. What is true 
wbtn fSEikKcaMd of a single eounty* must sm^ly be true of 
9mm, «f ibar, of a whole province, of fotrr provinces— die 
hingdnsft. All ibedkfereace k, that the p6^ie ttgid, a high 
sKd mifbtsr word^ staada in plaeeef thejNMtiecoMAiaAu/ And 
jjejciwriees angkt fimilar to thas of a single county, with rs« 
ftai to itsirq>re«entativei> ia ins^tietii^ the grand represent 
leiiire.flf tfie timifXL 

. Aa hfii§^ tfierefbrf^ ae the lA* C. by their rejection of thd 
fffiacsple of refosm, disables itself from all free and fith' 4Um 
mmam^i tfe ssb|ect, it beeemes the business ot the peopte 
vlminftfiinBed thathetidb ti» deUberate en the means ot r6» 
tmmimg\ki ainl if in the natmid attd necessary progression of 
lUa gieal and gaud wnt k, '(»iiiity<4neetinge shoaM r#dl inttt 
^ilBrial» and theia i^gain OMlesce kilo oife great nadond 
assembly, this assembly ooght to be considered iti im otha^ 
light ten aa a eonslkaliDwd/ and at Ae sMie time peaeeable 
mann of elpi mmi^ with energy and eflTeeti, tl^e conjmiist 
wffi^aloyalpeapii'^wfaaseeaiiie iageed; whose-mmriienl 
in ((^Mt^.aiidt «fciM«me»musl pfwii» WiI^Ki I Kl 



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LETTEB III. 

"PERSEVERE, njs the venerable Ciiaiilbiiomt, while the 
gniid dimacteric, Ukea sharp-^inted.tword, hanga dangling. 
over hia head ; persevere^ my dear oountiymen, and by pa- 
tience, prudence, and the possible intenrenti<m of fortnnate 
contingencies, we shall attain, in process of time, 10 the sum-i 
mit of our desires. In what time, my good Lord,' in what 
lime ?«— for oar yoke is heavy, and iasf little time we shall not, 
as it appears, he allowed even to groan beneath the bovden.— 
Why, (reifies the hoary Chieftain) perhaps in half a centory. 
-—Alas ! are we to measure by centurijes thegriemneas which 
centuries have accumulated upon us? Is there no dasmtloM 
virtue that can snatch the gift of freedom from lingwiog time 
by glorious jmticipatioo ? And have we no other altenmive 
than to pny for an antediluvian existence, or, to die with the 
poor visionary consolation, that liber^ may be the lot of -our 
great, great grand-children? For my ^wn part^ I must be«^ 
nestly confess, that I like more substantial gntificatian thift 
the h^e of leaning from a doad, enjoying the prpspect of 
happy futurity. Posterity is little to us : we are every thing 
to posterity ; and every individual among yon, in times sueh 
as these, may be considered as an Adam, whose want of re* 
solution, indolence, or. corruption, msy n<|t only per|fftuate 
his own servitude, but entailit on a generation yet ooboni, 
whose first cry will be for that liberty which is their ri^tfi^l. 
inheritance. 

Resolutions Ireselutiona! shall we never hav».done irith r^o 
eolntions! Resdhitioii, that stalks like e giant bcforsb while 
^ dwarf performance comes lagging behind hinft. The walls 
of the Rotunda mi^ be papered with nsohiliBna^ .and I slMiidd 
like to see the character of Harlequin at a masquerade pasted 



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167 

•v«r with ptfty-oeloKd moltitkyBs, snd aae of Um mo9t ymn^ 
ted senriog «8 a tbeath— to his digger of ktb. What are thcie 
reidatioDs ? Whj, they are BONDS by which yoa have on- 
gaged your hooor, your veracity, your credit as a {leople; 
and if these cngageiBents be forfeited, your honor, vemcitf 
and credit must be forfeited also. Let all the iiatio» of thie 
. earth know, that the people of Ireland have, of their ofrs 
accord, committed themselves on the question of nef^rm. Whp 
ibrced ypu to enter upon the subject ? Point me out the man. 
Flood himself followed the People. You did not assemUe 
like white boys in the night; you did npt whisper these thmga 
in a comer : you were rather numerous to engage in a plots 
your resolutions issued from the press with the sanction of mg^ 
nature and the stamp of publicity : they were bone on the 
wings of the wind to surrounding nations : they were transit 
ted in foreign prints; and the pusillanimity of the French 
jangnsffo sunk beneath the republican hardihood of your 49B« 
pression. The words which have escaped yonr lips are irrevo* 
cable. They will be handed down in the fiiithful records of 
history, and your fiune or your infamy will be notorious and 
immoftaL 

When this country bore with greater patience than at pr^ 
smt the pressure of public misfortune, her wretchedness was 
productive of that kind of virtue which best suited her situa- 
tion ; and her government for the most part displayed the eoon 
nomy of indigence. The expences of the nation were r^guhhi 
led by its revenue, and a small surplus, which generally r^ 
mained in the public purse, manifested even in its misapplies 
ti^D somewhat of the vigour of competence; particular^ 
when contrasted with the distrest opulence of a sister king* 
dom, sinking under the weight of an enormous debt, thcNigh 
possessed of the commerce of the world. This economical e« 
qualization of revenue and expenditure preserved in a grfft 
degree the trustees of the people from Xixe means of corru]^ 



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If mpplMd. TlM gt l m u M m of Ibe coiiiitrjri j«iiiid to tlie 
«dbmitfM«C WMT, becaiaect ItngtiiiiiMippoitBblc: thcilm- 
der sQiteiiaaeetif • tingle mamifiieture grew precarieus, mod 
I0ie eodraee eC exbleiiee were dried vpt a retoliitioB necess*- 
fflljr todk fieee^ end Ireland tlbtmbi wluit hae been called 
Free Trade mnd Independent €oB0tit«lion; two ^thegreal- 
eit€ttfeee» iamftwtoaaj, timie¥ercanbe61aoeBntry,«ni» 
lets they to crewned^ and diat speedfly toe, widi Parlkaen* 
eary Hexonna 

For whali in te Ant pke^ mnit be the i ne ^ i tabk eonee* 
foence of Aee-trade, even auppodng dial thbddusive tmn, 
wfaidi merdy cxp r esacs the hicAtnetion, would abo denote an 
ridtity ef making aiieh trade prodnctiTe? Mark the conte^ 
qnenoe. U there Mie among yon ainple enough to beliere, 
thi^ the^ large incrMae of puUie rerenue consequent upon the 
hM e asc of nutionaJ wealthy would be faithftitly Expended m 
die aerriee of the State, and that all undue infltience wonM 
diminish, when the alWpowerful instraraent of this influence 
was more abundandy auppHed ? No— aasmedly no. Dece 
not your latest experience teach you to answer no ? I>ocs net 
history teach you, that the enjoyment of plenty has alwi^a 
been co n r e i te d into the most snccessftd means of aboUshiiq^ 
the remembrance of fVeedom ^ Does not the awfhl and iiv 
structive example of a sister kingdom demonstrate, that the 
same commerce which at one period can produce a strengdi 
in public liberty not to be borne down by the highest swell df 
arbitrary power, may in no long time after, create a fund fito 
establishing an insidious system ^f court>inffuence, fiitalto 
die dearest interests of the community ? Let the man who 
rests the least confidence in the future incomiptibility of par* 
Baments, constituted as at present, consider past history, dbe 
temper and manners of the times, the contagious example ttf 
m sister nation with whom we are necesaarity oonnected, tMr 



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mdi^l^MfttM^th^^nfMsQiWfm^ion oS .jiipfyiiropcUtisd f:^ 

tatiice* 4if tfi« ;Oe<i|^ Jejtfre, if ibey be uot defacttK Jf .» fk'ee 
4ifflb4»f ooi imimivedy w^ coQtioiie jm w^ ware, ktfuU«d w- 
^deed, jM^ib a QominfJ ivd^p^dence of con/ititutiaii; 4tQd f£ 
jMb9iv9ffcav^ |fv».ai3e only g^ding the phains with which i9« 

Fqrwha^ in litie «^q(H)d pUi^> is this boiftod l^i^tive 

JildflKiidfliior? Wb^ Jbutji'txaiiafarence cf iucbiuai;)r power 

ftooB dbspotiwi aiiso^d to • ri tfoc racy «t han^; froqi an osteo- 

^)ile fMwei^ #HfBh did 9Pt pcrupk U ciifijbia itbat it dared to 

^^fmf^m ^i^kidim iwwfv ii))i0k4l«4dfl4iwaytl>#i%bu^ 

jfim vfttivn lifLo-a 4C«it<faiR«e. and witi^ difllaii(|ed» diaaks fi« 

.^iiniiMp ijha jm«i^ tbe^oonuiimi mulliUide; fy^m a (low^ 

vdiicb miii^ h$ve .dw^nlkd a^y in the pr^g«eia gir Aftiooid 

iippffO%W»eff|t, jtaa|Mw^ ^\wU tfrowt with our growth a^d , 

iMmqitlppNiP iF«tb our ^re^gth, in hieialtb enhiging Ufus a wen* 

Jpi ^id i n p y ^fiMMMng li|M» adi^; a power not nw l pi f ii t^l 

^ dintonoe,. ,bat whiab )iiicp among you^ rai4J«8 i«^4Jie hcpft 

4irtik^)ai4fen|i ttdBJn wai(f at yoHMT doers, Ufti th^^atch aM 

tarns out the wretched inmate 9f finrcee him le eeU hie bii:th- 

jfmi^^af^f»^']^0^t9glff mahee the neceatariet of life the 

I ^ ofifiraBfkia er iref^geance, and poi80n».eyjQry 

gpililf ^^qtiilpeiii^if.ii^ scml in tbebi^germ of ewtenc^ 

BiHer, beiuty I ^i^^ & thoniand ti«^ had it been /ox this 

)mlt' hud itiumi jr^nieincd^^nderJlhe 8npi;eaiacy of Briti^p^ ^f 

-f 0^ he 9feel:M|d t»x^ in ypurpresent condition^ Tjie ^ristp- 

,0mfj.^ l«9Mi ifUMtb^ deepednnxif Britaii^ <;Qun^rfCt€d 

i iH |if»»f » «l#*n efiwitiei^rf t<i«ir prvratc.ipt^rj^t> W» 



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ITO 

often produetire of tlie public goed. TIm peopte tlaod'in lh» 
situatkm of arbiter in the disptkte, preserved a sort of b a l es i es 
of power, and by being always made the ostensible motive of 
contention, sometimes were the cbisf gainevs in the contest 
When the oKgarehy talked h%h and haughtily at the castl^ 
the ezecative power became patriotic, in order to show, Asft 
by courting p6pularity the machine of state vdi^t move on 
withoqt their assistance ; and when government stood out in 
the baigain, the grand pensienaries ranged tiiemaelves on tbs 
side of the people ; the mercenaries of state thi«w up their 
(kmiTOissions, and went a vohmteering in the service of the 
commonweal. The pensioned slave, Aat osjsd to cower be* 
hind the benches, came forwaid and rc^ed Us ejres and beat 
his breast ; and the pack-ass of successive administratioiis has 
some^rs njected his provender, and miraculonsly brayed 
out an eulogium upon liberty. Thus popular acts were often 
passed from the mere spirit of ptrty, and periiaps thia ooun* 
try had not brow-beat England so sucoessftiHy, had not the a* 
ristocracy of the land supported ^e voices of the million*-*-* 
and for what purpose? not to promote the power of the pso* 
pie, but to strengdien their own : omr government ^mm indeed 
a strange Incongruous mass of Iridi aristocracy and SngliA 
usurpations oddly huddled together, but stfll safer for the pso* 
pie, than when one of those hostile powere sita sole sovere%n, 
holding the sceptre of supremacy in its hand, and treading 
the rights of the people beneath its feet. 

The fkct in 4uNt is, the people of Ireland asay trade in er* 
der to nose mpney suffident for an aristocracy to purchase tkli 
corruption which secures their own authority ; and 3ron nrasl 
labor with the sweat of your brows, like the Egyptia&a of old, 
to raise a pyramid in which the majesty of your king^ and tb 
splendor of his crown, must be buried for ever. If yon be 
resolved to do nothing more in the question of reform, nei^ 
I beaeedi you, for one puipose. Meet in order to'i^ypoint an 



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171 

who mmj prostnite themieWM l^ort the insulted nuu 
jli0fy9i dte Britkh periument, and petHion to be once more 
iMlHied bf their abdicated onnipoleDce. Let the prayer of 
year petilioii be Hke the groani of the Britoni to the Consul 
Ml6a»^** We wme driven,'' you may say, ^ ftom foreign u* 
mrpaticNi to doaseatic tyranny. We are now driven back a- 
fin, and in onr choice of evU, we wish to be swaHowed in 
tba dqpths of 'despotism rather tium sufo the slow^poison ad* 
■ in i s te re d by iHir own cenntiymen. Forgive our apostacy—- > 
we abjore every dooblentertsined of your ittihBibility, and afl 
weadL is to die in the etftkamuia of absolute monardiy.'' 

My awntif !' my coontry ! My heart sinks witMn me— >my 
9«tgro» woasanish when I-thiidc ef Ay situation. 

Long and serdy o p pr esse d by Ab left-handed policy of a 
* kingdom, kbering ondtt evmy corruption in thy doroes- 
t, deprived ofall internal police, plundered by 
landholders, deserted by thy weakbiest eitisens, o* 
vsrieoked by a British senate, ridiculed by thy own, despi- 
ssd b> thy K-», and abandoned in despair by diy children ! 
• -Yet attU amidst Chese evils, I feel a melancholy pleasure in 
pMBsnncing, thai your nfost serioutf consideration will lead 
you todedoce the grievances of this country from perhaps a 
angle eaoae. A trade confined by general regulation, or lo- 
csl sospenrion, injured the interest ; a legislature, unwilling 
to assert its own exclusive jurisdiction, wounded the honor 
of ^e nation. A custom (for die ievil rested rather on usage 
then law) of introducing or recognizing as members of go* 
veittnent, bodies of men unknown to die constitution, or offi* 
dll^aitltttts ef prerogative, was a great grievance. A staiUd- 
ingarroysuppdrtedby the people, yet independent of tlie 
pcopi^ was a measure pregnant with ruin.' These eicres* 
e^beea lipped e(^ the root still remains. The hydra of na« 
tiashd edoMity has many heiiis, but only one heart. While 
llMW-lwavt remains, yon i^ay lop off every head ss it springs^ 



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h\\i cHhers i^riTl r!^ in its place. TAif gHSif pdKti^ Mri>tl^ 
^tijtfert and nottH^hes tRe i^sti " Why ettanj^itf ydur ihiMb 
ftta^dings wHti researched Ititolhe nutty ^it«toftf^ 6f atiilqMf r 
\lll^ perplex yourstflved With the pfbf^diiidhlal AMkff'cff ft$S 
LiW ? Here is th^ oiH^in ofeVil— yo^ hem* of K abrcVkd^ybll 
see it at your cloort^^Ke people are lost, *if they do riof iC |WJ» 
sent speak, and write, anil act with aH the energy ^hidi fl<# 
spirit of the eoni^itiitioii warrants. It is nc« the tempdriidfl^ 
expedient of rejJeatirig this or that laW, or rrtno¥iilg tMfl «f 
that minister, wHidh can yleM sUbstaiftlal and ertdftthlg' i^ 
dress to the ills of tflenatioh ; and It"! be'ask^, wh<j at^thr 
agents powerful enough to effectuate the^WoHi- of r^filraif I 
lay my hand upo« my hean iund I answer, YottnelVM. . Obd 
forbid^ that while the ooRMttUtibn warmm peoeiabll^, y«e #f* 
fieacioOs nieans of redfl$s9, atty Inshttian Bhoiild-cotlnt^balle* 
the Vindication of oaf rights by the doufotftll and iNsaiMik^ 
cision of the swoiVI : but it ts the duty of an f fi^htnM to ¥^ 
mark, that if any people fVom irresdiadon, want of iiitegtityf 
critninal neutrality, or cairseless despair, should neglecf toetB» 
p)by those m^ana which all 'the laws thatt^re left tboBi'liAva 
]^aced in their power, tliat people is not atititlad t^kttKkO^ 
the loss of Mb^rty, Irbich it tlesenree to loie. 



LETTER IV. 

ANSW£R roe one question.:— If .you be langRid tfi tba 
parsMit ^ refomb would yon not be^qoaUy ap in Ih^ enjoj-i 
inent of it ? -Are you abls to bci imi Beassumk ttet ^ 
it be laborkras to attain libecty, it ia laborioiM to ipvatab it^ 
Xhoapmt of anatioQabbttobofiM!» nmtkh^mkm^j^&A 
mi^MniMoua spirit, aUconou^f Yipilant^ 



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U pp rt ii g J WhUM oi^ rod! ^tmg y U mmmam it Tb^Mmi^ 



i« iter yMT praMil inMMwa «id ii Ti< o i ll ti<g Ubif him 

§mtif6»me» ^miofimimt to fOMMi a Mbn*« thfliyMfhiiiM 
Mtr«rit«M, tlit*irMf«nimqMiH*tob«#iCi if, AHUi 
yoa dodi 6»gt» > ^w wiU»w io • owdHot* woitby of te 
E %rhkb yoo lunw in tmw, I pmf lo Ahn^ilrtif 
fibO, «i»t»* whklfTilr aNQr te tlii kttof psbl^cMy, ]M yoiw 
oity Mvor 4Mrfa « w ftw tee * cj— limrflii. fiU thi 
^oT the mfanytry ol Mt nw<bwK|iiilu» thi Aaiian 
Mdft4 i«fci«baiisogd4boK» 1 dMuM «etept h^ mmU 
#ilh anelWBUBKxf bordtriiv opon d^igMt; wfaM I 
Hh* my ommtiTiiiio lolgiii ottly divm tlnliiiri^Ari 

J dhtdM toMty titatttoy teitfkl(Bl*!MiMgftl^^ d)^fed«n|N 
ite of « Bfttioo thiC ooght to rf^Bem itM^f; «id, Ifit dtotf 
Ml^ 0HMM HMii^ w not woraiy of i'Mrett|jllufi« 

MiMt i oi^y MtkMi «lgiid gup^ M^ fimlrttid «fcidl 
i tUiBM»of *i^ AMI gdinf M« A <Mm^ iiM M^ 
out? Mott tlw fgnWu^ tbi Iritfc foitilli 
^Mondkiaitia Uind ll«rp«r, attb%dOir<ir «*Hi krilk 
ii^ tilfctho porlv biibWn go Ami Ui boiiMi ^ 
- IViiiUplffMi yooilr «dMli» kiftfiN yo»^ ^^w ul 6 yUM » 
I yott^kMV yoontl^tt. Nii^ apMfiiBM ti-hoiMt 
.'«M4to lHitiM7o£diiiroiWtHIHMM»liittitoi«*i^ 

i; and that ahiMNighiQiiit8titf»riii%yilMk 



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174 



the 1Mb cf otlioni^ ipptirii^ to the worid m if t||^ «nR!ii 
b^rag md uipmctieaUe tpirit of bU iaiiM3r^«<k«r JMiit 
bt^n melted dowB end diffused tbioQfh ibeUod; jrel^lb^ 
geneeeU^ of men, in different staler art eoflWeaft^ b^ppgik 
if tbegr be permitted to eet, to drink, to sleep, aad to inwpe 
gate. He might obeerrs^ tbat these seem to hove bee&tho 
only objects of national ambition in this island for centori^ 
fasty and that when the strange lunacy of the moment is. ovqy 
thqr will continue onr only goods fer. csntwms to CQmo» Ho 
may assure us, that his principles and hie wishes would loaA 
him to gratify the good people of Ir^imd in all dmir rsomn* 
aUe desires, • but that he koows not as yet whether tbemc* 
pccssioo of these desires, bo net merely theiii^gilMre predoe* 
taons of the day, bom only tobuas for a ibw boors, a^d Jmb 
to perish in the stream of oblivion.— *That we were at^ pmaowl 
ino stale of prahaliencftr fssedom: that PnmdsBee^ whiek 
often ehnsM to throw, obftfacles in the way of a nalifl 
as ours u at present, perely as trials ef its stiongdiand 
lution to beer what it has boidnea enough to demand, .magr 
have designed to use himself and his associates aa ingbruasenSa 
in his hands, external obstacles, which may piovo whether 
the nation has permanent eCeience within itself suflkSenS Jo 
entitle it to the rank of a firee people. That on thia oeeomst 
idfly, from the pufp^ concern £er the interests of hmnanity^ 
whidi must be jmsterially injuiod by our indUli^ to mmo^ 
tain, with any credit to oursriToa, the grsetoljectof ourds^ 
siies, and with silent and seciet wishes,, thit fay a. beioiam 
becoming candidates fiar anch apiiae, weussyi9pi«rooi» 
selves to our King and to our. God wodiqr of a lofcim ; Im 
lakes the lesolutifln tooct» as a priaao ministm alwiiyo»ooli^ 
end hopes at the aametiaae, that your adasimtionei; hie abatii 
tiea» will net lead yon ioftraatoaaafceyoniametllmoaoof 



Di^itized^b^CjOOQlC _ _ 




17« 

- i AlriE, wiyc mmtryic n/tlwt tfi6 atta&tineiit'of nttittnil 
ftMdaH ought i^wayt to be oitde in it progressiTe manner, m 
€*der to tram a people at it were to manhood : but I' thinks 
m^»9mml5md, that tUt progression ought to moTO on with 
••^ilDeitj acoelented hi proportion aa the naUon approechea 
Ike ofejeet wUah attracta it The youngest among jou will 
#an]y remember 4ie diflnfont steps ia this progress, from lay* 
i^g the Ant stone sn Dnngamion, untfl the meeting of the last 
Omvettlfen : but the oldest among joa is toe apt to forget die 
mm t ahju betwesa iheae steps and the rootolit 
wUA they gm to eadredier— I might dwell with 
eo tiw r^gidtf and beavtiM gradation of peraevering 
whMi has of hite raised thh country to a name among 
but I wish lather to appeal to yonrnienrary, ferit 
ietaeasoQ, I hope» to commence yomr historian. Let die man 
vbo is fttlgaed m the ascent, look back and pretend to ei« 
■ifedw piespeet-^I wish only that yoo may recollect how e- 
^resypa rt efliiisbnsinesihaabeen, asitwere^ cemented with 
-what went before, and to what came after. I wish to cau- 
taan you ftom resting the weight and magnitude of tiua mi^ 
tj mutttt mpon any single ocesrrsBce, bet that taking the 
^vAole msder one comprehenaiTe view, you may be less dis«» 
appointed in the failure of any one part, and rest with perftct 
«oaifalence, that' if you do net desert yourselves, you will soon 
MmM the completion of Ae work. I should wish particular- 
ly to topress you wi|h the belief, that this assembly of dele* 
' gsftea ia nothing more-er less than a continuation of the oca* 
'VCBlioii whtcb assembled in the year eighty-three ; and that 
aa liie ebjeet of the aafieo continues the same; as the agents 
who. aee hitu iw lad in die atuhiment ef this object are the 
mmm; ea Ae motiTes become ^ery day more pressing; and 
ae^dm meant put into pr ac tic e are the same constitutieaal 
stseagtheaed by repetition and Tariatian of form and 
the aame 9agmM9 shoold appead fiom breast te 



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•1T6 

»i»l|gMwt>)W tibm tljejaaiatily •< <!• yiipie has l ii rh w fa pfc 
iMk ifiljr half iti Mmglk. 

.]^ lApni •dllriD^¥ A4dii«<coii«||MiMri.«itt^ 

iltalQiiiif jMar ifbartini andliMa, 'mmi 

^tfmMdJftymrdMvMw; Bet*>o<iArMinitMBiS<ai4»Miiaii* 
<ilM«Mitttk»,MilifdUy Wmim^lMR.ffMV 

ytir yexila t te thin ttKNRamitma mvm: ¥qir tiitai» it • cni- 

<rite confMsion, Aiifc aH niiidi bM be«i dsaeiMtfivMite; 

- A4I eviary miiuslcfer k as vmitm, mH evitry Ofgnty M paet hy 

mjc<aiy»aticle» fke tehemagrthcn oaB Uaacn^ftAaiaMin^ 

jnd^i^ aan nay eaU in* Ibtliar a taailar. Tbb whole D^tian 

' aa«tt M 4ii| case to.M^nowMgei a amt of prhrale and pdb* 

-lieiaifMitj^. Sped^ Iheo, if jm do notdiMae te'iiftfai lie 

' Mpotadtn and iur fiioie of ycair frienla «ral kindre^idealrvjr* 

•«d>bafi>ra your «y«a. Bpedk, W yaon^an^ widk tiiW^«||i* 

^3wd aa aaaCas .ta atrangi^ ymir cHiWhren mkU a 'ixniuattlMg. 

* Vaal t ipHik warmly, because I a* iiec |iy tn W 1^141 a > I glD« 

^m being eatbufliasd& *l|sllylbaiMiiMtoeaw&*ae«aflredCb 

•qneplieii as a fnrobfaan j». inailw»iiitiii, 4Mid wbfn ;be l»i* 

«Mi{te ki his ai|{u»etit, wtfta e( ffcavinced- antf .tiieetolrii, 

'Vbit natian will aever obtain its jdbjeet, titt It joins tbeaeAir 

^fa»e eeae u e u i yusMii of pelilla#f hBeaepby. i* 



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nukm, (•nvetjailiMik' nmoafigtn «H IJMHb baa bacn done ^afwt ■ 
4^ in die puTMRt cf }«'9iiiuMR0nl9qr itlbnn, «tid to <^]ieot it 

- T^ Ai;cfa of IJtertl^ i§ «MBif iiiialwds oHe Mm bftiV 
£Mfaj9i|ipo^% «|d is M|9^rtBd. The luQM ^ 
tit |aitiaifytobofutiii-#tvidMntit, aH must five vagr* 
Tiic ebettchmment of the present avil Convenfieo is thealMaH 
Hof vdWin. 
i 'mtt e ttpp e t <B- w hs(t'tney Heevtn ttert-Hbal Ae4mrf« 
i^4«CDm^is#ttapiiMkdf<Mp is linKii^Wlut ftlioi>s i> <ie 
«sHMe'wei4t OHist be li^tmi anew, fitery mta Irko him 
ltofrtobe4tiini^-by«heifare^side, miiit be again csHed foftii 
1|ihI jse^iM into adiOD* Goonlf niec^iigs mtot be atmiakdi* 
■>d«it.«ianmitfees ippointed-etictiviiicid asiemblto cootaiidl, 
'^sni aftara lei^^if timey tbere ib a postfbBlly Ait tbe Mi- 
4iae aMly taaoyes tba tone vsatag ^g f o a wd which te|Miee*f - 
<ct«insaaSDMnt. ^iiajr, ajMSsibilitjr, for fke pKibkWkf k, 
tciiat4briiMema|ipbrtlinitf te|t» will nef«r bo#egaioedi Ml 
4liift .1^ nnatb or two laqrindB what a lifc-dma will'niiVli^^ 
,blelo*rq|dNSw Xfae|tasan3s> thatweactat pMsetitWitkiie 
raUpctml pa^ieg i>f eyeqr^Dinigamioai? lawlifg). lof roifcjf other 
,|wvjm|4aaieiaidjr^ of thajatf osnventioD^ ,af 50^00Qr Uolun« 
p£ j(ba^ wis^fmdbcstmeniBlxitlLkingiloai«»rall^asyi« 
1 into the gql^ien vow^Mshich onist tkeraiorrinvtatAe 
' passei^t h miain > iiwit :yitiia potencjpiwiqeiKfron 
ttfia ccMhinatiasi of all those. yreosdbf-aiatiioriliasi'wiihM^ 

Jl. ji ai]gFfiqiiviawh9''tlK orjgiif oadiArogMBioii of ;tBe 
■jJiflsiaiM Bsssiif anykyri fcjf.aoeonyMshttiglii^ tha^a^o 
,9mk mivwAoakimiB^ Uaiiaorm which >hava beiii^'raadisliMij^ 
iiwniifri ; I rt 'xyjfcsiJar die a gy iq g at t ooEieathi^sa^Dabliii a^ita 
aoifts^alkaiaTinilheiaraii, ^inek. jiHaUHrt) w^ittieifrddk thefast, 

-Hat Jllhirfirf/nglpilHirinfhng,! »iHiad>atMywitansf jwhaolaiBsa* 

Aa 



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17B 

.ie#waaiiotti»^hM]» aadprnrtotcd t|Mt inleitttptm aw^ 
•ttnptntiM in the antetakinf^ imfaidi iui^thavtheeQjil* 
^toDdtd ,with the aiotl Jivigumm m n oq w ncet , . Why w|j» 

these such aTaovvqr? Ask yoditelYeti Why did the dri||i 
<ef demeetecy me to the enr$im?«*-Ail^'' thoie .rich, retp^cti^ 
' W^ honorable. ffolkaien, wjqp tfity* ^ho cane in eo kl^ 
.^erent out «o tarly, and did not fipUi the' work whidLthqr 
•didnefchigm} 

It if not the aggregiOe meeting who ate. to be bhunedftr 
.votantimly ^^V^^ing ^b^nii^Iv^ between yoii and tl|ft«ninDy, 
•jtAtune.irhenjrQa-did net think proper to aet yoii«ieWi%; 
^bft it'wet jilur owiKieproaeb, that you did not cewe^forwiud 
,lo fi|l that statios jwhif^h they ood^ied.with iQiniich noie 
. Kal t)ian abilijQr* It ia really curioua to aee bow inncb ff(^ 
jf^ii^ca^ ae^o^ti ha|t been cast open thote poor aaen, byjii4 
'if P^l^ eceployed m. the charaeter of geteipiy . towbi^Mr 
t^^iMVttfpiiteMoiWi end Uast with their baleful breath the noit 
,biBocent and oiofinisive cheracters^ , I tould at tbia iMtaat 
jietfOoieoCthoie.peetiletttia}* parte of ^hiuBan.aocietgr in the 
.pilkniy of the piei^ tofniniih apertfor the gnmmg4aiM» 
vOlde; bnl wfaMe tatiite lifts «p |ier«barp and shinini^ weqpon^ 
ishedisdatiia the praama t i a fee, anddiaws it back agam dry. 
. . It ia not the persoDa who propel, bnt the tUn^pieipssed 
.dMt. oagfaitto daim die attention of a people obliged^ m we 
^seer to use rmnm» means, sonf ^nore dignified than others, 
isnthe.promaftieiiof oar. great natiend good. >Ktanatthe 
^Mise.whk^ aught to alarm us, but the subjertxnatter whitfi 

ooght to animate and excite ns. I must allow that the lettsrs 
d4&aNj(jJLE,Sw% : are nrngie iMfvs of .tI|sbn^a«esmdBeisnt 
vto jAt$ ais.appBrition belbcn the^eyes ofr li goflt^r. mmismrv^^Mbi 
j^yritian >tha> wiM seemtodrawhbeur^dnsalliedemlef 
mifjtitt end hroteebhn Aom Mep ijbw ;• but smn^»<eiirely,; there 
.leennot. be* a maireb modest .asseBoidi^ ef letters than thoae 
-which'ecin p fa e th oiaD^ACMrtotifltt^ -.TMe B gg i riiirfa afrD«b> 



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17« 

#i tbk ImiHiftaiil biisine«». • Your cMMf couniiTncn* lo««i 
MtliMg by the MluovlfidgMmii; InH if 7m da aot traitlhdr 
iMttMvt^mMi adtoqumte Mipect, gro^^hire lott your aH Fbr 
idioit it thttnow aunnnoD yoa iDtd«O0avtQtiaB? N^A the ag^ 
gtegate iMely^! You art called HfpoD by tiie dioiorilof ymm 
to ttptrym ep l-^vdatioiiai— •and fliecda ! You are adgortd by 
A regpvd to your owd consxHedcy ; by all tbo bopta yqu ca-f 
tortaiii of thofol«ie|pfoipefit)r of your country ! lif your ai^ 
ceslora ahdbjyour poitmty ! ^ the charactttt of libntyy 
and by tbo grailia of tbo cotatitutioB 1 

iT hoyadjare you in tbo name of tbeboat and wUeH 
charactoM-fai botb kingdoois ; in tbename of tboae iUoilriotta 
dtiaonauf die World, whottbiiooghout Eofope aretendipg up ' 
tof lioi u n tbedovootaapirationa of tbo bean for your fuccett; 
by tbo blood whiob bat been krviabed Avougb tbe annalt of 
your biatory in the atsertion <^liberly ; by the Mfvi of tbo im- 
nortal Locke; by the ipirit of refbm, Irbicb dicUted tbo 
terma of the revbltttiou 9 by that gloriotts binovation on tbo 
*coaUMniry 'nile» 49f ^boeesaioR* which placed the crowna of 
three baAgdobia' on the head! of a Crerman eIector»«<^hey ad* 
jiii« you to aaoveon wkh indkaolttbie Armneas, irreaistibk u« 
nioB^and heioic irdor^ to.tbetnolacconiplifhnientof your 
glorious pn^oie^ by concentring and condensing the will of a 
whole pe^eontoone great lisaenibly. 

To yobi youn^ men, I must addHess myself with warrotb 
and taith emphasis. The spirit of refiirm» like ^e spirit of 
youibi must be active,, ardent, pregreasivo, impassioned, en« 
ttrpriaing^ ' onlbusiastic. Advanood age is of a heavy, inac- 
tive ptocesatinating disposition, which always acta on the de- 
fijaara^ aild viAes» like the veteran Falniis, to conquer b^ 
May. Stidr a dispontion might s^ve to maintain liberty, 
but will never acquire it' The genius of. reform must be at* 
tsndod^Nridi a .caatain gidbttiy of aoul whicb pushes forward 



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r 



t9i 

^^hfnefiikhiei^ A* taehttel of Hetirf ttte fMNb d# PMMdr 

itwi^F^a^M ftx in«ti«ii lAMng til* ihitkM «r tbe^^imft^M 

wiiich wiE aiUVH^ Umw ^ho MIoir widi caMMHRr, «Mk 

k dMB* Irft^ op^«ii« yon wHb dMtMtin Ai jcmts kdmth^, iniv 

if» upt t6 ai!qdir« 4 Ml^ pf Mbmnudalkib to ^iMnMtl cm 

ditrtMatioM, bowtier humauitinf ; UMiDObkfdw«nor mm 

Wt^ ^ttaf-ibt inttt ^ Ase ; tim htggkAf ^mmont umutfc mtA 

€(igrd«^ the tiebt> mtil M leiigth tuch pmooa bt^b tto-thmfe 

ifr.k trattdr iiT tlMMiitjr tbat Uiey«faouU for tk«n«. 

feUes, and leave their c^ant^y U> beecoie theJbo^ball of fiMft* 

Ittne. ' Tile h»te of country atid nnnkhMl Iramia itod. dilates 

ftifi yoUlMiy} brtoM. Ttooa^ cspaotive piaskNBis gtradoaUy. C0■^ 

ftM «hdr KftvKs dttHng tlw pr^giitesbi^ life T^ 

10 Oie^y, UiiiMMnstt a«pelty partyj ^M At 1m^«U^ 

iftlat ti^6r piUHotiini itA dby ia to isiue^l iii. the fevebing . twK 

, . lights bltt^Kf a %bOe gbskilabar aooSM-bonie^ jMidtheii 

tfheak igaSiy into the eoniracted tivde cTfa^ Vbu Hre nol 

yet bimuttibed wHft tbc^ trtabtibgr eaaiiaa luid/oomifiefciiil eel* 

fedhnefta of the ag^ ' lUs eomipled pftft of jriw ^obe bas^ 

nM yet contanfdnlited tkn blitivv Hoaetty of.jroimb<af«|«' Your 

in^adulteHited s^fifH hai all the radneto t>f g aae p t tta and §9^ 

linitie gt-owth, and tastes df the iaVor <rf tbe soiL Dear mA 

^tentSbulsl I wiihtiQ^tiMl^yoanum^'vlanl limewtauU^ 

ny among you, and I wioli to eaibitoa yon tXt mkhtiiy hf^ 

tft^rhodd o^ ttftMttoH. I irfch to Join nisr bends wilb yiMin, 

md to aw«ar at ^e iltaor df th* aansliiiittoif, tb«t by4lM t^ 

iffg whdnk ife adbre^ we wH} tia^ abandon btv eonfAnrfw 

Cook! I tbiitk I BM yoik»*|^*l^t oOttlktijr aiifldbig^-.tfwor 

Spartan kkM»ehet, At your skk, hidiftg tbo UO^ ihatl f t mbl efc 

ill her ey^, and indighknily fldlblhig to tbo rMha of nemtki 

tation which b^ yiitttOlii sobs idimo e*n t«stom td ltiorigniid> 

^ftaid^a^. LH fifuH^ pttt oittoK rise btforo yum wy m Hho tho 

•l^tts of yoetf oHMitOM^ OMI mOimn yMuto < 



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in 

Im nAii yb* Mf^ ttmm 9Mf Mrve Id xi^tM in mi i 
mdMjwiaivtvAi^ TIttiik of . thoM wian 7«t tft oHpoday 
aiNl imnliliev iMyMidbr yooMltetiolM iMmM Vy «C« 
grt»#f th» mj > »iiM #^ by wa tte gatfcei trt j byctSfecfeon, a* 
|Mic% i t i wmj i^ «Uv#}d|{ f j r |mtm lt» piaoesieo aad pnuisa* 
^m Wtten Cai^bytM «f Ptorm tvdvtdl «fuait Efypl, b« 
|*K«dttbaf]|btetf oits and 4if« in cfat hmxadmttmj^ 
imA the Mihple^ figy]«liM» sjKntfced the boiMr «f tbcir comi* 
cryy tirthar tbto kkfttM iktaligMtaf Ihair wpantittoii. If 
itatfa M 1 ptdte-tf life rMDaifling' ia yaw btaaiN, ia tba aana 
i that yoo ^rdw Ihii pap^ aat af your handa^ go and 
> yamadfaafor a IKtia baitf to Iha ttffTica af your daar 
aad aMiTa laodt Gb« tallyaar Mmda togalbcr. Draw up # 
laquidtinn fiar the conventioa af the eaanly in which yaa U^ 
■aia wib ajfi aaoil it lo Iba ^raaa ^«-00^ and if /H% 

. lUTTB&V. 
. jrai i .air.aajaaa# 

TBE aMb who jaat a bHaaant beibca^ bahaM the laat a(«r 
aiaa tf adapartad friend^ and heaid hia gtoan of ciqpinitioB^ 
ia aadiHhBea aaea to laainfain with alltha Tkdenoa of paavio^ 
Ibal ha ia adt yet daad» The aunriver haogs orer the poor 
ImtAhmhodf, and think% ocaiecta to tbiQk> that there «p 
alii aik ear la hear»aa aye to aaoy and a tongue biapaak. Bat 
aaaaon aa the cpU hand dropa dawn likr lead,- and the ligh( 
oflifbaiidMftrevarftanitbeayaa; when the human face di« 
mr.bataMa aearaaly dbtingdabaUa in former liratur^ and 
aft bttrtbna la the iiat atiq^e of corraption, thaaane ma^ 
abt wa a jn Tain to a f a raa me an iaatinctive diigaa^ qaita tba 
eaaa bwredbal new loathaome objeat, rea^gna ittoearth, aa^ 
aB thai raawiaa bdrind ia— ^nemeodifaneetf I watch my deaib 
^ailcaanlvatthia4BaaMttl wilbtiie aaaM aaiiaaaaolicitadf; 



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iMjwithaiiQyBelf/biipoiMUedietMibediiid? IiJIpit^ 
iible that all dw fine fiselingt of hiinuati nature, all the pattb 
ode fervor which jo shartHmeago dronlateU, like theinvig^ 
rating blood of life, throvgh thc^ remo t e tt extremities ol the 
hndy canbefrosen vpinanioment? Can this aenriUe want 
motion sink so soddenly into cold oblinon : Can the dilated 
spirit of the nation degenerate mto a kneaded dod^ Are diese 
the hands whidi bat yesterday drew the sword half outoC 
the scabbard^ and daszled our eyes widi the dumi^ weapons 
of war ^ No. She is not dead. I swear she b not Ttsooly 
a death-like swoon. The pulse will again play; the cheeks 
will glow; the breath of life will be felt, and the qnrit wift 
return. Tell ne not I am deceived. If I be so^ ^tisa^orioiis 
deception^ and I wish to indulge it 

But 4rtmt can be the cause of thb sadden and snrpostag 
suspension in every vital power ; for the knowledge of the 
cause is essential to the cure. No apparent alteratioa in die 
system of affiurs has taken place to stupify^ to divert^ or to de- 
ceive. The transitory representatives of majesty have indeed 
shifted with more than usual celerity feom shore to shore, but 
Without impresnng' the public mind with much distinctioa of 
character or peculiarity of conduct The last one slwqw 
seems to hold a glass in which are seen the shades of his yet 
harmless successors, who wait on the farther side for thcur 
idlotted time to dazzle our metropolis for some months w^' 
the glare of mimic majesty, and then to enter agam their fer- 
<wer station as humble satellites of the throne. The gentle* 
men who undertake to keep the ruins of the eoQ»6t«tnm in 
repair, fill up their different official departments with tbebr «6« 
customed fidelity, and aristocracy no longer affecting disgnisi^ 
Stalks like a Colossus over the land seeking whom ft mty i/Bn 
^mxr, and furious for its prey. I do not think there is atiy ra« 
died defect in the heart of Irishmen, which is the cause ct 
flkiM wonderful iloppiji^ in the circuUtion of public spirit. 



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188 

iMT do I think there ie euch • dentttgemeni JB yoar u nJ en * 
etandii^as not to comprehend the perils t>f your pveseat ril— ■ 
tion. The neoessity of • reform k grown into m text whidi 
preoedet your writiDgt. It is the axioip of your ailment; il 
is the proverb of couTeraation. It twines itself round your 
present and fiiture welfare* It excites your ambitioo^ It grsi* 
tifies your Jove of glory and independence. It agitates and 
intoests the noblest passions of your nature.. What then> »- 
gain I ask, ean be the cause of Ibis surpiiaing calm ? What 
•vii power or pasmnhm chained your tongues and i^ced yoor 
,eyes so st^dfiistly upon the. ground ; muddied your ^dear. in* 
tclligenoe, and changed the very shape of your souls? Good 
God ! is it possible it can be Reuoion } Religion^ that do* 
aoended from Heaven to enli^^ten and enlarge the fausuui 
mind, to melt do^ the ruggedness of barbarism ioto^'the uhp* 
suffpicioos intercourse, the ^weet amenity of civil life ; and ift 
pluoeof those grim sod horrid deities who ddighied in tbt 
sanguine fields in the cries of the captive, and in human saori- 
' fkes, to set before our eyes him, the m<^a|id mereifiily wh» 
,v^qit over Jerpsakm. 

When the author of that. religion you all profess was told 
Jhat his mother and brethren were <;omiog to seek for him# 
be stretc)ied forth his hfnd to the multitude which snrropnded 
bim, a multitude composed of Jews, Gentiles and Samaritane, 
and cried aloud, (.o ! iny mother 1 my sister! my brother! I 
can ^ipoo.ypu, people of Ireland, in the name of Hii% the 
Great Philanthropist,— of him who in tbe'torments o( cruci- 
fixion sifted oi|t his last breath for tbe welfare of bis enemies, 
«-»! Gifi upon you. Churchmen, Presbyterians, and Catholic^, 
tfi^ emljnice each other in the mild qpirit of Christianity, and 
-tpunite asa sacred compact in the cause of your sinking comv 
j^y^«-.For you 4se all irisumcn— ^ou are nortiirsd. by tbe 
;|Binematfrpal wealth. The hand of Heavei^ has. broken^ 
^l^i|U|i^(bn4¥^<^^»^^ M if to,preseino4tleastoM 



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\ 



} kfmxtiommitk kaMutiofi. Thil 
i hfM tetoped ouC Touir cft|MeifiM iuurbora, d^eptoii ' 
9«wfMrt%»nd«lidltrfiiclM«ibontbe8|oraM. ItiuscbiiiH 
M dM«tUiiorrfcMi«, Wil It thrald rafnge the kiid« It li» 
gjHUBinded flit pvwer which ghakes the earthy and lenifiei 
ilig«iUjiBh«Mliiili,tobetlOL hhtt ttiied thenghigYol. 
^UM, lid IMiidi Ae Afmdltii VMJtitffla rf the pcatilcnce. The 
fende dewe ef HeeTea dfep fatoen en jour ields, encl net e> 
^pen one venompve mfaMl iwDtmee to roatamiDate Aeir veft^ 
'4me. Dare not lb n^uae the gMte of Oed^ and abow that it 
h yeor reAf^ to be nsi.— Dare net lo oondintte In the Ua^ 
!pbeniy of eerfHode. 

ielhbapbee^of ialbiaa tine, teblow theooalacf pene- 
nnH o n and awaken the du^ord of aects ^ Is thia a time Whck 
Ike enemy haa fereed open the gates, when they are widrih 
<he waMsy when they have penetrated into the innennost an^ 
naoat saered leeeases^ torn down die awM eefl, nnd piaeed 
AeirsaerHegioos hands on the veiy a« trbiA eooseatales^ 
'our oonalilotlon, and nmkf it fimets throi^fhout tiie gM#( 
U this a time to stir up civil tormoils^ and to poor the pdst n 
«r long-liirgollen antipathies inito the ears of Ihle Cfedalous? 
Is this a tfane to-annmon up thoae dreadfbl Ideas which had 
fas p rssis d themselves on our minds when chfldivn, andef 
oonsequence became associated with the drat pffadp l e t rfedif* 
oatlon, to make these qiectres ascend in gloeny resurrectidii 
'fcefove ear eyes, and make us chfUreA ligaini Is this a iim 
Ihr learned and TeneraUe missionaries to ran through thelsn^ 
f iis achiD g a erumde, when all AoaM write, spedc uid act *• 
•^tnst the enemy at oor doors? Hare we not suflbred eMigh 
'already by an aristocracy of power to subject oorsetres indrfs 
^nhghtened age, to the worst of aristocracies, an artnoeracy 
^o|dnion? Isnottbis the time tocKsplay our fteal hi{xilitM» 
said oor moderadon in religion^ Is not Ato the tiiaie toKA 
ifte agitaUbnend begtoning fennent of ecdesfantiairdiaeM 



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villi tbtlMlni of olilivioQ»l>eforpiitiiiki into the qidghdicly 
BMligoity of nwa^, or it esalted into that ragii^ phrensy 
which tem Jown with convulsive strength everjr bolt and bar 
tfiat opposes it, and then Mams at Urge in all the wtldness of 
dciperation? Is not every demon who wishes to blast the 
ftirest prosp e c t of human happiness, grinning at tiiis instant 
with infernal glee, when he sees that we are ourelves destroy* 
iqg the fruits of six years labor, and setting oar luxuriant lunn 
TcstinaUase without his assistance ?— Oh f let me coi^urie 
those aoMig thedifferent descriptions of rdigion, whetherof 
die Established Church, of the Ptesbyterian or Catholio per* 
Masion, who know the inqperlbdion of all human institutio ns ■ 
Ist me ooigure them, at this most trying boor, to form eoo 
pud association, one great fund of virtae, good sense and 
fitriotiwn which may yet sustain our tottering credit as apeo- 
pie ; and rescue from the jaws of ruin our almost bankrupt 
la p utali o n .— There i% ineadi of these classes of Christians, a 
sdect few, who have one common object in oontemplatlofv 
hot who are kept apart from each other by the doubts amt 
{sslouwes of their forefathers, which are, as it were, ingrafted 
into their sweet and generous natores. When once out of the 
sphere of attraction, a repulsion takes place; this soon be* 
eomss aTorsion, and that as soon degenerates into all the ran* 
cor of sectaries. Asperity of conversation generates constraint 
uhshavier, and makes them blind to that philanthropy whidi 
all of them may in different degrees poosesif, and whieh ought 
lo be the bond and cement of their union. Jealousies, when 
once revived, run like wildfire through the lower ranks of the 
conttonity, as nothing is so inflammable as the tinder of re» 
hgfan ; and thus their heads and hearts are diverted from •• 
very^ even the teost favorite object It is then doubly incum* 
bent upon those in aO persuasions who are too tenadoos of 
their Ubef^ to be drawn into the Vortex of n sec^ tofbrmn 
ioeisl compact]^' whidi may yet redafan the wandering eyes of 

Bb 



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186 

Uiemaltftude, dissipate their tMuSem ftan^ and Sx tiieir «t> 
tention solely opon Riro«M. Blessed be the man who in 
times siich as these^ falls Kke the affectionate Joseph on the 
neck of his brethren, however different in character or situs- 
tiofii, and kisses them, and weeps aloud, and says,— I am tht 

MOTHER. 

Sach men, alas ! are few in most descriptions of religion, 
and to this few, I mast address myself, for their junction will 
give them the strength of many. The multitude, in every 
religion, have strong antipathies. Sttch antipadiies are nsta^ 
val. And I will venture to say, useful. They arise fVorn a strcmg 
predilection to the principles of their own persuasion^ with* 
out which' men are apt to grow indifferent to relifpon at aft 
They give mankind extraordinary firmness of spirit upon try* 
ing emergencies, and they are accompanied with that severity 
in practice and strictness of tonddct, whidi generany flow 
^rom strength of conviction and rigor of doctrine. TUs stif 
and uncompliant cast of character is sometimes apt to grow 
sharp, acrimonious cruel and ferocious. Then is the time fbr 
men whose hearts are distended with the godlike fedingi of 
philanthropy, to cast themselves between^^ose sects that seem 
even to threaten hostility ; then is the time to dispel the mift^ 
IVom the eyes of their infatuated countrjrmen, and to let them 
see their enemies lying in close ambuscade, while you,-»-ye8^ 
T say YOU— «re murdering in dreadful mistake your |harmless 
fViends, and fighting for your bitterest foes. The great mis- 
fortune of the Catholic re1igi<m in this country arises from this 
circumstance, that there is little or do distinetion of rank a- 
mong its professors, and of consequence few men of weight 
and estimation to sweeten that leaven of intolerance and per- 
secution, which in other persuasions is not perhaps less in 
qaantity, but is well tempered by numbers in the middle sod 
superior ranks of life ; who gently instil into the minds of 
those beneath them, the milk of human nature. 



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187 

ItiidiitfljronthUjwcount* thattheCadieliaattbUdaj 

* It tfaould not be a tulject of greit wonder 4o tbe reader of this 
Tolume^ tbmt tbe Autboi of Obkluuta ihould bare bcid such opUiions 
with r^rd te his CathoUc couDtrjmen in tbe year i78i.^--For a Wng 
vriei of jears tbe victims of a heartiest and debaang oppression, tbeit 
uiidHitmiiHngs were subdued to a XAost unaccountable patience of tbe in* 
juriei they eodiived«->Is tbe eye of the slave able to bear the meridian 
blaze of Freedem, or aught he not, in the language of Cukrajt, be in* 
dined to hr»^ Aw chaint om the httidi ^ hit ogpn u or t $ On this princi* 
pie, the author of 0kbi4'AKa might have correctl/ supposed* that the 
oiod of the Catholic required the aid of political dtscussioci to prepare 
bSm for the ei^oyment of political power. Fropi 1778, ^the year when 
the Irish CathoUc firit raised hb head from the floor of his cell, that 
7.V when the first gloamings of Ubertjr were allowed to pass through 
tbe ban of his prison) to 1793, the political discussions by which Ire- 
Isnd was distinguished wew constant, interesting and informing. Tbe 
Citliolics threw off the chains «f religious as well as political bigotry, 
■id made themselves worthy of the oonfidem^ of their more fortunate 
Aotcstant fellow-countrymen. It was therefoce in the year 1794 we 
ftid the Autbilr of Obsllaka, under the signature «l a Boeotian, bear* 
mg teitimoDy to the progress of the Catholic mind, to its full capalulity 
sf the e^^yment of political power, and to Its uvooubtkd riort to a 
psrtidpation In the blessings of tbe firitish Constitution.^- 

** The drcumstances of the times, as well as persons, hare changed 
in the very manner wished fur, and the mind must change along with 
them.— To cotmnercial interest, a middle and mediating rank has rapid- 
ly grown up in the Catholic community,' and produced that enlarge- 
ment of mind, that eitergy of character, and that self-dependence which 
men acquire arbose interests do not hang at the mercy of this or that in- 
dmdnal, but on geoerpl and necessary consumption. WiH any person 
assert that such raeh are not as well qualified to exercise civil franchise 
as the most of our 40s. Protestant freeholders, whose corruption Is in 
lesHty occasioned by the ui\just partition of political power, ahd who are 
tempted to convert their monopoly into monejr, be&use its partisl dis« . 
tnbution baa given it an artificial value much beyond what nature and 
reason allow it. Tbe ui\just %tention of liberty from others, operates 
% a-cime and a Uast upon those who (lave hoarded the commop good. 



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188 

Are flbioliitely incttpabk of making a good itte of polKcal li* 

It rots in tbeir pomeHion. It corrupts wbeo not partaken ; and be who 
has more than bis exact tliare of freedom, becomee in one litoatioo af 
life a tyrant, and in anotber, degenerates and putrifiet into a slave. It 
is tbe judgment of God on aU natkms and all men wbo presume to ap* 
propriate bb gifts, and to make of rigbt a privilege or a prerogative 
The Catholic mind bas cast oft its feudti^^^ and tbac persun would in 
troth be inconsistent wbo k^ prejudice as it were at nurse, when bj 
nearer ap|irsacb and closer acquaintance, be finds in that bodj a nationa- 
Ixtj of sentiment, and a flddity in engagement, demanding reapcct and 
admiration ; while he knows it to be his general dutj, as it is bb dear 
delight, to foster the spirit of heedom, wherever it m^ be found* i 
daUj in the breasts of bis oountfTmen. 

** It is in realit/ the dvil iocapMatj which bas made and must < 
tiniie the moral faicapadtt/. I^ is tbe will ta be firee, which makea the 
c&pabilitj, and tbe first si|^ that tbe heart sends forth to libe^^ b a 
auflbient indication of potency to ei\joj it. To affixt a wish for theic 
abilit/ to poaieas freedom,^ while you continue the penal code wfaadi 
makes them incapable, w cruel moekary. A capacity for freedom b as 
natural to man as a capacity to eat or to drink ; it b an Instinct^ naturae 
not a consequence of education. Man b often indeed tbe creature of ha- 
bit, and be may learn to be a sbve, as be may bam to drink akahol asd 
to eat asafoatida, but you will never break him of these bad custoou bj 
degrees ; it b only by giving a complete wrench of tlu; mind. taao. op. 
posite direction. The doctrine of natural rights b pbin, simpb, oom* 
4Bioniensical ; and the practical eiyoyment of tbem requires no tuitioa« 
nor any eoutie of adaption. Rights most ui^uatly have been coovested 
into favors derived tram tbe gratuitous knt^ of government, andatenow 
to be purchased as a lieense ; when it was solely for their plenary ei\}oj. 
ment that men entered into dvil aodety.-*- Magna Cbarta need not te 
taught like the Fdnci^ of Newton, and the rights of personal aecnrttf^ 
personal freadein^ private property, the right of defending th^n, and vf 
electu^ a trustee to watch over and prelect them from imdefined pcrr^ 
lege or unlimited prerogative, reqube neither fitemluie te fieel Ibair wa. 
lue, nor any reach of mind to ezeivbe them with jjodgment end pra* 
dence. Inastateof natofewsheuldknsf^ ^hepwdl, andgoi 
haa toe often been only ammnwAaa art to render and keep at i| 
lant of ftuMbmeatal rlgbti aad oC oiif pnmary daiietb 



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199 

Vrty, or what is the wne thing, of ptKlSod pomm» 1 ^fA 
the seottmeiiCs of the tiia«t enlightened amof^ ik&m, imd I m^ 
•eit It M a fact, that the mott aUe mm in thi* bedjr mmtm 
wise to wish tor a coni p lele extenaioo of ciffl flfiin dhiiH t» 
UMtBO' of their own permiaiieii ; and the reaioo ii» 
they well know that it nnet squire dM^rocfw of ] 
large their mind* and nidieniie their bearta iai^a impaHli^ 
of enjoying die hl^taing of flii jltm. If ymx beiftiHaiida 
doubt whether you yourselves be capaMe of ' V B ^ Wf l m g ntVi 
Arm, the most liberal among the Cadiolica must knowthb 
greater iDsoAdency of their brethren,— «iid hedoe Ibeir s& 
lence upon the subject. Their ac qui e sc ence in what has beaft 
said and done in their favor, proceeded only from that secfH 
wiahfoJrUbeity so naturd to die human heart; but their tadi 
acquiescence evinces a mixture of desire and dread praeeedU 
hig from a consciousness that diey were not aUe to be fML 
I assert it as afact. Hat the leading men amongthe CadioUcfc 
did not Begin to agiute this unhappy question. It was ftroed 
upon them by men whose goodness of intention is thebissk 
exeusr they can make for their want of fore»know t et%ef and 
vrho have untonsciously supplied the enemies of re&rm wMl 
the means d wardfaig off the otherwise in e sis t ib ie tmpulse of 
public opinion.* Let then every man among yon know, thiMl 
the Catholics have withdrawn their claim of civil ftmnchfsQ 
and that they do it because the business of refbrm must be re^ 
tardtd rather than promoted by their interftrence. I re{oiee 
that there is not the shadow of exeose left fbr tour indrienejr 
or inattention. I rejoica that I tan now writing a sentence 
wlucfa vriH manifest to him who is yet unborn, that the sueoeM 
ar finhure of reform is to be your proper and peculiar i^brf , 
or your everlasting oondemnatioti. May this sentence live,' 
when the hand that writes it is mouldering in' the dust, to fell 
vrondering foateiity that after the CatboCca had withdiaWM 
nery claim on Oe juftice. orgenetosity ef dieit country, fbr 



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<190 

|h*pV4fti^^iM|rFiQlptt«iitbrelbmi, the PtotesUntt thopf 
-mtKB^ti^mkmti without Ibe shadow of a cause, the glorio^ 
Jj«r jjUkwrUUn their gray ; became exhausted, spiritkN^ 
fidlen, aai then eunk into the grave tormented bf 
lagitoiafaig lefleadon' of what might have been done, anf 
I hgr the gfaoet of their departed grandeur. 
V' The ^neatSDQ of relbrm Is therefcre to be otosidered merdy 
«a0 political question, and ho^I caranot whobe be— that in^ 
of religion in the matter, is from ignoranoe, 
or fiom design— an enemy to his country* 
Jboqgestien is not, whether a reform, attended by an equal 
of cavil rights with the CatholiQi, is better or 
idum to continue without a reform;— I may answer. 
Of if I chuae to wander from the question, which is sim^ 
jplf and aoMy dii%— wbetb^ the government of Ireland is to 
eaurinufi anoligarehy^ or to, become a limited monarchy: 
Jehetber a fsw men are to return the legislative, and chain the 
aacutavia beneath their feet, or are the people to rescue the 
rigl^ pt the Crown from pollution, and to vindicate their 
pifn. Tlie Catholici^ I again repeat it ifith exultation, have 
fbcMm^d aU shfre of the contest ; and ponscious that the pln- 
fdil^ among them are |^aced,jif it were^ i|i^n .earlier stage o( 
focie^ than Ibe r«|t of the islan4f ^cy submit iii silence . to 
tfae.neoassily of situfition and drcumstance^^waiting with pa- 
fianoe until time has given them maturity of strength^ and a- 
bjHty eqfsal to the arduous objef^t they wish fo attain. I do 
not think it at all sufpriaing that ap enlightened QathoUc,, on 
seeing his Protestant broths almoft certain of possessing are- 
form, .should ezdaim with Esau, '^ Is there net one blessing 
left? Bleas me, even me also, O my country !" but when tba^ 
iame man considers cahnly his ntuation, he resigns himself 
to the santenoe of fate, and far a time is content to seive hia 
brother. May that time be made a short one by their owa^ 
laudable txertiofis ? May the light of true science iDuminatt 



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Otoir nindf And aoften their heilitt ! Ifiy die ftwliii < 

mm of property, white it engrafts their cffedittieiipoit tW 
soQ whidi eapports them, coamoniaile «t the teiAe time « 
ifuritio maintam irhit their iiidiMtry has acquired; gtvethflUK 
sdf-estimatioii, conseioiii dignity, and in shon lluit ripribiU* 
canisni of eonl which will anaounoe toK the werld thgt tlM pieN 
pie who possess it are stamped by the hand of HeafeQ^ l^elre 
ef independence! 

• A reform in parliament, dear oonntrjrmen, ienot neiily tilt 
removal of an evil, ft most prote a never fiuUng ftmd ef pe* 
s|tive and snhstiuitial blessings, which, with vespedtoAv- 
teetants would be immediate, and to Catholics, eventoaL ' Tlif 
pnblic mind, by bebg frequently Inonght into^ actien^ mnil 
grow better informed ; the latent powers and enetgiss of ov»> 
ry individual that enjoyed the blessing, would be breojllit ii^ 
to action; for there is sympathy between all the nctUe prine» 
plea of our nature. The heat of public spirit would fester 
and bring into the light of day those seeds of adimcep whidi 
at present germinate but to die in the breasts of indolent and 
unambitious men. The republic of letters^ a nameeacred in 
the mouths of every free peqple, a name pronounced with re* 
▼erenoe in the courts of kings, would arise to iUuminatethe 
land. The mines of labor would be openedf and the misti 
of superstition would dissolve away. The fanaticism of sects 
would become an enthusiasm for civil fVeedom* We would all 
live like Christians, and behave as counttymen. The Catholic 
aodthed by favmrs, by the conveniences of life, and by the 
bopes of affluence, would gradually melt into the dtisen ; tho 
Presbyterian would ackowledge that all sects when in posses* 
aion of power have abused it : and the Churchman would find 
a nobler foundation for the security of the church than--^the 
abuses of the consUtutioD. The laws would impact our ae« 
while nur thoughts were left to God. 
O Thou, who hast showered down on this fiur and bttSh 



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^mmiwgiimfiwifik)ibmty,ih»riQ^ 

f«|MiiMMt^ IwMiuij. W^^dctetboM rights ftaBo« 

bt «fiHillMM«priMNl«lllli« lMi«riiithtbiitnk««(dMll^ 
md rttam inip tbj p mepce stripped «Dd J tspo fl t d cf Aom 
ptchwififbiiMdiiwwtiitgiotycf oMPtta^^ Alalint 
likf this* il if irpiytimbk ladisi If mwrntUvftUw 
Mi^ y» ioilM rtHinrif tm dic.likt alKri»->bgt ipirt B#-f»i^ 
CM! 9fV9 m f«r « lUtlt> chit w« nmj yeC hiire w/oppoitii^ 
ailyto>fiocUpil0tbthttiBcii€hanelir; and ctO «ur apbiti to 
^adlMitlMill^UfioiiiaMmMii^ wbt^^tctoaeumtoijffi^ 
a«l«i mnt^ febb. Lbt mb litb to tcs THAT J>AT» 

MO I MAU BBPIAB WITBOOT A OBOAII. 

^ OBBUiiNJ. 



TOTHEPUBUa 

THE prtseot^preat natioiial ^Mitim^ has divided jroa ii^to 
fimr distinct classes. The^i/ is composed of those who may 
bt called atdaUmy reformera. These, are amiable but indo- 
lent diaracters, who yawn over the intemlhig ailment, and 
woo their oliject with a sort of Flatooie passion, which issaf« 
fdently gratified with hope, and is never veiy anzioos ftr sn^ 
juyment These men in higher life are generally made nseef 
as ioasU to fill up lyaong well-bred company the vacanciM of 
an after^nner conversation* Their names move regnlarly 
toond the peaceful orbit of thetaUoj without scorching « s^w 
gle gofuA With the meteor glare of enthusiastic patrietkm; 
shedding only that aerene and inofensive light, whidmeithcc, 
I with its heat^ nor daislea with its eiro)f«nce» If in o* 



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198 

b%ing, however, in these gentlcmeiY, to lend the use eyen of 
their names to the community. Thej serve the same purpose 
as the paste-board effigies of heroes, which used to cheat the 
<yes of the ignorant populace, and eke out the procession of a 
Roman triumph. These are the men among you who are al- 
ways too modest to lead, too proud to follow^ too wise ta de- 
bate, too prudent to decide, too busy to be active, too young 
to resolve— or— too old to perform. These are the men, in 
lower stations, who, after convincing the conviction of tbehr 
neighbour, sit quietly down with the sure and certain hope, 
that the full-fed commissioner and meagre levee-hunter will 
eqne and lay both possessions and promises at their feet 

A'secdhd class is composed of practical and efficient reform* 
ers— wlio reduce philanthropy into acdon, join the animation 
of passion to the confidence of conviction, and with the wish 
to persuade, have also the power to propagate the principles 
they profess. There is one character among this number, 
who moves along like a comet, portending nothing but bloody 
ftdng the gase of the multitude, and perplexing monarcha 
with the fear of revolutions. Yet his course is determined, 
notwithstanding his apparent eccentricity. It is the rspidity 
bT accelerated motion which increases his resplendence, and 
his magnitude augments as he approaches piore nearly to the 
great and glorious object which attracts him. 

lA the third class are the anii'vefarmers, a compact and 
well regulated body, who grouhd their obstinacy in argument 
on die incontrovertible axioms of post, place, pension, and cjr« 
peHtmcy : and who act most stoutly on the defensive, as men 
may be naturally supposed to do, who fight for their fortunes, 
and petliajM for their lives. These are the men who set such 
value on the ruins of our constitution, that they denounce 
vengeance on the sacrilegious hands which would remove even 
the dust and rubbish from the sacred walls. These are they 
who Conjure up the horrid images of civil war, massacres, pes* 

CC 



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194 

tifenee, and famine, to scare our women and oar hojp. Thasr 
are they who are always sure to compliment their adversaries 
in argument with the title of restless spirits, desperadoes, inno- 
▼Btors, and incendiaries. I remember I once took tbe-Iibertjr 
of expressing my surprise to a gentleman of this class daring 
the time of dinner, that he would admit sucl^ things as pda- 
toes to his table, which were known to support the lowest 
dregs of the people, and were indeed neither more nor less 
than a republican root. 

The fourth class may go under the name of neutraU, a strange 
miscellaneous assemblage from all ranks and conditions of life. 
These characters, like the skin of the cameleon, take the co- 
lour of those objects which happen to surround them ; and 
their actions, whenever they do act, are seldom uniform or de;- 
cistve This well-peopled class keep ai present a sort of baU 
ance of power between the opposite parties. They are sought 
af^er as proselytes, and derive the lirsl importance in the min<i|^ 
of both sides by possessing a perfect indifference to either. 
These men are generally carried away a% feathers on the pre* 
vatllng tide of popular opinioiv; and it becomes, on Uiif 
account, most incumbent on every strenuous advocate for 
reform^ to act at the present moment in that decided manner^ 
and to speak with that determined tone, which may Bx the 
irresolute, and inspire the timid with confidence. 

If the active partisans seem for oite instant to stagger, the 
panic will 6y like lightning, and all the fum-ejfecthu, wlio at 
present range themselves on the popular side and fill up the 
intervals, will tlesert in a body to the enemy. Thit iedetUarg 
reformers will sit still and look on, while we who remain will 
be forced to walk und^r a yoke made of those very arms which 
we bore as volunteers and soldiers of the constitution. Suc^ 
will be the inevitable consequence of procrastination, or of wha(t 
has been lately disguised under the term ptrseverance. It js 
not the part of an experienced general to expose bis main-body^ 



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195 

by the toes of his auxiliaries; and the fact is, that unless wt 
support them, they will abandon lis. Nor will the curse of 
inaction rest here ! Cowardice spreads by the same sympathy 
as omrage. The most forward will feel their spirits damped by 
the contagion of bad example. The breath of corruption will 
Aen blow like the spirit-sinking Sirocco across the land. The 
sternest patriot will feel himself emasculated, and the sinewy 
strength of manly integrity will relax into the weakness of the 
wemaA. 

It is then the bounden duty of every real friend of reform, 
at this important hour, to impel the ruulrals forward, by shew- 
mg in themselves a resolution, spirit, and constancy, which is 
never damped by despondence; and to stimulate those of the 
first dass into some degree of exertion, by flattery and popular 
honours. For this purpose you must appear to give credit to 
every able and needy adventurer who languishes for the title of 
patriot. It is the seeming credulity of th^ public which tempts 
taiany te the profession of patriotism ; and the number that 
^ strut and fret their hour upon this stage," compensates in a 
great measure for the want of perseverance in the individuals. 
The inflexible patriot of /o- Joy is stimulated into some act tliat 
may approve him worthy of the title, and is succeeded to-mor* 
row by another obstinate Cato, who generously contributes his 
mite to the stock of public good ; which by this means accu* 
mutates more by the number than the intrinsic value of such 
petty donations. Popular opinion may be said to establish a 
sort of insurance-office for the virtue of men, and this office 
supports itself by the multitude of small adventurers notwith* 
standing the notorious fragility of the maUrial insured. Were 
dto glorious title of patriot to be wrung from the reluctant 
hand of the public, by a long and laborious apprenticeship in 
Ae service of the common-weal, scarcely a man^ except a 
flood, would put in for the prize; but when the splendid ap« 
peUation is distributed with little selection, every one is eager 



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196 

to become an adventurer in this lottery^ certain of an erentod 
fortune, because one man had the good luck of gaining 5O,000A 
I do not go wilUngly out of my way to mention that mam 
The laborer it worth his hire, and the spirit of a great na^on 
ought tn be above chaffering about tpages. I believe him to b# 
great even with his wages ; but his best friends woidd have 
thought him greater without it ; and he has gratified die ma« 
. Jjgnity of his worst enemies, by sinking so much nearer the 
common level of humanity. If it be ever necessary to baKer 
glory for gain, he deserved triple the sum he received. If 
such conduct must be rewarded with fnonty, let millions be the 
inadequate reward ; but even with the reward he hasobtahied 
A'om a country, comparatively speaking, as poor as he once 
was himself, tiiis man can never stand up in his place with the 
dignity of crest which well became him as the first creditor of 
the nation. His vivid genius, his eloquence and literary merit, 
must give him reason to rank with any Roman off the Augus- 
tan age; but in the earlier periods of that Republic, the mem* 
bers of the senate-house possessed a sort of proud competbncb 
which rendered the tone of their eloquence deep, energetic^ 
and irresistible. I know not whether this grand pensionary 
of the people be corrupted, but corrupt men will flatter them- 
selves in thinking him so ; and perhaps flatter him till they 
make him so. In the insidious progress of self-deception, bis 
patriotic feelings, which at thU time ought to be aroaied to 
action, will, uncoMciously to himself, grow less exquisite and 
irritable. His present pettishness against the people, will de- 
generate into asperity and acrimony ; these will at lengdi tet^^ 
minate in disgust; and every little selfish passion will find 
leisure and room to unfold itself. The bird of Jove, which bad 
grasped the thunder«bolt, and borne the lightntof of Heaven,^ 
when caught and chained down in a cage, forgets ita amintioua 
flights, and with flagging wing and Iack4«sti9 eyt, l^em te 



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137 

hiBolU o€ every coward bojr* tnd fumiihei fjxgrt for everj 
oienial of the castle. 

You are to consider a p^ot in do other light than as an 
instrunient employed by the people fcjr a certfiin purpose, and 
when this instrument becomes gotten,. another must be substi- 
tuted In its stead; but in the question ef reform, whidi of all 
pcditical questions is most purely the matter of the people, no- 
thing can be more dangerous than to rest with assured confl* 
dence upon any scrt of men.; particularly upon men of shining 
abilities, and consequently (^ great ambition. In this national 
subject the more closely the matter comes before the nation ia 
SELF-convention, the better will it be managed ; and the more 
fatuoate will be its issue. When the native, genuine, homely 
spirit of the people is raised into local meetings— *then trans- 
ferred to provincial asse^iblies— to conventions— and to con- 
veDtion-oommittees, I always imagine that in these repeated 
distillalioos, as they nuiy be called, something of the ori|^nal 
taste and flavor is, perhaps indeed neeefsart/y destroyed. The 
subject matter by all this ratification and straining, becomes^ 
in truth, very rational and very refined ; while those who agi- 
tate it become veiy polite, dijUknt, ductile, and unassuming. 
The eiemies of reform, on this very account, lose all their 
formex terrors, and now pretend to make a jest of that power 
af a liobg;oblin, which before they had dreaded as the aveng- 
mg qpirit irfan injured people. In short it is the piercing cry 
of oppressed human nature, conscious of its strength and inu 
patient of injury^ which startles the stoutest champion among 
your enemiesu 

If the nation ye(b the want of a representation in parlia- 
■Mnty it will jqieak: as if it, had feeling of the grievance ; and if 
it does not speak feelingly, the acu^ rea;K>ners on the opposite 
aide wQl naturally deduce it as the strongest presumption that 
diere is i|o grievance felt, " We are very ready," Uiey may 
say with an ironical sneer, '' to do every thing for the greatest 



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198 

happiiiets of the greatest namber ; because we pay the highest 
respect to the majesty of the people.** It U a term which ak 
ways soands pleasant in our ears ; but we really acknowledge 
ourselves at a loss to know whether you be serious in your 
present requisitions. You looked, indeed, at Dungannoh, as 
if you were not making game, and we recollect that your red 
eoats had the same effect on us at that time, as the terrific 
terms of raw-head and bloody-bones had upon us when chiU 
dren. But our nerves are now a littk better strung. We 
shall allow that jrou played the counterfeit incomparably well, 
and we give you fall credit (or the whole as^ a super-excellent 
jpise : we therefore pardon it as a diverting (hccC' of waggery ; 
Ibr surely you cannot be so simple as to imagine that we are to 
quit our ancient rights and indubitable possessions for the fio* 
lidLSome tricks of a Jester, or the bravado of a 5tf£f^— .we 
can practise the game of brag as well as you. 

I must say that these gentlemen have reason in their argu* 
ment I must accompany them still fiirthar, and maintain 
that tfietr concessions have always been fully adequate to your 
exerdons, and that government has always approved itself 
ready to give when you had the inclination to ask. The ruling 
power has ever met you half-way ; and so far fVom being ob- 
stinate, has been wonderfully gracious and facile.— Would 
you have it forsake all the modesty and decorum of spotless 
and unoontaminated innocence, clasp you round the neck, 
and stifle you with embraces ?«->Would you have it come, like 
the spiritless Queen of Sheba to Solomon, and moved by the 
bare report ot your depth of wisdom and magnitude of pow« 
er, throw shekels of fine gold and heaps of precious stones at 
your feet ?«-No; there is an obsequious majesty in g t, 

which would be weoed, and not unsought be won. When you 
took up arms as Volunteav, were you not legaliaed by the ao« 
thori^ of two estates of the legislature ; and was the silent 
•cquiescence of the third aught else than the qpeediless rap-' 



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J99 

tare of a hMjijpj parent, who looks with delight cm his mar* 
iial o&pring. When you met at Dungaimon, were not met-*' 
sengert sent to wait at your doors, and to retam, on the spvr 
of the moment, with the result of your deliberadons ? Did 
any of these men at that time enter the meeting, and with % 
tribanitial Veto put a stop to its proceedings ? Wh^ yo« re* 
solved, did not they perfonn ? Did not expresses upon ex* 
presses stimulate the dilatory cabinet of Britain to accede t9 
your demands ; and as if it was always feared that the last ex« 
press might fall sick or get drunk upcm the road, did not the 
Secretary himself fly like a Mercury from the Coandl-Board^ 
and rising in his place^ beseech the British Senate to complj> 
with your reasonable desires ? Did they not comply ? WheQ 
you were informed that the repeal of the Declaratory Act waa 
an insufficient tenure for legislative independence,F-^that tht 
liberties of a nation were not to hang upon implication^ de* 
ductien, the virtue of a negation, or the loop of expediency— 

^ but were to be secured by a record composed of characteti 
positive, marked, and notorious ; large enough to be read by^ 
the multitude, and deep enough to resist the injuries of time; 
that the baais of eternal agreement could not be too strcfng and 
cxplidt— 4ii)d that repeal waa merely retrospec ti ve, while re* 
minciation like the god of Peace, had one face turned to the 
time past^ and another that looked into futurity ; did notyoa 
testify your wishes for renunciation, and did not rennnciatioipk 
tske place? Was not your very countenance watdied befbr^ 
die words escaped from your lips, and were not your wishes 

• anticipated while they were yet rising from the bottom of 
your hearts^ If yon have any grievances remaining, speak, 
and tell what they are. Is government obliged to divine your 
complaints ? , Where then is the scat of your pain f What 
noUe part has it affected ? Is it your head or your heart ? 
Tou aigk and you tremble — are you so opprest with violence o£> 
iiseiwe that it has robbed you of utterance ?-««*Spqak !--* 



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800 

tpeik !— if thm be jet a spark of life ttirring witbin ymi^ I 
conjure you in the name of God to ipeak, and if you canno^ 
bold up your band ! She dies witIiout a shin I ! 

Put yourselves, my countrymen, in the place 6£ adminisl 
frafion, and you will find that they act with the strictest pro-* 
priety. Tou have made a new requisition through the me- 
dium of the volunteer convention. That convention, however, 
represented only a part of the people. In such a national mat- 
ttr as tefbriB, it is the nation wtiidi ought to speak. Kinis^ 
try are too patriotic to listen to a part, when the interests ^ 
the whole aire concerned. They deny that the volunftem esc^ 
j^ress the sense of the people^ and assert, that they are a set of 
delegates wTiobave usurped the right of ^)eaking'fbr the peol 
pie without their consent, and disdaining their control : thai 
dierefore it b the doty of every Patriot to bring about the on« 

, ly substantial reform by driving those usurpers frpiu the seats 
which they have polluted, and that they, I say the Ministry^ 
flirow themselves on the wisdom and magnanimity of the peo« 
pie, in the largest sense of that word, io jilistify their patrio* 
tic conduct at the present momentous crisis.— ->On the twen« 
tieth of January, 1785, will this great appeal be determi- 
ned. 

For my own part, I cannot speak upon this subject, as t 
happen to enjoy at present the office of petty constable, and I 
have no inclination to encounter a summary civil process, or 
to be found guilty of a misdemeanor, and perhaps of con- 
atructiv6 high treason. Ton may speak ; for I know not of 
any established precedent in the courts of law for issuing out 

A writ of attachment against— « nation ; or for citing two 
millions of people for contempt of court, to be condemned or 
acquitted by an oath of exculpation. Perhaps, indeed, every 
man is to be accounted a k — ^g^s officer on the same accottot 
that he is supposed to be his tenant; and his M. may be ma 
Much k»td of the souls of his subjects, as he is of the s(h1. 



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Tlifli0w«rthrft>vtMigni iajt^moitfloqiitiit 0rhi«l»- 
iuBa» Mf commaiif]. power: the eaUmp ef the peopleonly, 
cm cmoatind.mt^^jf^. Under dial autboritjr you ere. now 
edted tffm W «#^ if dier^.be pa oiher megpi of attembling 
injKiftr deaiifiet tjkmibf tbe i«c|ttuitioii of a sheriff; end if- 
the eheriVdoeethit with jui elteehnieDt bmpging ever hit heed« 
k ie not to be expected that you wiU find emong Uie number 
a Dedua who «iU devote himadf for the good of his country. 
Xoa aee to act— and the vdunteert of thii nation aie to be- 
tried by God and by their Coomtbt. 

Bat ttill, I fear for the event ! — Ireknd ii jret a chOd. 
There is sometinies seen in rickety children an extraordinary 
forwardness of mental powers, which surprif es every ono 
with ite stMiftk, acu tee e ss , and eonprehension. The aurse 
weadsrs^ and the perenu expecC» that the little one will turn 
eut a proAgg^ Every thing seems learned by instinct and in- 
taitimi CnMkielly its powers weaken, its faculties shrivel up^ 
It loees all iu iery spifit, its glowing ambition ; and the little 
wesider of the world 4it length &*» a Simpleton, and dia a 
Set! 

A PXTTY COVSTABLX. 



LETTER VL 

FELLOW'SLjrMS ! 

THERE is a certein tbrm fixed by the hand of Providence, 
which sets a limit to the misfortunes as well as to the prospe* 
ritj of the people. This terminating period sometimes hap- 
pens in a season when it was least expected, and mocks the 
boosted sagacity of the second-sighted politician. The clpud 
which he supposed mast burst in ruin upon the heads of mil- 
JjooSy sOently disperses, or falls gently down in the dew of a-> 
loitj smd peace* The present may perhaps be a period of thia 

Dd 



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kiad. But who-it the pewer, tlut» ttUdtr Pkcmcbncr^^ cui pro* 
cure us liberty end peace ? The 8irmuEieir<-^diat tMpicioQ^. 
power which iialwajt to be mppesed- wekeW Ibr the piMi^ 
good, and which ddights to Uend jnttiee wMl many. Tbt 
hope of this propitioits inteffc eiii on ghddem waj tovl* 1 6r* 
get, for one heppy tnenienty that I am the slave of sUnreir 
and usmg the priy^^e of the Satamalian teaaoti^ I ptaee the 
cap oflibertj on my head, and holding the olive branch inny 
hand, I presame to addren mjrtclC in the name of Ms mk 
tion, 

TCV TR£ KIXG OF GRE^AT-BKITAIN AND IRELAKa 

stn, 
WITH the Jealous loyalty of aActionate seAjecti to a 
graCions Sovereign, whose throne is established m the hesits 
of his people, we prestmie to approadi the eomaaen fittfaer (4 
the empire. We approach hhn with thkt honeat eonBdenss 
which becomes its at the brethren of BritatM; and the co- 
heirs of Magna Gha^ta. We beseech him to listen with be- 
nignity to his loyal people of Ireland, who are ready with 
their lives and fortunes to defend the rights of royalty, and 
will make the same sacrifice rather than relinquish their ovn. 
Suffer us, great and good sir, witjioot encroac^in|^ en oor re- 
spect and veneration for Ae oiooarch, to address yoar M- 
ings as a man. Let other nations invest their sovereigns with 
the attribatp of Omnipotence, and fall down like servile idb- 
fators before the workmanship of their own hands.— -Our Kiiif 
is not the object of superstition^ but of love. We addreis 
your Majesty, not in theprophane posture of impToos adors<i' 
tion ; but casting oar eyes with delight on the graciousness of 
^our countenance, we view you with all the warmth of per- 
sonal affectic^n. Your inustrious house may well be called— 
TVB rAM ILY OF THE PBOTLS. The inugos of ycnir mncestors 
mre ei^fariiiedin our hearts, and memory sheds a sort of st- 



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803 

«ed aad itligimM light #Tcr .the long-departed dead. We did 
•■tliefiliCe t^piaoe the crown of this kingdom on the heads 
of I bre ign er a^ who ireve so clo^ly related to this country bj 
-the lirilowaUp^ fteedom; bst onyoa^ dear Sovereign, we 
look vitk patiiotie {MftiaHty, tfod the attadnnent of loyalty 
.is coBdeaaed ioii domestie alTection. Never dball that day be 
oUilerated from oar remembrance, when your Mi^etty in a« 
eeending the throne, declared, that bom and educated in thia 
'eottntry, yon gloried in idie name of Briton. We oome be* 
^bre yea in^ obeiaance of our hearts and in the anguish of 
-onr souls. We come to pour out our complaints aa children te 
a parent, and by the prevailhig power of this pathetic appel- 
Mon, we think osrseives secure of your favorable attention. 
We beoeedi you as a man who can lecA for the sufferings of 
^komanity; as an illustrious patriot, whose life is the public 
-care ; aa a King, whose private happiness must be the public 
^ory; but sAxive all, as a father, to look upon the larger fa* 
inily that now addresses you, with a smile of paternal conde** 
-scension. FAT«aa or the peopl«, hear their prayers ! 
' An Intimate ae^aimtance with the history of the oonstitu«> 
t|on wiH demonstratie to your Majesty, that this, Vke other hu* 
inan institutionfi, is Sable to decay and declension. The con- 
Btitotion emerged at first from 4he same deluge of feudal bar«> 
-tofism which overspread all the nations 6f Europe; and while 
nidet of these natbns rose Ibr k litde to sink again into the base- 
ness of servility, your people, by their insuUr situation, the 
^rit <yf their ancestors, the succession of iWrtnnate circum-^ 
Stances,' and the restorative virtue of rovolutions, became the 
T^tTol Inheritors of a system and plan of government, found- 
^cdl ori tte rights of human nature, and the principles of fraSk> 
doD^* The abuses inddent te every hiiman government that 
CMftieB within itself the seeHs of corruption, were always ^eor^ 
tedled by a recurrence to those first principles, which through 
^le lapse oPiime had b^en negleete^ or forgotten. This occ:^ 



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304 

•tonal recurrence produced a sort «r politieftl regiettMitieft^ 
counteracted the deiastationt of time, and re^aninMilad liw 
genioa of. the cooinion-i^eal. it k'thia rec u rpt n po: rfona 
whidi can preserve tlie due attemperam^r "of lh« ibrea •• 
•tates, and apportion to each thcfif ac)e«|uaite share of uitr&iMC 
power and external influence. The constitution it a ^pftmeA 
of matehless workmanship, founded on the broad baae^of d^ 
mocracj, and ascending with doe gradation, until the imagt 
of the Sovereign is exalted upon its height and ienntnates its 
devation. No overhanging part ought to endaager ila ataU- 
litj: No enormous power ought to destroy its jusi i^ropoiw 
tion. 

To preserve the balancc or f^owanaaiong'thoaatikNisdf 

Surope was not the chief f^ctrj of Britain, Her ^Wef gkty 

was, and is, to preserve the BALANcctif rasBDOM wi^hifi hep- 

aelf. From this originated the greatnesb of her empire, the 

virtue and valor of her^peopAe, her .extend^ci fiuna^ and bar 

domestfc prosperity. When the nationathat droqsed bcnaatb 

the ydke of despotism heard the Brkjsh thund^ roar on their 

remotest shores, they wondered that the limited monarch of a 

little island could stretch an arm so pow^^ acrosa tbo ocean. 

They did not, or ^^ould not comprehend, that the atrangth oC 

millions was lodged in that arm, aad that the same pcqpular 

power which limited the encroadiments of aibttrarj awaj^ 

made otjR King the more terrifale to hia ibes. Tbe power of 

a3ritish King^is the liberty <if the People condenaad into an 

irresistible force, whidi was once courted into aHiance by tfaa 

proudest potentates, and buried ve^geanoa on dioeo Ijraiita 

who wished to become despots of the glebe. Tbe yfsadaial a& 

innation of long contdbled r^btS!, tiurough'^ many Of wtuiie^ 

atmng the nerves of ydur subjects, and niada tbem ftarleaa of 

avery foe; while the prerogative of the cfMm no lo^ar wild 

ind voracious, but drcumscribad witfam ka p rapar NnOTtt!^^ 

became aa sacred and aimatiliitioBal aa Ike imsMmf^^A Aa 



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•fM!^. Ymtt^lfi^ nqrfel Siv, iwd th t ri gh to of ^rfwr pM- 
•pie, ntl Ml die tmmt fonndali on. ' As evmf acl of «iibitiiigr 
ipiMHrtrebiiaget yMtri l Itbtrtf^ dis depufiinM of |bp poopb.is 
JMtl«Mcflfftatii1jril»iibii0tdaiilaf fegalgkiiy, Xfnnpiiitof 
hbeHj tkouU Aiiie io Mif .ctber Mtioo in Earopiu ito ofcjtct 
.Wit bo to teor tbo dolotM drqpot Aom hio iOitaf ifurpo- 
IM^ iMtrodiMo oaoroby i« placoof tl^cUte^wvt, 4iutaQf 
4be load wiib. m\\ commori^ti, .and drowo it in blood: byt 
itbe MDority and eotablitbaicnt of toQstitutioiiid righto in tbo 
oidiyottoof tbb roolm, io tke iggnndisaneiit of oar iiiooarab« 
Mboflsokalidti of hit 4igiH|3r» ood the i^epdor of bio CKpwn. « 
It M^t h tpe furf , moit.griKkwui Sovereign, from a deepoi^d 
tic Tonemtiqo Ibr tbe geouinepr^iciplei of ,a oooiti- 

wbicb oqnoUy reepeeto tl^ pBercgsttve of tbo crown 
-ooA-tho piivilegft^ the people^ tbot yotir sobjecto.of Ire- 
Solid sBOooMtmaod todoclont> in tbo.praaonoe of God and 
Jtt yonr 1iii|> tt^j teirii uvgmit ond mmninaoo^ voioe^— <bot 
tbo intorforence of the oriilociatic body in olecdoDt, and tto 
krfhienoe ^ver a lai^ m^ority of tbo eenunono 

10 onoonttitntionaU and an intolerable griorance. It 
io thio intoifecenco whicb oxcludee your faithCulpoople from 
JhelMot obaio of |MKrticip#tion in that government which their 
pnceolort a^^irod, and youpr ancestors redeemed ; in thatgo- 
vonuoont, -whicb is to sup«nntend their properties, their li* 
l^orlio% and their lives. It is this interference whicb doses np 
|ho natoral , channel of oommonication between our sovereiga 
upd, bia.peaplo^ and wit)^ enormous power overshadowing Hm 
land* inlorosptv or turns from dieir destined direction, oveiy 
ray pf royal bonevolonce. It is this interference which de« 
ftioys tbo lydafice of the difffventostotes of Iq^isUtoze, and 
onljof rts tboriipbto of millions to f few men, whose intoresto 
aso j s ot m o ffp .bostile lo the freodom of the sufajjeot thandefo* 
0imy,c£ tbo roa^.dijgpi^ of tbo thvone^ Far, very fiur is it 

[ i Bt on ly m to CjlBSer thtfsHgbtfStipjnrytoonoooQstita* 



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fMpttttd g&rnmtat; or to dotmb tluit i»|i|is^^contMine 

irhidi tbM iM iinetified, aad wliich t^^ 

Wb do ttot touch wiOk advobtfroiM or drtpernle IwMby thgt 

^venerable oonadttt^ wWdi boi botti^ f^^ by iIm labor of 
ouraiicoflMo, and comenlod ^tMilhok bbodL CoaM ^m 

^4(ht« tofnoovo a single otonetbat supporti the momi edifio^ 
Ihe fftwtoM of these ancestors woold aMoe from their ^wvei^ 
and stop ns bi our progresi. The aristocrtcy, of whose eiK 
traragant hkAtence we at present compbun^ has dwajeboM 

>^e guardian of the Und when H moved withhi the oMeof 
the coDStitation. It has always manifested itself a powerM 
andprerdDing mediator and Hitercossor between the Sfaig and 

'the People. But if this poww swells into an orergrown ma^ 
nitude by feasthig on l3tm rights of the conmiiBity, if it rises 
to sudi gigantic Mxe as to look damn esm tqMm ike iktmto,**^ 
we must fly into your Majesty's presence as to an asyhm» and 
seek for protection and mediation where Ame tkmB^lm imut^, 
in your Majesty's wisdom andgoo^eis. 

With our eyes lifted up to liAiven^ wederiaretoyourlla-i 
jesty, thatdie great source of all eur nalkmal etils arises Amn 
a conviction deeply sunk in the minds of all ranks of men-, 
that the interests of the nation are subjected to th^ s^ioliM 
will and pleasure of men elected by, and dependent upon a 
selfish anttocraey.— A subjection which we must call servite 
and unnatural, the fertile cause of present g ri er au ce s, and the 
pregnant parent of future oppressions, unlesir jrour Migesty'ls 
ttost gracious interposition shall rescue this land ftom impendl 
ing ruin. It is not only the tyramrical ezerdse of power 
which makes it t3nrannical ; but all governments must be of 
diat nature which have not in ^ir constitution sufficient sc^ 
eurity against arbitrary powor, fhmi whatever quarter it may 
proceed. When, therefore, the vital priBci{iles of flree gotem^ 
men t are infected, when the lustre of nonardiy is sallied^ 
and the primary iSrtticKises49f the people in danger of annSii* 



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tor 

htim, ii» inu^ne Umi tinder thM6 ourcumllaiica^ m \ 
i«noe to fint prioctplet beoones InditpMifible,, T6ff$>rDi4h» 
eonstittttion is in this case to restore iL But littio stadions oC 
MHDCS in m subjeot so <iaepl j interetking, we are ready to cell 
ikm attempt to Renovate oar constituliOft an wnovatkin, if tb« 
anao tatm be applied to tboie dmgo^ in our govenuoeBt 
wbich 6rai tbe brighteit pages in tbe atuoialsof its Juctory** 
to Magna Charta» to tbe Bill of Bi§bts> to tkat ssligioMa i^ 
-volatioii distingmshed bj tbe name of- BefiMrmation : and t# 
idiat we sbaU eier deem a glorious innovation on tbe usiige of 
tbe ieaktt~tbe settleiiMnt of the iUustriotts Hoove of H^ 
en tbe tbfotie of tbeae kingdoms, 

. Al the same time in which we lay oar grievances bafiara 
ear Sov^teign and our Father, we call upon the shades of tm 
AUredy an .Edward, and a William^ , to hover at this instaal 
over your honored head, and to pour down upon yon tbe in^ 
spiiation d their just, generous, and extensive couoaals. We 
caQ upon Him who first founded the constitution, and mixed 
the genius of so many nations into a rich tide of personal va» 
lor and public glory ;--upon Him, who carried on the gIo« 
ziotts vrork, tempered monarchy with popular privilege 
and made the greatest happineu of the greatest number the 
policy of Uie state ^— upon Him, who rescued this constitution 
ftom penUtion, and wrote upon his flag those golden wordi^ 
«* I win nuuntain the liberties of the empire." We call n^^on 
you, illustrious Sovereign, in their great namef, to vindicate 
your crown and to save your people. There are certm avas 
in the history of this nation when the elastic spirit of H reedom 
struggles to throw off die incumbent weight which oppresses 
it, and which the lapse of time, or the abuses of the consti* 
tntion had accumulated with slaw and almost imperceptible 
additions. When a James, or aCharles, happens to monn^ 
Ae throne in these critical periods, they disobey or shut their 
eyes agifasl ^ sigoal of Heaven, parse the people witfc.» 



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tot 

fl^lketfrier iMfid, aiul Avoe the tertarednaliini inm convisVi 
rfon. Yet the evbnet «f ib# prkiee become the nmiediiitie or 
iMMteni^utt of general good, aodtynnti thenMeIi«% tlio 
ODwiffiog iBiCmmentt of divine WnevcAenee. But, bleooA 
lie Ood, he often oendeteeiidi to mgHmiW9 tnen mooBentoHO 
periodi 6j aettdiag aehit moNengeH pitriet kings, wkowuln 
Witt dM^ notion m bringing abont a ttbodletenTolntiMi; and 
ftoa rertering tke empivo to ibi original gtindenr. In math m 
fieriod appeared the imnKwUd Walum, whose oon^uett wae 
withetrt a groan, and wbeae tdunph wae wtthoot a wan 
Tbat great and good ttonarob George the Firsts aeeended-i^ 
Che same manner the designs of Heaven, and resened the 
meofwn onoe more ftom a race that polhited it It ia yoilrs, 
tdjA Skt, to rise notoi^ above die enrnd of ktng% bot ^ 
bove even these our most ilkistrious monar.di% andtebeoome 
Onr greatest deliverer. In yoor power is it j^aoed, OKhagl 
to usher in a new order of brings, to perfect the g^oriea of 
the constitution, and to make the name of George the Thnd 
lominotts in the historic page to remotest gencndens. While 
the kingdoms of Europe are sunk in the depths of deqpotiam^ 
be it yours to pbce yourself al ti»e head of the United Em- 
]Mre ; and by restoring that freedom of coostitntiein whidk 
l^w with the eariiest growth of the British power, and eo^ 
vered your ancestors with the mande of asajesty, restore to 
tfiese islands their former greatness ; greatness that made thena 
bappy at home and respectable abroad, greatness now sink* 
big in the dust fbr the want of that actual representation 
whidi is the birthright of man, aiul which is absolutely ne- 
cessary to make these kingdopu either vans or FBikTfeRMAU 
Then will the thunder of the sUte roll as loudfy as before, 
and the flag of the United Empire shall be a stream of light? 
ning flashing in the eytM of its foes. Other kings wiU have 
servile eob}ecU ; you alone will have a pxopti* The sma 
el ISbMf which has trsvded» ia th# pr^wss ff oehtorie% 



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009 

ble powers und faculties of human nniure whererar it arrived^ 
^mdhtmng: s% iu ^^^m^i^ » dimal desdtatioD, would stiind 
#fll fk%y90f 4omWi^, $^ its ligbt would linger arouud th^i^ 
^SorilM^^ Ma^ wbicb gloried in having ymn for their King. 

I>t fiot OIK Ki^^ Iktea to those men whose interest it is to 
deieeifief by ascribing the distracted state of this country and 
M^ rapi^ dep^paUtion to a cause so inadequate to the cffee^ 

m the .^gge&tloas of a petty party, or the licentjoaanese of a 
iSM^tioud (few. He who reads the human heart knows how oii- 
MSUifig we are ^o diaturb the peace of the royal bieasl, with 
t^ .-^<I9^UbM of a ^ueh injjured pec^le* He knows how 
j^msa;^!^ we d^i^recate . the horrors that attend civil comma- 
4ipa ;: :and with wiiat long-suffering and patient endurance wa 
Jmve JMflfpated our gi;ievances in the ears of those who have 
trffnd ips i9 jMum with contempt and derision. He knows 
4bs| vojape aitaclhed to our native soil by all the tender ties 
fad <|l»iriiars>of V^i and that it is» in bur estimation, an equal 
;rit«i^ia^»y0 to ab^don it, or to die. The man, whoever he 
oUy bo Miat opwn, for a moment, dissuade a virtuous prince ftom 
Ibofsoat oxaltod diaplay of buman excellence by the Ubera|io« 
of jfiHUoiis of his fellow-creatures, is equally the enemy of 
tho Pooi4a« .^be Crow^ and the ConstttutioQ. listen rather^ 
Sir^ ta those wboliave been in all ages the protectors of our 
Odpsti^utm^ oaoparohy and the pillars of the state,«— to that 
g>reat stfitafii^B and faithful servant, who thon^ dead stiU 
speaketh, and who^ under your auspices, strupk a blow in the 
Wicttid that resounded throqgb its history ; to ^lim, the son of 
MMJt same man, now your first minister, and who in thi^ great 
point reconciles op|K>sition and destroys party ; to him whp 
pr«8idet in your most saored counsels ; to the wisest and best 
naan in tbelhtfeekingdoml:*— listen to Ei^land, Scotland, and 
Jtfekndi who, in purp uit of this glorious otgect, are uniting 

E6 



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210 

into one grand astodatiQiin, which ertrj dty facita ie i m 
strength and in numbers. 

Your people of Ireland will nerer despnir of the codohmi^ 
weal, while they are suffered to appeal to your Majesty ; ami 
while the extraordinary and multiplied exertions sf privsts 
-virtue and patriotism^ which have of late years raised thra ill* 
into eminence, so strongly indicate that there is a fbnd itf 
sense and spirit diffused throughout this kingdom ; which cot* 
lected with prudence, and applied with skill, may, with the 
assistance of the Sovereign, successfully counteract the othsN 
wise fatal increase of aristocratical influence. For this Mte 
purpose of collecting the will of the nation, and of proeuriog 
the solemn verdict of public opinion, your people have assem- 
bled together and called this assembly — Ccmvention. It it u 
assembly founded on the first principle of the oonstitutisii-^*^ 
right of petitioning. It is an assembly whiA glMiss it 
pursuing the end and ebject of its desires, by a regulsr pro^ 
gress, by the fkithful adherence of loyalty and by die wayssf 
peace. Formed by no faction, submitted to no demagogue 
ft is composed of men the most honored and respected in ths 
land ; men who at all times have supported the just prMgs* 
tives of the crown ; men whose extensive properties nske 
them deeply interested in the peace and prosperity of the sa- 
pire i men who have guarded this island from fore^n in?** 
sion and domestic disturbance; men who have received the 
roost splendid mark» of eminence and distinction from the ho- 
nor-giving hand of their beloved Sovereign. 

Listen to our petitions, O our Father and our King ! Clo* 
riously anticipate, in the way which to your wisdom may scent 
most meet, the redemption of your people ; and by becominf 
the savior of the empire become the arbiter, not merely of £«• 
rope, but of the world. The period of political reform miut 
arrive. Ood will not suffer his image on earth t# be long de* 



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211 

fteed and degraded The light of science, the influence t»f 
wi«e end good men, the improved knowledge <^ humsin Da« 
tiire and ita rigbti, the liberal eommunication of private sen* 
timent and public opinion^ and the sjmipathj which great souls 
in the most distant nations have for each other, — are all cau* 
•ca conspiring to introduce a revolution that will yet raise this 
ettipir^ to eminence^ and rescue the dignity of human charao» 
tcr. Acknowledge these auspicious signals of Heaven! 
Croud all the fruits of coming time, all the godlike deeds of 
future days into one illustrious moment ! Make fate at it were 
your own, and seise with noble daring the honors of posteri* 
tj. An Almighty Arm seeqU to break through the dark cloud 
eC futurity, and slowly beckons you to tbe consummation of 
knman gkary. You are advancing in years. Every moment 
drags you nearar to the silent abode of your ancestors : and 
i^ile in our he«ts we are saying " O King, live for ever r time 
ia pi«paring a repository for the dead. May the band of 
death Ml slowly and gently on your honored ^ad, and may 
BO sudden stroke of disease deprive the nation a third time of 
their Siie and Sovereign. Give your people a free conslitu- 
tion^ and the gratitude of rraotest generations will be your 
noUest apotheosis. 



LETTER VII. 

WELLOJr'3LArES ! 

THE spirit of the North has much influebce on the spirit 
of the nation. The North itself is impelled by the spirit of 
particular counties ; and in these counties the ascendant power 
of individuals, if it does not generate the love of liberty, is al- 
ways found to cUrect, to modify, to confirm, or to restore it I 
nke aristocracy weB, if this term indicates only the influenee 



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219 

6f wise And good men, when the best are (lie »idst-plMreifei^ 
and wfaeo virtue confers the truest nobility. The agencjr ef 
suel^ men inspired this eountrj with a passipn for public glery, 
i|uickened the inert tnass <>f the muhitifde, and Ht^ k im^ 
ward into accelerated motion. A certain unacoomita^le kfi« 
g«or and sluggishness of spirit in these tame men iiaTe pfo* 
daced >oar political anticlimax, and the nation deprived ef 
their tustaining infkjence is like to descend with inglorious 
gradatibn to its original abasement. Every one waits entil ke 
•tea those take the lead who took it before ; but when the Men 
whom you have been aceastomcd to follew, retreat frooa their 
eonapicnovs stations, you cannot readily find proper partizsos 
to occupy their places ; you grow timid and irresolute, we <►• 
bilged to give way, or at least shift your position, and all runs 
iftio disorder and coilfusion. I wish to believe that the apad)y 
tft the public mind proceeds tnerely from the Aiolt of a lew ; 
because this in some degree rescues the ebarecter »f aay oaun- 
tirj, and .because the evil on this supposition b tanore easily 
eorrected. It is incumbent on those distinguiUted individaak 
who espoused with so mucfh wartnth the cause c^ the people 
seriously to reflect, that their past exertions must etentually 
prove prejudicial to that cause, if their assistance be now with* 
drawn ; for these exertions made you not only rely on the per- 
manence of the same seal for the time to come, but by repo- 
sing too long and too securely on the abilities of others, inca- 
pacitated you in a great measure from acting for yourselves. 
Much have those men to answer for at the tribunal of the pub- 
lic, who walk about at this time like the deaf and duwb in 
those counties which hgt a little before they had animated 
with ardor, and enlightened with information. This is not 
merely the subtraction of so much personal merit— it breaks » 
link in the chain that holds i^p the hopes of the nation ; ax>d 
the stroke is felt in the remotest part of thp kingdom^ by the 
s^ct connexions and dependenriea which have drawn the 



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S19 

mnt tbv Ijit •f what nu^ be odkd thtf ^bMOU^ oouvtiat, X 
ttMoiljr citdit flfjr ^fet when I aee diel oM wUeh kd tbe v«l 
09# iMgi iii f in $ke mtp I eddrete myeelf 

TO THE COtJNTY OF AKMAQB. 

TO xhsX county which had the distinction of originatinif tfit 
first Dungannon meeting ; and of consequence, awakened th* 
spirit of reforro throughout the North. Are those who flnft 
Gsme on the field ambitious to be the first in moving off? Are 
they ashamed to finish what they were so eager to begin f 
Where are the redoubtable 6000 who subscribed their naaiei 
to a petition, which almost carpeted the House of Comm<mi^ 
anil gave additional influence even to a Brownlow ? Your 
county is now an anonymous county. Like the Emperor 
Charles V, you sit in your coffin, rehearse your own ftineral^ 
and min'ster to your own obsequies ; while t claim the honor 
of pronouncing an eulogy on that spirit' which had the proud 
konor of lifting the volunteer standard, and marshalling our 
way to Dungannon. You perhaps are led to believe, that th# 
mere expression of your wishes is sufficient, and that it is un* 
necessary to reiterate them ; but in what are we directed til 
persevere, if it be not in the repeated declaration of our gticm 
vances? It is an easy direction indeed to persevere in doing 
nothing ; but can any positive good arise from this negative 
conduct ? I look in the dictionary for the exact meaning of 
this puzaling polysyllable, perseverance, and I find that it 
implies steadiness iir pursuit, and constancy in progress. Canl 
we pursue and stand still, at the same time? Can the same 
business be at once stationary and progressive ? A cessatioD 
of an active power in the people cannot surely be persevo* 
ranee. An intermission in the pulse of political life, radier 
indicate a siidden dissolution. Does any man amoi^ 3^011 
auppose that 'parliament win take up the question of reftMm? 
this sestSob, or any otbei' session ; If the matter in trun be xiw' 



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S14 

%rropted by «teii a t«npofary nisiMiifion on the pert of tht 
paUic? Perterere, then, in doing is you have already dont. 
ff yoa bafv retalvad^ addretted^ and peiitioned. Lord Cbav- 
lenumt and Mr. Brownlow, by inciliof jrou to poraevcnuici^ 
mutt be ooDckpded the advocates of a meeting which carries 
on the work yoa began; ibr how you can perserere by alter- 
ing your whole course of conduct and giving the lie to yoofw 
■elves, I do not coinprehend. This is a sort of aigzag perse- 
veranoe which is little better than going backward; at least 
the H. of C. will think it the tame things and will act accord- 
ingly. If any one step in the progress of this buuness was 
Beoessary, the present step must be equally so; because it 
springs from the rest, and tends at the same time to make your 
footing more brdad, and therefore more secure. The enemies 
^ reform, by cabal and intrigue, must rather animi^ your 
#ounty than injure your meeting; and be assured that your 
present political non-entity is to them an apparent victory, 
and tells against you as a real defeat. The cause of reform in 
your county ought not to fear the petulance of opposition, or 
die tricks of debate. 1 should not wish that you were with- 
out enemies ! It is the laborious struggle for our rights which 
produces the qualities of mind necessary to maintain them. 
.The enemy I must fear is— lei^Af a yoursehei. 1 fear that slug- 
gish stagnant disposition of soul which no passion can agitate^ 
and which has neither wish nor aversion. 

You ought not to wait until you hear Mr. PittTs argument 
for reform, but you yourselves are to give an additional argu- 
ment to Mr. Pitt It is in your power to become an interest- 
ing topic in his speech, and the failure of the friends of re- 
fbrm in thu kingdom must rob his eloquence of more than 
half iu energy. Lord North win have the names of every^ 
aonnty, not represented, carefully written down in his pockeU 
book ; and if he begins with calling out Armagh, the membcra 
vUh lifted bands and eyes, will ask, if that be the county 



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Slff 

wUdi boasted in a Charlenont and » Brrariow? Tbc o^* 
Hitter depends upon Xrcland at vnidi a» Ireland does ep lllf 
mittister. The same popalarity .which lifted him U his st|if 
titm, most support kim in it He agitales the qoestioa of xe* 
fiym at present, because it is a popular question; but if it.oee^ 
ses to be a popular qnestbn, he wiU also oease to harapg ut 
upon it. If Mr. Pitt be a sincere adtocate for i«for«i^' lit 
would indte jou to a coantj meeting, were be am^ng yon al 
tins instant. If he be an advocate Ibr a mutilaSed leftn^ 
jrour exertion is the only mean to amfdtfy his concqitioiis;: and 
if he be bat an ostensible friend, you surely ou^t iiOltodi>» 
ky a moment on his account. 

. But the assembly of delegates ought not to sit during tbo 
session of parliament ! What? Did not the first men in tilt 
nation accept of delegations from the volunteer avmjr be&fft 
the pe€|)le had s{K>ken at all ? Did not those very men sit in 
tibat assembly, under the eye of government, in October a|4 
November, 83 ; when the castle^guards were deuUedy -M jf 
to giv^ their meeting more importance and solemnity. Wbalf 
Are thos6 men whoso conduct on that occasion contributed m 
such an omment degree to rouse the electors of Iidand, • and 
make them re-edio like men, the demand of their voluntoir 
brethren— are these same men to wither and blast in a moment 
that flourishing spirit which ages may not revive f Has aiijr 
new matter since occurred ? Is a volunteer conventioii s# 
jBOch their favorite object of adofatkm^ that it is safe, honcaa^ 
ble and meritorious to sit as a volunteer, but base and d^^r^* 
ding to sit as the representatives of counties, comprehending 
Tohmteers, and every other description of electors f'^When» 
when. I say, are you to speak if not now ? Who called on 
the people to spebk h^I know the man I " AU that rematna^" 
said he, on the close of the volunteer convention, 'Ms, to ro^ 
turn to our counties and to inform them that it is for tliem im« 
jnediately to speak out with the spirit of fresinen.'' Did aa^ 



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816 

iMHi fa the cm i ni ntott fip i tt tluitllici Bmne wo«U«litfftM 

gfepertdl f^rnn ftMiwItHNMrMstinUj'? Whait Atrnivowit^ 
iBeeetogv? IIThiit talio>faiMetl» mi9*8«l«|4iit«C «h«iKu 
#011, t# toy tftw giio w d Mft fht frogrmm!Wwmpprmc}iea^ Ibat 
IttllWMdP— 4Biiglil fifwlitvaiirto^oppawlbeyoicrbr uB^ 
%m$$ yfbUwmikm timltmgmgB of tfie nmt emiofeni pi» 
MMt Bf Mt Mfprisfld tiMt ]pailiMi»ne tkouU thrd# oat 
9««rlKll«id tnal it wiikDoatempl. How ivias the ortetiBU 
km pioiRSMd^ How wffw thdutttids of otlMrconontiDii«^(i« 
Uttir dH)r tboaglit at Inpelesa} obUiaed ?-^^ progtiHiiiat 
measures; by supporting the people md kfnginf Hietif ces^ 
9iikk,1ff «NlK>ii to tke ohai^. Forsake m aot, iDustrfoas 
HM iimj f i» e ii > whtit w» are pursukig that line efeoflda«t wllMl 
y^ yoarsehres ha^e pointed out Otir eaiise it a eommon one: 
ytDfi h«ve pledged yeurlUth to«s andtotbeworM^yi^ue 
^pM am^tket thai yotf wiN net fcvaske os; Do fiir aewhat we 
hte^ 4&ne far y<m. It is tfte people who' have^ pointed yo^r 
))erKN(s and gv^^ ai body tio yaor figuf^ ; it was tKeir arm* 
ttaffhshed completion upon yom* aivtagoniMs f n* dMwte ; and 
■fftur cl e qti sBce reeeiyes its polisln and its power Uroiti tlie m^ 
ttoTf e^ Che people, fiteadinessi in the cooipacf between yott 
asidl^ people, is all tfiat is wanting fo^rown oar cause wiA 



ll 19 said by high authority, that the asseaiMy of delsgacea 
dvght to-be held, providiMi H oouM be fnadi^ equally respeew^ 
hie with ther voliiflteer eomrentioit. But wb« aro they tfcat oms 
perfomi the conidkione of thie stipulation } The very same 
men nhat make it. Let tkan speak the cnaman^g word; 
ws. WILL ; and it is dtone. We wiH exert ourselves fin- the 
aawj l i ng, prov ided it is vespeetaWe I Attend it— 4ind k nrast 
bei^spectable. Let them imitate the conduct ot Cfaarlenioiit^ 
m patriot whose flune has now taken a mature and mellowed 
Itot, ahnost peenlkr to his ow» tUostrioaa charaeter. Wbeft 



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217 

cdkd Bpoii. &iz jeart ago, to review the volunteert then leam* 
i^g the rudimenta of war» he did not return for ant wer, that 
he would coiue« provided there were ao many thousands in the 
idd. He came ; and taw but few. He returned ; and saw 
MQce. Th^ multiplied beneatli his eye, and Hannibal, the 
favorite horae that bore his honored master, was at length wea- 
17 in slowly paeing round the long array.*— He attended by 
proxy at Dungannon, and he presided at the convention with* 
out a provision. Honor and respect flew before him like haiw 
bingers, and announced the coming of that man who must 
make any meeting illustrious. This earth can supply us with 
few obiiecta more illustrious than a great and active spirit, mo* 
ring onward in the all-sufficiency of manly virtue, and with ' 
ical that ttrikes fire from disappointment to a practicable per^ 
ifection of public freedom ; and if he wants a solace in his la« 
bors, transporting himself with patriotic prescience to that pe* 
fioci when posterior shall consecrate his recorded name, and 
engrave it still deeper in the roll of immortality. 

Freeholders and inhabitants of the County of Armagh, I 
call upon you to be consistent with yourselves ; to follow your 
representatives, one of whcmi sat in convention ; and the o« 
ther nobly voted in parliament for a reform, which must in* 
fifed fix him the more securely in his seat and in your aflTec* 
tioos;— to follow that right honorable Baronet, whose steady 
and uniform support, in and out of convention, of your fa* 
▼orite object, is acknowledged by you all ;^to follow a Sym* 
HOT, and a Cope, who are prompting you to your duty as 
fteeholden and freemen. Who dare despcmd under such 
leaden? Let no roan dare to despond until the dye is cast. 
Deepondence is a poor, weeping, whimpering quality of mind, 
nnfit for bearded men. Your coontry boasts of many other 
nolde souls, that I could individually specify, who are an ho- 
nor tfi Ireland. If they be forgotten in the roll of fame, that 
generosity sorel/ ie not less glorioua which blesses in secret ; 

Ff 



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218 

and they muat think it a just caiue of virtaiMis pride, tiiar 
their country could engage 8o many advocates in her eaase as 
to render it difficult to particularise them. There is a plea* 
sore that some minds feel in the pursoH of liberty, which it» 
possession could not communicate to others. Yau know wheiw 
your strength lies — use it— Wrestle with difficultiet. WatA 
your enemies and your ^*ends. You have done much. Thb 
brings on you an obligation to do more. Liberty is a precioiur 
blessing, and cannot be bought cheaply. Goon then in the 
way yon have begun. Blend the prudence and feraiight of 
the citizen, with the spirit and sinew of the soldier ; and en- 
ter upon the new year like men that deserve to see die enii 
of it. 

A flag waa once displayed ftom the Castle of Dublin, wtdr 
thia inscription, mow oa never, now and won eves. I 
think I see such a flag streaming over ymur heads at thia im« 
portant moment, an^ anspictous signal to lead you to glory, otf 
an unhappy omen to fiiretel your doom. You seem at length 
to be half awakened. ' Y<m rub your eyes and peep at the 
Hght, but perhaps all that yon intend is to turn to the othe^ 
side and take another nap, in order to complete the eentuiy: 
1 will not suppose it. There are men among you who can act 
as well as suffer. I speak not to those pedantic patriots, who 
fight manfully in the historic field at Cannse or Thermopylsr, 
but are little better than iaggots in this unclassical sera oS- con* 
tention. I speak not of those patrioCa whose pnbKc spirit ebbft 
with an empty bottle, and flows with a bumpev; or of thooe 
hypochondriacal patriots who sit in elbow-chairs depreeatinf 
the calamities that impend over their country^ but nevev stir- 
ring one inch to avert them. I speak not to those patriots ytht^ 
seem always waiting until tomorrow become today, and whose 
endless procrastination might serve some purpose, if Aey 
could annihilate the time which now is, and contrive som€«» 
how to exist only in that which is to come. I jipeak to men bt 



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5il9 

nctive^ not of patsive courage ; men whose deeds are their 
praise ; men who are slow to resolve, but quick to perform ; 
men whose private interest is the public good ; and who in 
all political questions consult, as an oracle, the genius of the 
constitution. Such men there are. Come forward fVoro the 
throng. Forget the distinctions of rank and station. Yoy 
nay be poor, and yet prouilly great. No man can be too 
humble in his private character, or too proud as a candidate 
far freedom. If this country be capable of freedom, you vp 
the men, whether in the inferior or middle stations of life, who 
akme are able to make it free. 

MEN OF TYKONE, 

I WISH to shame you into virtue. Let the praises whiqh 
you have merited make you blush at your present inglorious 
ailence. Did Mr. Stewart and his venerable Either behave so 
ill at Dungannon, that you are afraid to return them to the pa- 
triot council of the nation ? Did the former take his seat in 
the volunteer convention to go off the stage in the last and 
moat illustrious scene of public glory ? If any thing should 
happen in the assembly of delegates conducive to the interests 
of the commonweal, you ought to be personated there in or- 
der to promote it. If any thing should occur contrary to 
tfaoee interests, yoo ought to be there in order to counteract 
it By being represented,' you may do good or prevent harm ; 
but Dii^ good are you to gain by being, as it werj?, annihila« 
ted. If. the other counties take the lead in returning repre- 
jl^i^tatiyes, will not yours cut a ridiculous figure, sneaking in 
perhaps the lag and hinderling of the whole. For shame ! 
Fors^me!. 

MEN OF DEHRY, 

I REJOICE to see that your city has led the way in rescu- 
jog yop wounded ^sme. Public 2eal is condensed in town^, 



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ISO 

but in the Urger ettent of oountiesy it is too apt to burn avay 
like powder in the open air, and It consumes with less effiect. 
Your countjT contains the very Lnther of modem reform. 
That man will not desert his country, unless his country de- 
serts him. This sanguine spirit appears extravagant by its 
striking contrast with the languor, indifference, and frigid 
neutrality of the times. The mild Melanethon would never 
have brought about ths refbrmation of religion ; and there is» 
Ood knows, a suffident quantity of indolence, timidity and 
selfishness, diffused throughout the land, to apprehend much 
danger from a disposition seemingly so combustible. You ar« 
spt to complain of the perfidy of patriots. Take care that the 
change in your owp minds does not deceive you into the be- 
lief that there is a change )n others. When we move round 
along with the earth, the fixed stars seem to sink in the ap- 
parent horizon. The perfidy of a single roan is nothing to 
the perfidy of a whole people. Hear me I«-If you be aflent 
now, the foct is that you^ the men who lived in the last year, 
break fiiith with you the same men that live in the present. 
You are traitors to yourselves. You basely violate thai trust 
which other counties reposed in yon ; and yon stand, by your 
own acknowledgement, a renegade Brom your psrty, your pr^ 
fessions, and your principles. 

MEN OF DOWN, 

ARISE-* the day is come 1 If thsie be any vital prfodple 
left within you> if you be not sunk for ever in the putrid 
pool of corruption, aspire to be men. Look down with pi^ 
and contempt on that sphrit of low intcigne and state chican^ 
ly, which petty peddling politicians enploy to divide and 
distract you. Tlieir narrow souls csmiotcoaiprshendlh«tstib-> 
lime policy of acting with openness snd eanc|#r, bpt ^ on 
little shifts and the coward arts of mean eicpecBents. O I hem 
hesi$i)y dp I despise these men that hai^ haU*wi^ between 



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«21 

Heaiveti and H«ll, too black for the one, and too white for the 
other ! Go, men of Down, go to the meeting which many 
of you have tummoned ; and go with the confidence of proud 
yeomanry, who toom to sink to the vulgar level d* the great. 
Go, and your enemies will not dare to look you in the fiioe. , 
But if they do, I shall honor their boldness, and rejoice that 
at length we can st€ our enemies. I shall rejoice to have them 
in the sunshine, to draw them out from their ambuscade of 
whispers and insinuations. It is the venom of the shaft I fear, 
not the vigor of the bow. T beseech them to attend the meeU 
ing. It is to be held at Downpatrick the fifteenth of the cur- 
nnt month. They have time enough to prepare their engine- 
ry, to scour their rusty shields, and to brighten the spear. 
Let us see them face to fSice in the open area of argument, 
and in the light of day. They shall be heard with attention^ 
and with all possible respect. The cause which we adopt 
acorns to borrow help from the paltry artifices of election, 
Dor do we wish to wound our own pride by receiving that ap- 
pknse which depends on the depreciation of a rivaL We do 
Hel doubt of their abilities; all we want is to see them exert- 
ed. I call then again on every man who is bold enough to 
dochre in the face of Ireland that a reform is unnecessary,. 
to attend at this meeting summoned by fifteen hundred free- 
holders; and if they find no one present but themselves, let 
diem dittse their chairman, appoint their secretary, and sign 
die sentence of merited damnation to the public spirit of the 
county of Down. Freeholders, when you assemble, make - 
your choice of men as delegates, who are ever ready to coun* 
tenance the just daims, ^nd animate the reasonable hopes of 
the nation ; men whose minds are more akin to the sturdy oak 
dun to the weeping willow ; men who can keep to their pa- 
triotic purpose, mnnoved, unshaken, unsedoced, and unterri- 
£ed— though worlds dionld judge it singular, rash, and out 
#f seaeen; men like the four delegates you returned to the 



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£88 

volunteer convention, men like the brother i^—>Robcbt 
Stewart. . 

MEN OF MONAOHAN, 

REMEMBER those resolutions in which you agreed in the 
most ample manner to the necessity of a reform. Tlie refonm 
is nait necessary, unless every coiinty acts, as the half oC 
Ireland has already acted. The reform is not necessary, if ^ 
very county takes merely the trouble of expressing their opi« 
nion, without moving or exerting itself to make that opinion 
successful Let the people hear me when I aver, that this 
oountry is on some occasions as much injured by the friends 
ef reform, as by its enemies. They break that unity of plan ; 
they disorder that regularity in station ; they check that cele.- 
rity in execution, which roost usually command success, and 
which always deserve it. Why say that reform is necessary, 
and yet neglect to make use of the very means which your 
countrymen have declared to be the best means of procuring 
it. By breaking off from that plan which has been generally 
adopted, you are, (I hope unconsciously) commenciug a ci- 
vil WARFARE in your country, which will leave its inhiOi>itants 
a prey to its worst enemies. Every county ought to impel the 
power alrea<^ly in motion, although they might now think of 
a better procedure. Retrogradation at present is the dereli(> 
tion of the whole. What would the principles of the Mont- 
aoMBRY family lead them to at this crisis ? I^ons ! ask your 
fiither. He will not answer you. It is indeed needless. His 
virtue, senatorial integrity, and public spirit, make the best 
.reply. Francis Lucas, hold up your head, and lead the 
Whig interest once more to the charge. If patriotism be yoHr 
profession, pursue it like a man who labors in his vocatiop. 
If it be your principle, act like a man of principle, and ap« 
prove yourself of that elastic metal, which may be bent foar 
•ome timej but cairaot be broken. 



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S23 

LertBe Men of FERMANAGH and of CAVAN add tw# 
delr strings to the Irish Harp, and it will then, in mh and 
deep variety of tone, resound tbroogfaout the nation. A rist #M 
craef .will dreid it like the sound of the laet trumpet, and 
wilt beseech the moontaina to fUl and cover theib; whSeth* 
gnaoM of tte ooBnmnKweal will rise in gbrioiis rteiineetion» 
dialing the dost ftom of hie sacrad bead, add w$lk a §mOm 
of benignity tkitbreaks on his douiitenance thmifb the de«d 
of oblivion, recog ni gttig those mocfe loved cMdipni, wIm^ ^ 
ven in these dc|generate days, have the virtue and resolution 

to be FREE. 

Listen all of you to the words of the Minister,^-^ I will 
support the question of reform to the utmost of my strength, 
and exert my whole power and credit as a man and a minister, 
honestly and boldly, to carry such a meliorated system of re* 
presentation as may place the constitution on a footing ef per- 
manent security." If government be sincere with respect to 
England, it now depends upon the unanimous voice of this 
nation to interest the minister equslly in favor of Irblano. 
If the will of the public be for a free parliament, let the 
public speak. If it continues silent now, the Arm of the 
Constitution may remain, but the sad is departed for ever. 
Ministers and Kings may do what they chuse ; but the only 
specific cur^ for the corruption of the representative body, ia 
the soundness and integrity of the people. Without this. 
Freedom is gratuitous. It hangs upon the tenure of a mo* 
Inent ; and concessions of commercial or constitutional pri- 
vileges are the alms of beggary, and the trappings of servi- 
tude. Accidental state necessity, or the caprice of political 
character are poor securities for the rights of a nation. Mag* 
na Charta is a dead letter, if the root of freedom rots in tho- 
hearts of the people ; and repeal, or renunciation, are but 
the donatives of despotism. You are now to manifest to all 
the nations of the earth, whether the caprice of fortune, a tn« 



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224 

konltttftiy ^ ^ xiAtioMl paatioo, et a eonftrmcm of public 
prindpk and a pennanent rerolotidn io yoor character as a 
pt pi g h a^pc been your iiioli¥«s of action. Wkeihar Imh 
patriodMi it merdy an imp of AotioUt dandkd and pattad. 
bjaparly^.diaaioUyapawnof ahwmoBtcity^ orthanarn* 
•apport and glory of the laland Now on iisvsb« i^ow aii» 
yon nvsal I lay my band on my month whila my heart 
bvRH within ma, and wifli tfaocanacioagimi of haviqg dope 
mydotj^ iink into thawaiadom taper of paofcrninnal life 

OnSLLAHA/ 

XotA-feftoir mic Duaek. aw ut$B uelot. 



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THE lEISH VOLDNTEEBS. 

IT will perhaps be now necessary to go back for a short 
period when we shall behold the splendid and prominent e^ 
forts made by the Irish Volunteers, to secure by a referm of 
their legislature the great principles which they socoeeded in 
establishing by the Rev^lutien of 1782. It would iq^iear aa 
if the race to freedom h^ been too rapid, and that the most 
lealous advocates of the frbk Conbtitutiom and the frbb 
TRADE of 9t were apprehensire, that a nation which found it* 
self capable of doing so much in the assertion of its rights, 
might go one step further, and actually declare its total inde« 
pendence of, and separation from England. Those who were 
of opinion, that both countries were essentially necessary to 
each other's glory and independence ; who feh that, united^ 
they were powerful, and that, separated, tl^ey might be the 
prey of the common enemy, immediately took the alarm ; an4» 
fixmi enthusiastic supporters of those measures which esta- 
blished the legislative rights of Ireland, became equally deter* 
mined opponents of any proceedings nhich led to resulta 
Ihat might terminate in the separation of the countries. The 
influence of the English cabinet was also exerted to the uU 
most to counteract the efforts of the reformers, and to blast that 
fiur and promising fruit, which should naturally have flowed 
finem the wise and conciliating measures of 82. The coalition 
■ainistry, however, of 1788 ; the unnatural and monstroua 
junction of Lord North and Mr. Fdx, generated an adminis* 
tntion in both countries, so chequered and so various, so con« 
ilicting in disposition, and so opposite in character, that we 
are not to wonder the old friends of Ireland should have been 
called off from their favorite pursuit ; or, that Mr. Flood and 
Mr. Grattan should have been seen opposed to each other in 
Ae great struggles (or ^Parliamentary Reform. 

og 



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In Eag land, Uie ^tueslion of ParliamentMry Refem 6CC i>M 
every mind. A declaration oif the tncreaied influence of the 
Crown had, under the auspiceft of a great conatituliwul law- 
yer, Mr. Dunning, been made bj the repreaentatiTet of flie 
People. lB*or this, and in short all abuses whatever, a Ptrlia* 
mentary ftcform was loudly caUed for. In some places, dele- 
gates the most respectable for rank and talent were appointed 
to consider a subject of such magnitude ; and Mr. Pitt, then 
first advandng to pdblic notice, with every aid that a splendU 
name and splendid alMlities could' give him, seemed, ais 
statesman, to assume to himself the almost exclusive guardiao* 
ship of this favored measure, and to render such an iDuttri* 
ous and necessary tutelage the best foundation of his own Cune, 
iml a more exalted state of prosperity. 

If England, however, had reason to con^ilainof theinsde* 
quacy or inequality of its representatkm in the Hoose of Coin« 
■ions, the People of Ireland had at least as moch cause to finl 
lault with theirs ; and, had the subject been confined (writel 
Mr. Hardy iii his valuable memoirs of the Earl of Charlemont) 
to county and city meetings, or occasional asaembHes of dele- 
gates, unexceptionably convened, no question could have sii« 
sen as to the propriety, and perhaps real utility of sudi dis- 
«tussions. Petitions, the result of these meetings, migh\ have 
been duly laid before Parliament; and, though immedista 
success, or any thing like it, could not be looked for, the st« 
tention of the House of Commons to the originid and simple 
proposition of a Parliamentary Reform would not have been 
directed to matters of ah extraneous natore, and toCaUy hostile 
to the cause with which they so hnproperiy intermingled 
themselves. What was the case at the present moment (1 783) i 
The voice of England in favor of a reform, was re-echoed 
Ikre, not by the people, constitwtionally speaking, but by the 
volunteer army, iuuing indeed from the people, yet still s 
military body numerous and formidable. 



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thad, Mifc. Onttan jiMtlf ttatsd, tMftbuUiMl. 
but hacked by them, <nrerthrowit tbe jorisdictioA of moAm 
parliament ; and, however well intentioned the volunteer ar- 
my io general undoubtedly was, it is bnt too oertain, that 
many that belonged to it wished not to modify, not to melio^ 
rate ; bat mi once c^erset ihe popular branch of theii own legis* 
kUre, withoat whose regular, though slow co-operation, they 
eoold have obtained nothing; for all the respectability, rank, 
property and sound intellect of the country would have pppo« 
sed them, and England^ though crippled at that time by the 
war^ was not laid prostrate. 

So writes Mr. Hardy: but to his reaaonbg, or the dtc^atii 
•f Mr, Grattan we cannot agree. We can see no just reason 
why die Volunteers of 83 should not have as influential a voice 
as the Volunteers of 88. They were thesame men ; with the 
same views and the same principles ; differing only from patw 
Bfcri b ent in the conviction of the absolute necesMly of a Par^ 
tkesentary Refem to secure the eonq uest they had made. Did 
Mr. Grattan or Mr. Hardy imagine the Volunteers of Ireland 
wanted more t^an a pure and perfect representation of the Peo* 
|ls in Parliament, and* did the latter no$ feel that wkhout such 
a Tepresentktion all the efbrts of Mr. Grattan, his FreeCon^ 
S tilut? o n and his Free Trade, were mere phantoms, brilliant 
sid'dassling indeed, but transient and momentary ? Events 
demonetrated this truth. 

But what if tha- best vindication of .the Votanteers of fre« 
land;. Whow mth tms io their hands, and in solemn conven- 
tion, pseisttd thaneeessttyandthe justice of parliamentary 
lefor^tt? • Tkfir:sM6an end their character in the country are 
the bes^skvidflfic^iof iho integrity and fiurity of tkenr views. 
But at thia ptnUtttsfr fiilglish Cabinet seem^ to hftVe repent*. 
ed of the concessions it had made to Ireland^ and employed 
eyepr vtifiopjjthiqh the .most in|;eniQU8 sophistry could sug- 



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gett, todeMit the grand and honest object of Ae 
aceempliAment of parlianeatary refenn. 



A more equal Representation of the People in the Pariiament 
ef Ireland. 
AT a meeting^of delegates from forty-five companies of the 
ProTinoe of Ulster, assembled at Lisbum the 1st of July, 
1789, in pursaance*of a public requisition of the Ulster re* 
giment, via. southern battalion of 1st Ulster regiment; first 
independent county Down regiment ; the Union regiment; 
Ulster regiment ; Belfast first volunteer eompany ; and Bel* 
fast volunteer company. 

lilCUT. COL. SHARMAlf IN THE CBAIi. 

Resolved unanimously. That a general meeting of the vo» 
Itmteer delegates of the province of Ulster^ on the subjeetiif 

A MORa BQUAL REPRCSBlfTATION OP THfB PEOPLE IN PAEUA* 

MENT, is hereby earnestly entreated; to be held at Dongao- 
non^ on Monday, 8th Sept next 

Resolved unanimously. That the followipg gentlemen (is- 
Ten to be a quorum) be appointed • committee of Corrsi- 
pondence for communicating with the other corps of the prs- 
▼ince, for taking preparatory steps to forward the intfotkns 
ef diis meeting, and for eoUectiiig the best authorities and ii^ 
formation on the subject of a parliamentary reform, via^ 

Lieut Col. Sharmao, CoL Rowley^ 

Capt Black, M^ John Ciawfad, 

Dr. Alex« Crawford^ lieat CoL BsBik% 



liijor BnrdeD, Mr. Briit 

Capt Wad« CmMmghaoi, Cape T. PMnti^, 

Rev. Mr. Crssg^ Li«st Tteik • 
Dr. S. Mooter 

Resolved unamaRmsly, That tte ftOowteg aUmate fol^ 
fished in the pvbiiiB prials : 



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TO THE V<».imTE£R ABMY OF THE PEOVmCB 
OF ULSTER. 

FSLLOPT^CtTIZEMS, 

IN common with ererj clafs of Iriihnen» yoa are tensByb 
tluit this kingcloro far man j oaitoriet, might hare oontnmed 
to bear its cfaaini in ignoble and indigent obecaritj, had not 
ah amy of itt dtixens, "by a great effiut, dared to caat dMm, 
oC 

That the dignified conduct of that army ktdy rettored Xm 
the imperial crown of Irdand its original splendor, to aobilU 
tj its ancient privileges^ and to the nation at large its inhe- 
rent rights as a sotereign independent state ; that by incnlca^ 
dog the glorious spirit of toleration, it has united die once 
distracted inhabitants of diis country into an indissoluble mas^ 
and promoted die most esuilted reverence fbr die laws^— -are 
facts that wiU ezh%it a spliendid and interesting figure in the 
annals of die age. 

Traai a military institutioa, so singular in its nature as to 
comprehend the several gradations of noSles, commoners, mer^ 
chants^ yeomen and mechanics, every substantial good will b# 
expected by wise and virtuous men. 

They will with honest pride, behold in the state an onpa* 
talleled combination of the military with the civil character^ 
existing only for the general interests of the community ; and 
prepared, on the purest principles c»f the constitution, to give 
dBcacy to the wiAes of three millions of people. 

The idea of^a well digested parliamentary refimn, has ever 
es^crieUMl a 'fkvoraUe reception in the unoorrupled breasts 
of IriAmeh and of Britons. It has been uniformly looked Op 
to as tite true source of public virtue and of poKtical salvia 
lion, by the first characters these kingdoms have produced. 
Im sids BgBr we'faanre sedn it wamdy supported by that con- 
smnmate statesmao the late Eail of Chatham; ami revived 



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bj tlie heir to hk abOitict nd name, Aeprctent WmiuB Pkt 
Itb#fpQB|?filtlir «inct9cn| 9i thft awtt «niiMiit and KoMst 
mett in botk hoatet of thft Btkiih parMament ; of a great num- 
ber of the moat reapeetable shires in Engbad; of the ¥olun« 
t§ae dejitjatea of the proroca of Mnnster ; aOil. within Uiese 
%ir df|J{^ of the oi^anraxNia vote of tbirty*ei|^ <)0vps^ re- 
fiupul al DijICmL 

«.-AiMqg tl^ maagr fiorions efiecta of whidi a more equal re» 
presentation of the peo|^e in parliament woald be prodacti?^ 
^ fgllawing are obviooa; Tl^ deatmctton (^ that partj-spi- 
Dft w]|Qie bajiefol influence has «t all time^ been injurious t/k 
Qfib pnbUc wefd4-««feviTal of the native dignity of the crowiv 
bf i^oyiartifig to eadi branch of the legislature its distinet and 
prapQrtio«ilireigbl;^--«nd the abolition of that train of courti* 
Ij mfrosnarira vha must ever contamie to prey on the vitally 
of pnhlvp yuXaff |31» the balance of tbe cooatitutioo being re^ 
afmfidt ^ necBsn^ for governing by Mgalac sfstmsof se« 
dnction^ shall no longer exist 

. TheD, would the constituent bo4y JEcgaia its cfuistitudeiMl 
asntfol over its tmsHeSy— and venal, nu^orities would not ba 
inqxd to supiNNrt tbe most dis h o n o r a b l e and pemicioua aa^ 
aofcs, in of^iosition to the sense of the uiypollgt^ par^ of AjS 
l^pslatnre, as well as contrary to tbe universal wiaheanC the 
public; md to the true intent of the inatittttion of jparlia* 
anents. 

Witl^ due ^eftren^ for the aiq^ bo^y whiidi :ipi)fc l^ave pre- 
aumed to addreas, we therefore b^ leave to evpcetf our wish« 
ip ^bat the vobnteer deli^gates of Ulster would afacmble with 
theaaasf fpiriti^loyml^^ pftriotisiQt andfinnny^ whtchai^, 
luated thffls on the aiemerable 15th of Febma^ 17Mt-r%ft 
dt|8ientf4t lao th^ inost ponstitutional meai^ of .prooaauig A 
vmare «q|ial r^reaentation iof thf iwplt in tbf pjirliaiftmt ^ 
Ir sJip R ^>-^f the only ifteyayne ,wj^<^ ,^aa^e perin«i;ie|My |pl 
^IfitennovatioD of 9^ oonfliHitl^ or ip^ ih|A v^uf 



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to the wtfrmMaUhk-btdf, widioifft nbSri^' liRMigfa: Ae uiere 
ftraM of » ftae gMrtnn^ent iaaf be p o drwl ^ iH-lpillt MiH 
iDcntably pvriib* . :. j « ; 

Lieut Col. Shaman IiaTing left the cWr^ and UeUt Cot 
Sir Walter Synnot taken 1$, * 

fiesolved^ that fhe thanks ef this meeting be given to our 
worthy diainnan, for his very proper donduct in the chair. 

Henry Joy, jui^. siCRitARt* 



TO IPIIE BUNQAKNaX XWLeOAUM 
The repMt of a Cotnmittiee of Correspondence, appobt^ b^ 
foKy4lve corps assembled by public ad^ e ri iie n ie m at 
Ltsbum on ttite 1st July last, fbf ihe purpose of obt^dta*- 
* ing infotmadon on the important subject of a more cC 
' ' qnd representation of the people, in the parihmttit df 
Irettod. 
TttC Committee in discharge of the trust invcTsted hi Aem, 
Immediately opened a correspondence with a tiutnber orth^ 
ilio«t eminent and welUinfbrmed characters in Creat-Britaib 
and Ireland; and received answers fraught wMi molt valua- 
Vte Infommtton on the subject. 

* Audi #f them as enter mfndtdy into the bu^nesi, will ht, 
siAitoitted to Ae provincial assembly, if thought el^lble, cod* 
udasrtng ^ length of their detail, and the great delay wfaidi 
tbeir diidosure Will unavoidably occasion. If it be more a* 
greeable to the* meeting, for the general dilTusal of a body df 
knowledge on so great a political subject, the principal letters 
win be publiriied by the committee's secretary ; — by which 
meani the despatch necessaiy to so grett an assembly will be 
prdteotea. 



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IkeYoriUhireAjiiooiAluiii, lo ceVebn^oA fetitmr tpkk miA 
mprfiiiij Bwtt abmrtlbe dote nf tim pnunt moplfa^ in OTdcr 
prevumsly to rcoeiTe the dectnons of this proTinee. 

The SocieQf tm CamdiMkmal KM#kdge» in London^ in 
whieh ivermoUnd the namei of the fint cbaracten in Eog- 
lancl» (stmnoot kboren in the glorions basinets of reform in 
our sister kingdom)— have ordered the addresses of the Ulster 
regiment, and <^ the forty-five corps, convening the provin« 
dal meeting of Ulster, to be entered in their books, published 
in the prints, and circulated gratis through the kingdom, in 
order that the exertions of Ireland may give a spur to thespi- 
rit ef the British nation. 

The Committee is rejoiced to observe, that the EnglUi let- 
ters are full of expresnims of a high sense of the wisdom, spi- 
rit and unanimity that have characterized the volunteer army 
of Ireland ; and that they all oencur in conceiving the present 
to be the very moment in which aradical parliamentary refixm 
can best be eflEected. They universally agree in the idea, that 
the delegates at Dungannon should enter into a very compre- 
hensive view of the matter ; so as the principles of rrfmpi maj 
be strongly mari^ed in their resolves :^4:eceivtog the sipotieo 
and concurrence of a general convention <^ delegates from the 
four provinces— coincidence of sentiment in which, they hold 
to be certainty of success. 

Founded on much deliberation, assisted by the best infiir- 
nation they could procure, the Committee have ventured to 
prepare resolutions, comprehending a genend system of ideas 
on the subject, which they will take the liberty, through their 
chairman, Lieut Col. Sherman, with much humility, to move 
In the august body of representatives of the volunteer army ef 
Ulster. 

The Committee of Correspondence have now only to apolo- 
gtae for their inability to so weighty a charge :-— Happy if their 
Isbors shall meet the approbation of their fdlow-citiaens ; m 



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93^ 

tend in the most remote degree to any Taluable ptirpose. They 
trust that the tpirit of firraness and integrity in^hich has alrea* 
dy restored this ancient kingdom to her rank in the nations, 
will crown the bth Sept 1733, as a day which is to form the 
ground-work of internal emancipation, on a basis as great as 
diat on which our rights as an independent natioui have been 
with such rapid success already established. 



ULSTER VOLUNTEEE ASSOaATION. 

At a meeting of two hundred and seventy-two companies of 
the volunteer army of the province of Ulster, by their dele* 
gates, held at Dungannon, on Monday the 8th of September, 

Col. Jamss Stkwart, tyronx reot. ih the chairs 
The following resolutions were unanimously entered into: 

J. RESOLVED unanimously, That freedom is the indefea- 
sible birth-right of Irishmen and firitons, derived from the 
sathor of their being ; and of which no power on earth, much 
less a ddegated power, hath a right to deprive thtm. 

II. Resolved unanimously. That they only are free^ who 
are governed by no laws but those to wLich they assent, eU 
ther by themselves in person ; or by their representatives free- 
ly chosen ; subject to the control ; and frequently returning 
into the common mass of constituents. 

III. Resolved unanimously. That the majority of our house 
of commons is not chosen by the people ; but returned by 
THE MANDATE or PEERS OR COMMONERS ; either for indigent 
boroughs, where scarcely any inhabitants exist ; or consider* 
able cities and towns, where the elective franchise is vested in 

Hh 



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a few; who ore thus suffered to place the highest tnitti of so- 
ciety, against tlie interest and will of the many» in th« bands 
of men, who seldom act as if they considered themselTet ac- 
countable for their conduct to the people. 

IV. Resolved unanimously, That by the ancient constitu- 
tion of parliaments, elections of representatives were for cen- 
turies annual, and in many instances more frequent ; and the 
exercise of suffrage, among freemen, universal. \^ 

V. Resolved unanimously. That every approach to those 
fundamental principles^ tends to a renovation of, not an inno- 
vation in, the constitution. 

VI. Resolved unanimously. That the elective franchise 
ought, of right, to extend to all those, and those only, who 
are likely to exercise it, fur the public good. 

VII. Resulved unanimously. That the present madeqaate 
representation, and the long duration of parliaments, destroy 
tliat balance which, by our constitution, shoidd subsist be- 
tween the three estates of the legislature ; render the commons' 
house independent of the people ; procure certain majorities 
in favor of every administration ; and threaten either an ab- 
solute mrnarchy, or that still more odious government, a ty- 
rannical aristocracy. 

VIII. RESOLVED, THEREF6rE, 
That the present imperfect representation, and the long da- 
ration of parliaments, are unconstitutional and intolkra- 

BLE GRIEVANCES. 

IX. Resolved unanimously, that as the voice of the com- 
mons of Ireland is no less necessary for every legislative pur- 
pose than that of either the king or lords, the people have a 
just and inherent right to correct the abuses of representa- 
tion, whenever such abuses shall have so increased, as to rob 
them of their constitutional share in their own government 

X. Resolved unanimously. That it is the interest of par- 
liament itself to effect a substantial reform ; as the very exit- 



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235 

tence of that assembly must become precarious, vrhen it shall 
lose the confidence of the people, to whom originally it owed 
ita creation — and froia whom alone its powers were derived. 

XI. Resolved unanimously. That we solemnly pledge our- 
selves to each other and to our country, to seek a speedy and 
effectual redress of these our grievances, and to co-operate with 
our fellow-subjects, in every exertion necessary to obtain it. 

We call for the aid of evdry upright senator; of every man^ 
whether in Ireland or Great-Britain, who bears or wishes to 
acquire the title of a freeman ! 

XII. Resolved unanimously. That' we have attended with 
admiration to the noble, though hitherto ineffectual efl[orts, of 
those illustrious characters and virtuous citizens^ who, in Eng« 
Jand and Scotland, strenuously labour to procure redress of 
similar grievances. May the examples of the sister nations, 
motually animate the inhabitants of each to persevere with 
unremitting ardor, until the glorious labor be finally comple- 
ted. 

XIII. Resolved unanimously, That a committee (of dve per- 
sons from each county) be now chosen, by ballot, to represent 
this province in a grand national convention, to be held at 
noon in the Royal Exchange of Dublin, on the tenth day of 
November next ; to which we trust each of the other provin- 
ces will send delegates, to digest and publish a plan of parlia« 
raentary reform — to pursue Fuch measures as may appear to 
them most likely to render it effectual ; to adjourn from time 
to time, and convene provincial meetings, if fbuad necessary. 

The following gentlemen were accordingly chosen by bal- 
lot, vis. 
' ' DELEGATES. 

ANTRIM. DOWN. • 

Col. 0*Ncill, Col. Robert Stewart, 

Lieot Col. Sharmm, Capt. Matt Forde, junior, 

CoL Rowley, Major Crawford, 



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Capt W. Tedd Jones, 
Col. T« M. Jones. 

ARMAGH. 

Earl of Charleroont, 
Lieut Col. Brownlow, 
Sir Capel Molyneaux, 
Lieut. Col. Sir Walter Synott, 
Capt. James Dawson. 

CAVAN. 

Lord Famham^ 
The Hon. J. J. Maxwell, 
Capt Fran. Saunderson, 
Col. Geo. Montgomery, 
Capt Henry Clements. 

DONEGALL. 

C#l. Alexander Montgomery, 
Col. John Hamilton, 
Lieut. Col. A. Stewart, 
Col. Robt M'Clintock, 
Lieut CoLC^. Ne&bitt 



Col. Pat.15av*gr, 
C4pt Gawin Hamilton. 

PBRMANAGH. 

CoL Irrine, 
Col. Sir Arthur Brooke, 
Capt. A. C. Hamilton, 
Jason Hasard, Esq. 
Capt Jas. Armstrmig. 

LONDONDERRY. 

Lord Bishop of Derry, 
Col. Rt Hon. Thos. Connolly, 
Col. Rt Hon. Edward Carey, 
Capt. Leckey, 
Capt. Ferguson. 

MONAGHAN. 

Col. Chs. Powell Leslie, 
Col. Frs. Lucas, 
Col. John Montgomery, 
Capt Wm. Ffirster, 
Col. Jas. Hamilton. 



TYRONE. 

Col. Stewart, 
Lieut. CoL Montgomery, 
Co]. Jas. Alexander, 
Lieut Col. Charleton, 
Capt. Eccles. 

XIV. ResoWed unanimously. That it be «n instruction U 
aaid committee, that the delegates from each county do pre* 
pare, and carry whh them to ihe national convention an sc« 
count of all the cities, towns, and boroughs in this prorince; 
the mode of election in such as at present return members to 
parliament ; as near as may be the proportionate number of 
IVotestant and Roman Catholic inhabitants in each ; and a 
conjecture of their comparative properties. 



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XV. Resolved unanimously. That we are decided in Oj^intou 
that the representatives of the people ought not in Aiture to 
consent tm any bill of supply for a longer terns than twelve 
months ; nor more than six months, until a complete redress 
of said grievances be obtained. 

The following address of the first r«*giment of Irish Brigada 
to the chairman of this association^ on the 15th of Feb. 1782^ 
being readj 

' To Col. William Irvine, Chairman of the Ulster volun- 
teer delegates assembled at Dungannon» 
Feb. 15th, 1782. 

'SIR, 

' I am directed by the first regiment of Irish Brigade to ac- 
quaint yon^ that on the 22d day of last month, at a fall meet- 
ing ct that corps, they unanimously adopted the resolutions 
•f the Ulster delegates assembled at Dungannon, on Friday, 
15th February last. 

' To that assembly, unprecedented in the annals ef nan- 
kind, which is the glory of the present times, and must be 
the wonder of futurity, Ireland owes her emancipation. 

' Toleration, the offspring of benevolence and wisdom, was 
no sooner adopted by that illustrious body, than received and 
dierished through the whole nation, and the inhabitants of 
Ireland, from a divided became an u niteo pcoplb. 

* You, sir, and the highly respectable body of which you are 
chairman, will bear with pleasure of every accession of 
strength to the volunteer army : I am happy, therefore, ta ac^ 
quaint you, that this regiment, though but f«ur months em« 
bodied, is numerous and respectable ; a circumstance suffici- 
ent to convince the world, that the public virtue of this king- 
dom daily increases, and that the glorious flame of Liberty 
blazes through the nation. 

< At this great crisis, when the western world, while lay- 
ing the foundation of a rising empire, temptingly holds out a 



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238 

•ystem of eqa&l liberty to man|iind, and waits with open arms 
to recvire the emigranta from surrounding nationt; w« think 
H a doty wo owe to out country, to promote, as far as our ex* 
aonple can reach, an affectionate coalition of the inhabitants of 
Ireland. Animated by this sentiment, and convinced that 
national unanimity is the basis of national strength, this regi- 
ment affords a striking instance how far the divine t2>irit of 
toleration can unite men of all religious descriptiims in one 
great object, the support of a free constitution. 
< I have the honor to be. Sir, 
with the highest respect, 
your faithful and most 
obedient servant, 

John Sutton, peesident. 

XVI. Resolved unanimously. That this association entertain 
the most grateful sense of the approbation of such liberal and 
patriotic men as compose that respectable body ; that we re* 
joice in the accession of their abilities to the common cause, 
and that we will be happy ta co-operate with them in eifect- 
idg the complete liberty and happiness of the good people of 
this kingdom. 

XVII. Resolved unanimously. That the following address 
to the volunteer armies of the provinces of Monster, Leinster 
and Connaught^ be printed with these resolutions. 

TO THE VOLUNTEER ARMIES OF THE PROVIKCES OF 
MUNSTER, LEINSTER AND CONNAUGHT. 

FELLOW'SUBJBCTS, 

THE transcendant events which our united efforts have 
produced, present an eminent instance of the protecting hand 
of Heaven ; — whilst the progressive virtue and general union 
of the people, naturally prompt them to revive the spirit of an 
unrivalled constitution, |ind to vindicate the inherent rights 
of men. 



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2S» 

The most imporUnt work yet remains; whicfa, neglected 
our pMt attunments are transitory, vosubstantial, insecure i— <• 
an extension to thousands of our beloved fellow-^tiaens a£ a 
franchise, comprehending the very essence. of liber^: ami 
drawing the line which precisely separates the freeman firooa 
the slave. 

Suffer us, therefore, to conjure you by every endearrRg tie 
diat connects man with man — with onccasivig zeal to pursue 
one of the most glorious objects that ever agitated the human 
mind : a restoration of virtue to a senate long unaccustomed 
to speak the voice of the people ; a renovation of the anciefit 
balance of our government ; and a firm establishment of the 
first gifts of nature, on the nms of an avowed* corruption, at 
once the bane of m^als and of liberty. 

From a Grand NiUUmal Convention, distinguished by integ- 
rity, and inspired with the courageous spirit of the constitu- 
tion, every blessing must result. 

With one voice, then — the voice of united millions, let 
Ireland assert her daim to freedom. 

Hmmgh her four provincial assemblies let her temperate 
declarations flow to one common center; and there, matured 
into an extensive plan of reform, be produced as the sdemn 
act of THE voLUNTEBR ARMY OF iRELANn: as a demand of 
rights, robbed of which, ttie ucanimated forms of a free go* 
remment would be a curse ; and existence itself, cease to be a 
blessing. 

FAIfiNDs'jND COVifTRYMBS, 

The eyes of an enlightened world, are this instant upon us ! 
Munster has, in part, already led the way ; and millions of 
our fellow •subjects of Britain, in whom the flame of liberty 
still bums with lustre, beliold with delight our exertions in 
tl^e common cause ; and in our success, see the certain iiar- 
binger of their own. 



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S40 

Let the reflection that Greece^ the $eat of liberty . and of 
scieoce ; that Rome, the mistress of the world ; and that iof 
numerable States, once flourishing and fVee, now lie prostrate 
bj the hand of tyranny— ieocA Ireland wisdom. To our de- 
liberative assemblies they convey awful warning to be spirit- 
ed> unanimoosj and firm ; lest the present wretched condi- 
tion of other countries be soon the fate of onir own 1 

May the supreme ruler of the universe crown hisothet 
^>*^^**^£»*/ ^7 heing present with us, — by promoting union and 
the love of our country among all ranks of roan i and by fi- 
nally directing our exertions to virtue, liberty, and peace! 

A specific plan of parliamentary reform, being produced 
and read by the committee of correspondence : 

XVII J. Resolved unanimously, that said plan be referred 
to the consideration of the national convention, and that the 
thanks of this meeting be presented to lieut. colonel Sharman 
and the gentlemen of the committee of correspondence, for 
their great trouble in collecting information on a parliamenta-* 
ry reform, and for their abilities and zeal in digesting matter 
for the meeting of this day. 

XIX. Resolved unanimoasly, That the thanks of this meet-* 
ing be presented to the lord bishop of Derry, for his atten- 
dance and assistance in the business of this day ; for his warm 
attachment to the volunteer cause ; and for proving himself 
the steady friend to the liberties of Ireland upon all occasions. 

XX. Resolved unanimously^ That the sincere thanks of 
this meeting be presented to the inhabitants of Dungannon, 
for their very polite conduct, and to the Dungannon battalion^ 
for their vigilant conduct when on guard this day. 

XXI. Resolved unanimously. That we lament that una- 
voidable business of consequence, prevented ouc late chair- 
man. Col. William Irvine, from attending this meeting, and 
that the thanks of this meeting be transmitted by oar secretary 



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»4l 

tojtli4tTgem1emtf> for. Jus- uQifomi z^ aod fid^l^ in ib0 
cause of bis country, , 



r t*HE ciuiBe of Reform had made a rapid pregreai in otert 
part of the kingdom. The light wbioh the gkmoiia rerolu^ 
lion of 17S2 thed upon the nation^ and the enthiuiassi with 
which it ai^imate^ the people to establitb^ on i^ broad and fin^ 
foundatida, that liberty yrhkh they had wrung firom a n* 
luctant goTemroentf encouraged the* mott distingiiished 
patrioU of the d|iy to prosecute the cause of fteform with 
redoubled ardor. Th« Volunteers ^had accomplished tho 
freedom of Ireland, and the trish Parliament ' 6iU obeyed aa 
impillse they ^ould not presume to control. Mr. Grattan was 
the powerful organ through which the new-bom liberty of 
his Cfmntry commnnicafed its wishes : but Flood, attdocis to 
ont^run his great rival in the glorious race, put himsdf fiif*' 
ward as the man who could best complete what Crattan to 
well begun. The eyes of the nation were anxiously turned 
npon the military oonyention that watf to meet at Dungannott 
on the 8th September, 1^83 ; but unfortunately for the cause 
of Reform, the gteat majority of &e people, the Catholics ^ 
Ireland, sat with folded arms, like the spectators in a theatre^ 
contemplating struggles, in the result of which they were 
doomed to have no interest whatever, The cry of Freedom 
wstf confined to the small cirele of the Protestant population^ 
The old prejudices which d^racterised the Irish Protestant 
eolonyi lived with equal forc^ and equal acrimony in the 
boeoins of the most distinguished leaders among the Reform- 
era: even the £reat Flood could not look at the emalicipatiofl 
of hia Catholic countrymen without alarm; ami Lord Cbade* 
naofit, to whom all the Reformers looked up. with v^eratiod 
imd a&ction, was one of the last to surrender his hertditary 



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M 

The Govamnient pf the dajr» knowing tfa^ nartoimttt dt fM 
^ liase on which tbo Reformers boilt^ eaiilj aoticipeted theref^uH 
of their eSbrU: it wisely conjectared, thai thej would be 
l^ten bf their own bigoUy. 

"^ 7b^ iBrtgaiMi WAS mW Blueh uffltMf^S. ' A |>f6t!tocisl 
iH^titig hAdtatt ii Cittk dti thb Ut of IMartfi, Hti, fini 
knter^ tUtb' ^nib^t f^MtXidiiHi itf {a^br otf Refofm. On tbi 
* liA of Jutj/ fefl(j#fri^, Whilst t.orcf Charlemont wss' on a 
vltti at tufgah, to Ms ffiend Mr. ^rownld^', he Hkirived (M 
annexed fetter fVditf th^ Committee of CmVcspohdenci a(»poiAt^ 
)^ \ij iiid d^giitef of fef^.tfv^ M^, isMAbIM in thk^ 
(urn. dft^ tfie lit Ht July. T7^S, wftfdi cMMMftt^ MH d 
Selfasi dti tKe tSiti of the Mnie itfiomlf. It #al thbMi« 
mihee ^hich c^irniitikii^dUt MiA the HA* of AidittMi. 
%f. Pkt, ihi oth^i" prokn4«^rs of K^f<jh6. 

MrloM, AlM,Jiifal9 I7»i 

Tri£: veryglorfot^md etfectual part your. Lord^ip fast 
. taken in the emancipation of this kingdom, natttraltjr leads tho 
Volunteers of the Korth of Ireland tp up look to your tari^ 
fhip^ for a de<ilded support in favour of refbmnr, which joaf 
Lordship has already declared meets your warmest approbatio«» 
^o a nobleman ao well acquainted with the ruinous state Jt 
the representation of Ireland, in us to aim at conveying infofi' 
mation were superfluous and unnecessary. The day ^xed for 
the Dungahnon meeting being very near, vis. the 8th of Septem* 
ber next, and oar day of meeting, as a commitlee foir arrang* 
ing the information we shall receive, being the SOth of August^ 
we humbly hope your Lordship will favor us before the latter 
date^ with your sentiments at large on this subjcNCt, pointuf 
•ijt sucl) a specific mode of reform, and the most eligible stap^ 
leading to it, as come up to your Lordship's ideaa. ^t l^ve 
yet another fiivor to tequeal^ vi« that your Lacdship wooil 



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ftt 

iBfonn «f, ^€t1ifr sliMtpii!D|f the dunitioii ^f^Airngmfi^ 

fsdu«oii of pcntiooen, JuQilin^ the number of placemeiq, and 

BtMX mt absentees^ or any of theqp^ be in your Lordship'a 

eptnion aubjects in :which the Vuljunteeri of Ireland oo^ht 10 

interfere ; and we more earnestly entreat, that your I^ordship 

my favour us with t sketch of such resolutioof, as yopt 

^Lordship would think proper to be propose^! at*1>unganno||. 

Tuar Lordship will be so jf(«i^ to addreu your reply ,t^ 'o)ir 

ebairmaii^ at Lisbum. 

otjgtt^jty tsraer, etc* 

This letter made a deep impi;ession on Ixird 'CharlemoqJU 
It was to him a sufficieqt indication of what Jl have .alreadlf 
Stated^ that there were some leaders of the Vcilunteers, ,deter- 
mined ng| to limit their <gperations ,to a pi^rliamentary reform,' 
hut to visit, regulate, perhaps control, evei^ department in 
the state. The poinu allud^ to ,)n their .letter met his ap« 
probatioo, the ta^ on absentees excepted. The principal 
object, ,a parliamentary reform, would, he was afraid, be 
Cfushed ,tQ nothing, amid ^uch a crowd of measure^ with 
which they proposed toficcompany it. Altogether the buti^ 
»ess (^id not seem to hitp to wear the mpst propitious aspect. 
Something however was to be done, .and hjs iromedintely 
wrote the fbllowii^ letter. Perhaps few men.haii ever a. more 
delicale pnd difQcult part to act than Lord Charlemon^ not 
Inly j^i t!ie present juncture, but tl^rpughout the ,wh(cile pifhig 
ilpaieotons busipest • 

(GcNTtcwcic, %urgan, JtSift^ ITtS. 

TLEASEto accept my most iincere aeknowledgement^ 
%ft yo ur 'kind, -^wu^ l*lhar,*too partM expressions, as wdl 
as for the honoul* you have dode m^ in applying to me Air 
advice on a matteir so justly inl e fettfhg to ymx, and so veij 
important to this nation. ^Bitt lAile I thank you Ifar you# 
kindneas-towwds »e, leamiot avoMperceiVing^at your ftm^ 
tialitj^ 'bee iodnoed you greatly to over-rate. my akiUtiM, 



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Vhich tft for unequal to the task you have assigned roe. 
A reform in the representation of Irelanil is a mefsiire wliieb 
most certainly meets with my wartneat approbation^ and yoii 
may be assured t^iat I shall co-operate vith every sincere h>- 
Tir of his country, towards the attainmepi of that desirable 
object ; l>qt to point out a specific mode, is a matter of sq di& 
^cuk a nature^ that I should esteem myself presumptuous, if ] 
^ould attempt it,— certain as I ain, diat it ^ill require the 
maitid eQarti^ 4nd[tbe most deliberate consideration ofthe wtaott 
|Den in this kingdom, t6 produce 9uch a pUui, as v^ be 
deemed unexceptionable. The pain, however, wlHch I xnw^ 
%l all times feel from being compelled to refuse my immediate 
compliance with i^y request of your's, is iri the present In* 
dtance somewhat allevifited, by m^ being clearly of opinion^ 
Uiat it is not now necessary that such mode should be pointea 
put to you ; f nd since you have beei^ pleased to ask my ad- 
▼fee, permit me, a? a sincere friend to the object of'our mutol 
fl wishes, to adyise; that at the Dungannon meeting, t)ie piea« 
sure alQne should be recommended, without specifying any 
node whatsoever ; whidi last consideration ought, accordtag 
tp the best of my judgment, to be left entirely to the mature 
deliberation of ydu|r Parliament, and particularly of those re- 
presentatives w|iom you are now about to chuse. 

Respecting the other points upon which you deeiie my 
judgment, they are all of ihem important,' and of nice dista»- 
sion ; but I will abstain frx»ip entering into them for diis 
pUin reason^ that I would heartily recommcod it to you, to 
.confine yourselves to the one great measure aiily« which when 
. oi^ce carried into exectitiop, i^ill infallfblhjr seqire aH ^ndh> 
pf infei:ior magnitude., 
y { have the honour, to 1^, , 

GxMTLftHSII, 

Your 990St obedt. and most fitttbful Servt . 



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.«5 

Th« niMtitig at Dungannod wm iitid on tTit ffiT^ 
pointed^ coDtistirt^ of Delates fVoa f69 vftiKttrj t^^Fp9>^ 
Mr. JaiBes Steward member for the ocmtitjr of Tjfrfm t , LcnnI 
Cbarlemont's pArticalflf and valued lUsod, was eaHed te^ikm 
chair. Loftl Brittc^/ (Bhrhop of Derry), wat al89> plui i liti r 
Many resdutkms^were entered into; but die priiitipal on« waa» 
^ That a commHtee of five persona from each ecfunfty 4Mft 
chosen by balTot, to reprewnt lliis province (Uleter) in a l^nrni 
national convention, to be held at noon, in theRoyil lEwfaMgi 
of Dablin« on the 1 0th of November next^ to- which %ottiM 
«tch of the other provinces will send delegates Vb itg^ imd 
pubKA a pflan'cf parliamentary reform, to puvsiie iuc4» Moo* 
•urn as may appear to them most likely to ronderrh eflectaali 
to adjourn from titne€otime, and oonfteoc proViittbl «aeotiiig% 
If ^nd necessary. 

An address to the Voloilteetf of Mnnsteif; Gommight« and 
Leiiister« accompanied this rcsdlotiAn, frotight wkh^ tlie loHiesl 
sentimantB in (avor of llherty, allod^Ag tt^thw tvenu of laat 
yesor^ iMftly as aa iocttemont to goitiirtNhr, and pottfinf ^« 
isif forth in that dMue and ib^paasionodl aloqueiicr, always 
issposiog on men of warm tampem^ • on auhjetts nAih winch 
Ihof are little coDversant, and exactly adapted to tbeardonl 
and precipitant master-q>trit8 of that agitated period. Severed 
iobopdiftate rtsaolntions were entered into. A proposttion 
Jilativo to >the. c oa ces i ioti of the elective fhmchtse to the 

. loBum CalhoUcs was brought forward ;. well intentioned, per* 
ha|M| b«t loiiscreet, for though that measure was most wiso^ 
]y- (aa I shidl ever .tynk) adopted by P^iaxnent ten 

. ^aar^ aftprwardi, it ii6t only would not have met support 
from the Protestant part of the community in 1788/ but any 
warm eflbrU in its fwomr racist hav# only added to that'llame, 
wWch ah>eady began to blace with too much ▼iolenee. Lord 
Cbarlemtmtr^ IKondav took tHa tead'tn the rejeotion ^ tMs 
pfafmi$ifiS^ k dearly indices the ItiHited space in which 
the conTentioQ moved. Biat more of this hercaAer^ 



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t4S 

/ J^nnt^cX fiMni'ft letter of Mr. Borke to I^ CliailfMMB^ 

fSwfOf^ it Jiof i]^«Ua(Ielo tht cofHreQUop, ibows io somi 

. fMptct 4l|t^9efitiiiientt of tb* niiatiltm with whom Jit watCMif 

MMtidf lowMrdi Ireland jiiil at tbif time.-*— << I lae mA cob- 

0gm 4hat there 4ure fome cemaiae 'of lenneBt in Ireko^* 

thcMigk Ithiak^ we bajre poured in to aMo^ge it, almost. idl 

Ihto oiiin our etoree. Tg my astoniehment» I hear, that the 

lwi|rihrowif^ oot of a bill, in a common parliameBtary fornv 

booaHie tiie vaaewal of i^ b^ the oardewn^M of the bringer 

■i»«ulilaled witbthelate aifiple j;raats to joil in the ooieiif 

tmd^liaeibeen matter lof^ifienoeioaoroefieople. Onthiriijui 

ieiynirtiie to aajr any thing. I am .«>rry for it , Irehn^i*** 

UAnpenimt kingdom tp all intents and pvpotee^ Qtit them 

are oiroaniataoeea in the '•ilnnMon of all -^onatrietytbat na^ 

claime made, or allowed, can alter. We cannot Declaim,^ 

I reallf Mieve,, no cvoatare h^ce wuihtfi .to reclaini, one ioto 

efitbetoittceMionenflMde. B«t you areiDeMar M,4ici ito he ^ 

e ftctid , moft or left, with ihe state i>f things here, tf yoo 

qnarrsl with the present ministiy, it wiU emkamm them 

nadottbtedHy ; bflft than yon Bosy have diOM who do n9t wMl < 

ilB<sincertfly for Making the,ppe^mty of ireUmd a-vei^r pnm^ 

^f9i fMitof the bondof onion between us. Instc^l.of 4Ureol|b 

to4»egin with quarrel^ about what may be thoqgfat &.to ad^ 

is^haidfy itbe usage, even «f those J^bo aie tsnpfosed ua la ami ^ 

4»f Mluml state vf enmity. Bat I .go ^qpond 9^ ^ark. A 

little anxiety for tb^ pubdic in a ve^^xntigid stak^ ptHMiiindnMl 

me to«xceod the limiu pvescribod to onr.#ho has lictie x^im' 

aal inejght, and no oOeial dnty,.that cidls .him its Aia^parli* 

cn)ar«fbirt^oiilese it-becomes.matter of parlifmimitef -^ ^tH f^ 

mpo*" 

Asths tune ^ 4he.nmrtiiig4if ihr<Mfiveitf{Qs,iMr J»w 
Mei^ the Lord J j e nlenant and the Gofenmmkt ^msee^ iand 
Jwilhwaseiv'jw» atieU nt^their^sim^ bnt mm wi s ely tehdm 
9*9^otait9- Meid,Mgthi«ief4hitcaeit 



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ht^ as jit^ilicsefmi^ on tiieir part, as the efbM of io^M of dfe 
iMt firiendc' of-the Volunteers wei^ ifimvalliiif iir cfh^cMi% 
their pro^reM. Mirny of the delegntet, however, whtf^ei^ 
dkMeo, in a good measure soothed the Hears of Q&rtrmatltA. 
Ldrd Charieurbnt, Mr. Bror.rnleit^ and three other getitkuxeA 
of rauk and consequence, were appoirtted frMtf Attegk 
Mr. Stewart from Tyrone. Severaf of kttowft feyilty, and 
inimical to alt atiarchy, >tvere nominated. Othem, hsdeed, of 
^ry dissimilar prindpletf, ^roeured seats hi the eonvetftleft. 
The county 'of Dekry appointed fb<ii tiespectabfb UtetAhett, 
^ith whom tlteyas^otiii^ed their BUbop, Frederfitk, Edidrl tf 
Bristol. }f this Work' should i^ktntlt tb tatviye Ite pneittii 
day, thdse who ceme afler ns may not h& iDCorioua to leaM 
HctOidhmg, however slight, of that ttagMx man. H^ wiei 
(he eon of Lord Mervey, so generally, but M Joiperfectiy 
known, by the malign antithesis, and epigrammatle liAei Of 
^ope. His mothei*, Lady Hetvey, wae Also the suhjeet of 
t&at poet's muse ; but his muse ^hen pTayAil aifd' hi gOdd 
Ihimour. Two noblemen of very distinguished uletttS^ tb^ 
£ai1a of Chesterfield and Bath, have also celebrated her iti il 
jBkotk witty and popular ballad. Lord Ristol wAi a man' of 
&msiiferisble parts, but far more brilliant than solid. Biir^ 
baaSty was indeed famous for talents, equally so foir eeden- 
tridty ; and the eccentricity of (he whole race shone ovft, 
'Ml seemed to be concentrated in him. In one respect, ho 
waa Dot unlike Viltiers, Dake of Buckingham, '^ Every thbg 
&y starts, and nothing long.'* Generous, but oncertam; 
^Icndid^ but fantastical ; an admirer of tfre fine arU, withoot 
any just selectioti ; engaging, often licentious in conversation; 
exSremely polite, extremely violent: it is indubitahfy tme, 
fhttt amidst all his erratic^ course, hid bounty was not seldom 
aifiOCted to the oml propef and deserving Objects. His dis^ 
^ CrSwiyon of chprch livings, ehiefiy; U I have been itilSmfied; 
: die older' abd relpettibte dergy lU Vii own diocete. 



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£48 



mutt always be meqtioDed with tfut wtrzn A^prolMtJon wdich 
X It is said, (bow. truly i know not) 
»r the Bisbofirtc of Durham^ aCUrvrsrdi 
if IreUpd ; was refused both, and hinc 
in opposition. But the inequality, tlis 
niiul, at every period of bia life,. ^afBci-" 
mdiict, at this peculiar and momeotous , 
ir^, was this illustrious prelate, who^ 
oolwithstanding be scarcely eter attended Parliament, and 
spent most of bis time in luly, was now called upon to cor- 
feet the abuses of Parliaaseut, and direct the vessel of state in 
|hat course^ where statesmen of the roost experience, and pef« 
sons of the calmest judgment, have had the misfortune totally 
to (ail.— His prqgress from his diocese to the Metropolis, and 
bis entrance into it, were pertectly correspondent to the rest 
of his conduct Through every town on the road he seemed 
to court, and was received, with all warlike bonourV ; and I 
remember seeing him pass by the Parliament House in Dub- 
lin, (Lords and Commons were then both sitting) escorted b^ 
a boily of dragoons, full of ^irits and talk, apparently enjty« 
ing the eager gaze of the surrounding multitude, and display-'^ 
ing altogether, the self-complacency of a favourite Klarshal of 
France, pn his way to Versailles, rather tlum the grave deport* 
ment of a Prelate of the church of England. 

The convention met in Dublin, at the Royal Exchange, 
when, as preparatory, to every thing else^ they chose Lord 
Charleinout their President. *^The same reason," says his 
Lordship, " whidi had induced me to accept the nomination 
from Armagh, and to persuade many moderate friends of 
u)inr, much against their wishes, to suffer themaclves to te 
delegated, namely, that tlie.re should be in the assembly, a 
strei^gth of prudent men sufBcient^ by withstanding or pn^ 
yentiqg violence, to secure moderate measure.^ induced me 
now to .accept the truublesoo^ ai|<4 dangerous o&q^^ of rKsi* 



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dent which was unanimously voted to me. Another reasoA 
also concurred to prevent my refusal. The Bishop of Derty 
had, t knew, done tAl in his power to be elected to ttiat office^ 

* and I feared that, if t should refuse, the choice might fall on 
him, which would indeed Iiave been fatal to the public re-> 
pose.^ The delegates beirig Tery numerous, the place of 
meeting was altered' from the £zchange, the roon|s of which 
were too small^ to the Rotunda, in Hutland*S(juare. Lord 
Charlemont, as President, led the wayj, accompanied by* a 

* squadron of horse; then fallowed the delegates, who walked 
two and two, and formed a prooetsW altogedicr aa novd aa 
imposing. 

The convention now sat in fprm, and pcesented according 

to Lord Charlemont, '' a numerous, and truly reijpeotable bo« 

dy of gentlemen. For, though some of a lower dass had 

been delegated, by fa^ tfle inigority were neti of rank and 

' fixtune, and many of them Members of Parliament^ Lordi 

and Commoners ; a circumsiance whiqh may be in some do* 

gree attributed to my endeavours. For, though I noyer cor* 

diaiRy approved of the meeting, yet, as t found it impossible 

to withsund the general impulse towards it, and, as for rea* 

'oons already assigned, I did not chuse to exert my against it, 

especiallj^ as there was cause to fear my exertiona would bo 

fniJMess, and if so, m%ht prevent my being useful towards 

' BMxterating and guiding those iaeasures whidi I could not 

' with otfcacy oppose, & directing that torrent which might other* . 

vriie bave swept down all before it, I had, upon mature con<^ 

^deration;' determined that to render the assembly as respect- 

aUs as possible, was the neit best mode to the entire prevention 

afit; and this, not ohiy for the sake of pttlic tranquillity, 

imt the measure also which it meant to forward.* 

Such were the well-meant efforts of Lord Cbarlemont. 
* tttft when the convention proceeded to business, it was soon 
'ANmd, that hii moderation and good sense^ aided by the moat 



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' mpedftUe in tUt cdbveniioii, would too often prore alt»> 

get&er inefficient iTbougli Mr. Brownloft, a Wtse man, and 

'* canyuBg witb Uq tbat authority wliich wisdom and integri^^ 

' fopported by large poMessioni, will very generally command^ 

was chairman of the committee, into which the conyention 

rm>lvU[ itarif : though dther ^ntlemen, the moat respectable^ 

• ibrm6^ the suh-com<hittee, whoa^ 'business it was to receive 
plana ot* i^JTonn, t&e viotenf, imtutored, and unprindjik^ 

, a^toetun^ )>revaite4» and carried, resolutions, totally contn^ 
to the wisW oF ^'e pWsi^ent, or chairman. 

k aibgular ibehe was sbbh' aifplayed, and yet, audb. a 
acme as any one, who considered the almost unvarying dis* 

* posltum of an aberoSiy pT tbat nature, and the particttbr 
ol)fact for Wliicn it was coiivehe^^ miffht justly have expectedL 
rirom eveiy quarter, and froA every speculatist,^ gmt derk% 
or no clerks at ali, was pbnretf in such a multiplicity of phna 

' o^ reform, some of them Tngemous, som^ which beniolbt j|n 
exercised and rational mind, but, in general, as I hi^ve been 
well assure'd. iio ntterly impracticable,. <'So rug^bd and^ao 
wildih their attire,^ they looked not like 'fthe oftsprii^cf 
inhabitants of the eartii, and yet were on it ;" ttu|t ^n^giiy^ 

' would sink in pourtraying this motley band of inom^m^ 
fancies, of mis-shapen theories, vsjuable 9n1y if inefficient^ pr 
execrable, if efficacious. All this daily issued Atmi jirc^a^ip- 
tuons Empirics* w the vainly busy« minds of ikMne-pott^pd 
i^ilanthropists, whom the good breeding alope of their spun* 
Iryraen permitted to be regarded aa not .totally out of. ^ir 
senses. The committee she.wed a persey^fanee almost mar* 
yelious, .but the murky conceits, and solemn vaqities of am^ 
^reteiidera would have put even the patience of tl^e mam of 
Ux to flight. . At last, af^r being for several days bewi)d^rcd 
in this palpable obscure of politics, and more and more tbeni^ 
flitting roun4 th^ heads of the unfortunate con^mittee> that 
whicli' mhst for ever take plaoo on such occasions, took placn 



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ii^>f^9e. The BUhpp^of Pe^f moved, tjbat Mr. Htm^ ^<^ 

wba hud no^ ^n pne qT tjie e^mmU^, ahoald be i^oppipyl^^ 

as fii ass«i9or, or joint memUir. ^"4 hjpr^r WH 4»R^ft4 M^* 

potency of oniM>ric«l ulentf ip n>^b t V^y <^ 9lifO# ^KmI tbe 

jaslice ojT I^ord BotfrgWoI^e's o^^s^ntiip^ ^attfae H^t^of 

Cqmnopf, or in abort, f ny ^^ae^.bjy panit]iV9f «f the mtfoct 

of the Hqu«e of Cooitbona, i$. lik^ « po^ of hoandi. Tbef 

win olwoys Iblloif tb^ qoan wbp fh^wf tbem moit gaipe. ^ 

r^iid and deciaivi^ ivaa th^ fuperiority which Flood phUmodt 

thift, without hia concttrrrocf, notbing was i^ppnrred of. Thf 

' Btshop now, as baf been often experienced, found himaeU 

updame by his aMxUiary. All his hape^ of prominence in tbf 

coi«f ention, and elsewhere, rested on bis ilUtiined suppoct of tbt 

dective franchise, as a measure then, and at once, to be coo* 

ced^ to tb« Cft holies. The ffrmsest adu)atiop ffovtld bhuh 

to sa^', that this support aro«e Irqnx superior discemroeiit, o^ 

auperior l^iieyoien^e, H^s fytni}^ bad always cultjyated Whi^ 

prif'cipl^a,^ avu} however the pe^ie^ity of ^ The deaceptlaiUf of 

tKil Princess Sophia being Pr9t^^iit9/' might have formed 

ap arucJe of hi^ political creed, t^ well a^ thai of his pred.e-> 

cessorSy^t, whep vecon^idi^ kU volatility, his lopg res>* 

daiicf .9n the Banks of the Tibe^» ^d general society ther^, . 

wte piay justly conclude th^t^ at any period of our |ustory, 

jfr(», Tsriusvet Catholic or Pro^e^t^t ^Ic^ctors, or Statesmuen, 

%(«iuld have- b^eo objects of the moa^ entire indiference tp 

b}m. They« ip truth, wei:e so, and his propositions, as to thf 

C^/^lic?, though di^^d by hi^ ^dherents^ witb t^e terms of 

Kgbjy philo^phical, were reusted by Flood, with that gentle* 

tuaa'i pspj^ 4pcce9S. This rejection of the C^oltc, l^soughl 

fmwMfd^ vai^ious. plapf of, refc^ in favor of tbe Pi;oteptafi^ 

OT thip elactors i^a they tfa^ ^o^. flood's 9pgrf fruwq, pp4 

angry commentf, exiled them efl. Adiep ^ V^ the ^haoni^i, 

pWspwtic, ^r airy^Qf thq l^^^urpird Pt^ ff^ piil«j^d! TChjaT 



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nt 

were mo more beard of. At Imt Mr. Floed produced hii oiihi 
plas for flew modelling the House «f Commons. It was 
uaahimously adoptiBd by the inferior, and then submitted to 
the grand committee, as it w&s called. A long debate arose. 
The difficulties under which the assembly labored in thisgr^at 
f^ork of legislation were now apparent Flood's plan, not- 
withstanding all his subtle interpretations and comments, was, 
on sober investigatien, found not much superior to many 
which preceded it Nay, there were some who, like DaDgle 
in the fSfy, thought that the interpreter was the hardest to 
be understood of any of his coadjutors. But, with all his 
plan's acktiowledged imperfections, it was submitted to, as the 
best that could be patronized without putting the assembly 
to ttie blush, aad, indeed, the state itself to the most imminent 
haxard. 

A short scene was now acted, and,' according to aU the 
rAe$ ci criticism, in perfect unison with the former. Two or 
thed^ lords and gentlemen, who possessed borough property,' 
declared in the Convention, that any proper plan of Reform 
should meet no obstacle from such possessions remaining in 
their hands. They would willingly relinquish them for the 
benefit of the people. Imnaediately afler those gentlemen, 
who at that inoment of enthusiasm were, I mdke no doubt, 
perfectly serious in what they said, and were capable of vexy 
generous deri^lictions, 4iproae several patriotic personages, and 
professing equal ardor in the public cause, made similar re» 
nnnciations. Unfortunately, however, their pretensions > to 
this invidious species of property were by no means so anc^ 
quivoc^ Some of those boroughs which they were pleased: 
to call exoldsively their own, presented only veij debatable 
gfoaady and were in general known to thoee gentlemen,; 
aserely by the long sufferings which they austoined for even 
a dubious and transitory interest in them- To abandon Mcb 
Wroughs attdgfther w«akl, at any time, bt 



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tis- 

pnidc&ce. To immolate a wt of Toters^ periocficany comipt, 
or law agents perpetuallj rapacious, would be most laudaUe, ' 
if a ooDTention or reform had aever beeb heard of. *' Upon 
such sacri&ses, the Gods themselves ^rould/ I thmk, *f throw 
iDceose ;** could thej have really been made. Yet, with no 
other offerings to lay on the kltar of public freedom, than what 
might justly be termed their own persona) embarraasments, 
snd molestations, did those gentlemen rise, one after the 
other, and^ with the most iiotired gravity, nobly bestow on 
the people their untenable chums, and unsound interesta«' 
But they seemed resolved, on that day, that every proceeding 
in the Convention, should be almost ideal, and visionary plana 
of reform were followed by imaginary proscriptions of fisBuly 
electors. ' 

Those shadows have passed over the scene in very solemn 
and r?diciiloas order, the eyes of the spectators were" at' length' 
tired of such mock-heroic visions, and all turned towards 
Lord Cbarlemont An enemy to ostentation, and always 
averse to pnblic speaking, he had hitherto remaii^ed rilent- 
Bat he fbnnd it necessary now to say something. "My 
deCerminsition," said his LoMship ''to sacrifice to the publie 
thst borough. Which I hav^ e^er hdd in trust for the people, 
wss, I thought, sufficiently declared, by my accept^ce of a 
seat at this ttieetiQg. That trust I have at all times endea* 
voored to execute to the public advantage ; and I can assure 
this assembly, that I have never felt so much real satisfaction 
in^the exercise of those powers, which, as a trustee for the 
people, have been confided to me, as I now do, in resigning 
them.* , The conventiim, and, iadeed, all his auditory, were 
to the ulto'ost gratified by this declaration, and applauded it 
as the' Ikii^age of sincerity and true patriotism. Flood's 
plan amfyttn having now passed the ordeal of the two com* 
mitte^' Vas' fih^y reported to the convention, where the, 
Btdi^WlXMy^^^n brought Yorvard hi» proposal in&vor 



1 



i 



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2|4 

L^ Cl^f^mqpt md hig friends oppa^ him s^nuousljrf 
mf^ apin ]^(i liim m f fiin^j. The point was warmlj 
djiqimed. Jh/^ • repe^Je^ difftrence^ 4^4 F^ot QQntr\bate 
ny^fl^ ^t the ^stablfsbipcieot pf ^n^ ^^Qrdi^ V^ty between the 
n^ Pr^tA ?!»^ ^be Earl. The fonder, mt d^y i^t^Ut the 
eafiff^ufijiffia ffu epploy^ on something uninportant, y^nstyred 
t^j^n^ 1^ I^ir^ CbiM'l^ant, as they up for so^ie minpt^ 
. •Wirt ft^iil4bqr« " That bif copdiict wa« by ^ mfi#q^ f?«^^'3f 
4P^9?f 4fCr (fill^$ng» H ^> P]?<f«¥°^» to the Catb 
^ f^ 4H(( I^^ WU considered as i^er lukewai^ in f^fk^or of % 
r^fOf^." Tf} tb^ sog^tipp Lord Chailempnt repli^ as 
n^, \^ iif^ag^^adf wit^ some warimth.. A short and sopew^ 
unpleasant conversation took place, not at all necessary now 
-N Cq ^fifiit )i^% li|u^ closed YJtb these words of Lord (^e» 

B^m^ </ T)|f ^^S^rfknce w^ic^ I make between the pra^snt 
a9(^ |Im9 fqjEmer f^lfects of our ez^m;is is tfa^ :-^w^iht lre« 
I^^ K|s \a f ffect sii^Jact tp a foreign legislature^ there west 
09 l^i^gthf I would not have gone to rescue ber^fr99i ^ st^ 
wtuebi I considered as po$itiv^ f^&very* To that point I hf|^ 
pledged my life and fortune, i^nd tawi^rds the attat^Eoea^, ^ 
it^ I would willingly and chearfully have hazarded not only 
tljien)^ but what was, and still is more dear tq me, and far rooce 
fanp^ortant the peace q[ wyf coMf^tfy. Our present iobject I 
esteein great^ i^nd of high importance, and to obtaia it^ I wil^ 
do every tI)iQ|r not ipconsisteojt with tl\e public peace, fifii 
I will go 9Q further. Make what use of thia ^ou ptlcfsf ' 
The coifivention proceeded to bus^iess^ and ^e Bishop with* 
drew.. 

After three weeks sittings the Ui)9ur^ of the coDvenJkm 

seemed to draw towards ^ end. ^rd Cbarlewieiit'a liea)4^ 

h§d fofered much from so close a coiifii|eimi^t> mn^ be k^^i 

^ with p^W^re af the moment, frl^eir]^ oQidd rfaome hi^dai^ 



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arrWe as toon as he expectetL llie commeoce^eAt of toe 
coDvention was inau 
and eventful beyond 
be forgott^, that t 
and was at this time 
Xord Charlemont, F 
o'clock in the af\ei 
proposed^ that he, m 
menty kB were then ] 
ue' House ot domro 
tXMCtHty borrespondei 
which he had subnai 
veiition. To this p 
ctovention shoufd n 
ascerfaineS." A vm 
*'delit>erative assembl; 
and, apparent! jf of ( 
mad^. It was, in ti 

of one House of Parliament to that of anothe^r, ^ Bo]Lb>inotioiia 
were acceded lo. The iinproprietj, the iii|pnidei[icejoif such 
*• |^p, was deeply felt by Lord Charlemont Ttj«t,thie ge©- 
'deinen who adopted Mr.Tlood's proposition did.not sea it m 
«lbis ligiii, or seemg its real complexion, did nolj abarndon if', 
taaLj be parttr attributed to the ascendancy which Flood h^d, 
'at »is time, obtained over most of them, as well as to that e^« 
tremtf ardor, which, pursuing a favoured object, overlooks ^pr 
cootei^s all obstacles. Lord Charlemont had received a hint 
•f this extraordinary movement from Flood, but it was no 
more than a hint ; and on his remonstrating against it, that 
l^ctruecDan sei^med to have abandoned it. Nor would he per- 
lui|Nl.)iave brought it forward at all, certainly not then, had ^ 
not bjeen impelled by particular personal .motives. His gre^ 
mmbition was to take the lead in this business of reform ; aad 
^ki be at that time looked to a scat in the British House of 



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Coinam, (^lA he tMif alter' <^iiitiM;^«U ;vi^ib^1Nh1tf# 
M he miagined, fer most |yotirerfn% iild^ Iff ht» i4[4etf«jtd^«i' 
ktioiu in the contentions m welTu thi^Mlh PiriieMift, iM 
' Wehle him to aspire to luperior rank ':lncl aathdnty among tbii 
refonnltts m England, at well Ǥ those dt IreUnd. TKe^^ 

* how^irer pressed, and he was obliged to go Nto London in \ 
tMy few days. To relinquish the honour df idbt^ng de ^M^ 

Hen of i%fbrm to my tee, he could nol think of/ and did i^ 
fMMsr of dome delegates, co-operating with liis owti p^v^MI 
Mivenienoe, he hurried it into the H«ise of Comuons. \VM 
ilthetv a secret history in all the public transactieiu; and Ak 
Mst^ not ilways the meet brilliant. 
*"' Parliament 'now became the theatre of popular exO'SoLu 
' WhoeVer was present in the House of Coiiimons on die nint 
nf Jttie ft^ bf November 1782, cannot easily forget wiuttuu^ 
*ied there.' I do not use any disproportionate Iangu«;e, whitti 
'T -say, ^lat the scene was almost terrific. Several of^the tSi' 
nerity, aiftl Jin^Oe ddlegates^ who liad' come from tbr'todni^ 
-tibn, irere in die utotf^ynns, and'bore the aspect^ stem Boidfi 

* Ry. On the ether hand, administration being supported eii 
th!§ ocMisiMi by tdimy independent gentlemen, mnd naviof tt 
0ffir heaJF very iA>le men, such as' Mr. Yehrertoo, miXwi* 

^l>dy, predentea a body o^8trength not always seen in tlhe niU 
nifliterial ranks, looked* (defiance to ttieir opponents, and ui£ea 

* seemM alboM unassailable. They stood certaiiily cm a mlost 
advantageous ground, and that ground given to them bqr their 
i^versaries. Mr. Flood, flushed with his recent triumpos in 

* another place, and, enjoying the lofVy situation whidi mt d»: 
' llties always placed him in, fearlessly led en tlie' attaclc. m. 
'T^lverton answered him with great ani'madon, great* 

^kr^nment, and concluded with a generous, dignified i 

-tb'the V(6lurfte*brs, whom he applauded for every jMxt& ^^ 

^^duct; the' j)r¥l^t alone excepted. Some speediea '£iUow«d 

tt^h tfrfiniTsir tM^T^ui the min^ o^ men soon became too^eMd 



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m 

!• V^ml fxv WP^ ^U^^ vMrNT. It. was qpiQi%4t 
WM €ltaiaor«: vMwt menaoe, and fiurioiii facrimiiuiltioQl . If 
wrera fopalw atiCTibly yroap the, Bfpm^nm of # wiM ami 
lllff uUaiMia. QptaQ«. it waa^op^ tfus occafiitt[^;at jailaki,^ ami 
tbaae vary shor^ intanral^ tbera waa ai>irthiii^{ lika a ealflBb 
y^P,^? dignity of PfrQa^iafit^ ttf/^jmoemtj tit mWffi^ 
i^m Conatjtution^ and daojier of any aiiltUuy asaaaib^ wasa 
ferllngly ,and justly «apa|iated aau lllia aad. staH ff thf 
^g^r^ntatioo wfa, witd aqua^ xpaiK dq^jptad on IhaothaR 
ijda. A.denid of v^Iutitaer inter£rraiioa^ aod .the neoaaH^ 
fjtamendu^ the rcyrMen tat wD^ wbaljiar votiwta^' aai«la4 
9r not, was, 19 the first insUooa^ laada wi^ vaqr Mf^^Mi^' 
ff^KlQu aod in Aa lat^ wilh. gyniniiia candor^ To tbis 
apfin si^ccef dad tomuU and ooDfii«io^ mingled^ wkk Ibe .aaA 
an^ <V>P7 voices of ^ many whd, aPied to b^rgogtiif raOadalt 
d^. Volunteers, |ike ftavas, not getttlamee, and furetCBdad lo 
vpboLi the Copititution, whilst they war^ in trath *apiW 
«Q}i0%ht that now baga^^ as their tofnor an gg ^s t a d^ l» 
Bfp[ade (heir ancient and ambignons pcopprty. , Bntlha in* 
gg^eiftce.aC the Volanteera was of mora aanri^e to audi mm 

^ aU;dieir array of senrUe hostiUtj ; W that D^l^ ai lapaW 
^proved their best safeguard, and.placed them not wijiiin tfa» 
abadotfy^ uncertain conibes of a depopulated boro^ght wham 
diey could find no saffty^ but under, the walls of the Conali^ 
t«tion itself. The tempest^ (for towards aaoming ddiati 
^re was almost nene^ at last ceased ; the c|oe8tioQ was put, 
ipid carried, of coune^ in favor of govemntent^ their nu|nbera 
U^9, and those of the opposition, 77. This was followed* 
mbA wifely too^ by a lesplntioo, '^dedaratory of the Bxtd^ 
determination of the House lo maintain its pnvilq[;es and just 
tjgfits against any encroadmieBU whatever; and that it w4| 
tfieiu indispensably necessary to make syh 1^, derlaratioQ.'^j 
A^^^Uess to ,be carried up to the ThrcK^^aa the j^aot Ad-.. 
di?ess af Larda and Comffma« ms then jmof^ for^; j|^a;(iiah^ 



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'iMr Mrtel ■■fiArifin fc "hh IMMrt 
i p B i» iM w< Ml^ tlwy Mdkni tMbr jHw i med ftipltftfo^M itop* i 

Tlti AdiMt vii cteidl «» tie iM^ nuik 
I tow • ' ^ • - ^t 

^Ki«iiiliHMr go bide to iHm m9v9kn\\m.^Afbm sitA^f 
lim1io«vft» or HMitor »d toodvini bo inufligtoc^ fipon Ha^ 
|Plooii hoti Cbaxkmmu toipaotinf that whieh lud iiO»4t»J 
fciitlphce, aiid drwiAiBf IttI tiw MogBto^ who^ to MMlto Mi! 
tffi|ioRrnfhf»to^)MdpottbeBMlhm daoriy ialfce mMfii 
iBifgliephinft ft9l docpor io orror, if tbcj ortitiiHW^ Jl AH) 
.filoe» to ikMjF ioDger, ]ireinilodo« theoi to adjoum to tbtj 
ItwiJiy folbwiiig. AB bit adduM^ vm requiiod to any tUt 
pitet, «m! no odior petioQ iro«M, at thu tim^ hovo^ P^Ai^ ^ 
ioc co oded Tbo next day (Soodaf ) thoro vas m laiipaiaaiM^^ 
l0|f it eharhuoQit House, of bit particular tmadB, wb9 pm^ht 
tAnatrndj agtcted, that the pabKc peace, riioaU bo the fir^ob»t 
}ert of iboir attention. JitmBgm were loeetvcdfipoaa aefcudbi. 
dabgatea^of wbooiLoid Cbaricmont had acaitiefy any pn^ 
aooal knowledge, that jtbey were veadj to fidlow hito In mi^ 
a na tur o ht ihonld propaae. On Monday aaorninfp bo toA^i 
flio /ehair at an earlier hour than aaoal,at the oonvon(io<|rfwA^ 
Ho e yy ^'Wdlm tadtnmity prenuled for aoitfe tii|io j M Hnf^* 
a-dele^to anwe, and b^gan torn veigh againet the Upiiitdlj 
Commtma. This waa exactly whift Lord ChailanMotiizpfato^ a 
ai|d^ at aUhaxardt, resolved to put an. end loJ Ho Jiajpri^ » 
itolyaraie»eiUodthodelegato to order, andaai4 *'T>ft4ff>J 
of iSe wisest usages in Parliaaoent was,nevertotdte notfonb Offl^ 
House ot wM ufas iaidin anothen Thft obsem^pc^ .^jndjjbu 
mtule^ he tten bagged particularly to reooounea4; 49. tbo.MK-t 
^pltoo^'^^^^^nir proprietjy of this speech was *"rf*fl.^»y<|fr' 
left; and, tboifgh u^oy subseqi^nt eiEbcU v^re. madfw. '.f0^dc 
infM toisnds^JiM mifchy, suA was the lespaal p^^uj^^ 
ChackHHiL thidfthojntlBoat IMoaufllttx nte«ailid.'\I^.iMt*'i 



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thi Mniitm^ thUfc 



biHi b*lbr». boM CiMiiiaMiit'ii flan, «lthaori|iiiia i 
•cub Mnji^tMi^ wiiy tcvitoivvMthe Aim itli^ 

IMWiSMIJP MilOtfW^^' wMWRK tiJF mmw* 

jUaiiiili^lM^ 4iMieqH«^ii^ 

imlit fia^rfttie C ail ililu tiqn <iwie>^yvb«p|t \mg IxIMIfer^ 

p%|||i^HHMity.<il«»«t«^ AMigl^tlie.iDdiivm^ iktif il»^ ^ 

gi[^tlK w we haire «90|i» fVemiled Oft« tiiv preievl dk^ «f^ 
mi<ili»t It iww plwwhrttly -ioceoriittit-ii^ Itf^iiiar tlw c0b« 






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» ipo« 'wt&ff iB^ H^ w^'n^anim * 



By <r^: copititmloiiil 6iw% te <i lfc etii i t g sotfe RefiNttft.' ^-^r* 

fe^o<Mi,Mwt Ai tjiiMil or best ptft^ thcfdAt^Ne "!AiHli*« 

oMblpiVkpdtf tQitf!|Hf.S^ivien^ a^i ttiMiHmnt ifi j p i|»/* 
B<t<ttii/»tt»ff / nfW^M tim tfce ^ iaidi|.<t gB i fi » d MpfidtfMH^hll^ 

teMD8,t«ild seoifcluAfd,i«ilh ih^tS wtKiBt^^ttJhtO' ila^ tim ^ 
fme MiJMtyr-tlMoiiP'Ji^dhle wyitcfchftt^^ i 

p m wMiuM of |be*P«rfignietitny RcfpieicQtiiliih^4^Hllii«kg!»^ 

«Ay ndt bt i t /fuM i to toy iyMt l#Awknrttlfc l»-ni|6bllte < 

II «iBer «Bd latt^Utf 4lwrf.<o iipboM «^ 

imiho BtfiifaMidii of ^uH'eMow ttAject^ tttkit^\i€tflMt0 ' 

MWt 'of tho ofa-idniiqMiiM thit lto%kf w ow^fl ttuHiy- 

fii^ihstate h >tii^ BOW ^iMiid, nMtwMjFldilHMl < 

^gl^oi cliH^arti t iW iiHi i liwMin:, ittjteH tom h iy ^ fi - 



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fl9t 

dmM^peMcpk, ^tMMfttdhg nke ftramamey to ihem wo^ 
iMl^*«ndtW luibemioe^to trotli; i» the grtit dotjr «f «ny t^ 
tiirftOy-to'wIridi M^Mmbt ' conrfimtMM «ratt^»ionMtll]r* 
pMi' Vrtm Ab e y ei Kii wit, Aamctew cf the ha diflg dekgtfiw^' 
nSlhitfg dangtfroas to the stat^ was to ^ apprehenidild/ Bm 
dw t^ WiMonf tl^hieh mo»t>^ them it^grned for a(^ee|itngr 
sieb miihoitfon, f>roved, mbr« than mny tbhig ' else eooWt, tlw' 
ii^egtSkori'ty aUd tmptdpriety of the nieedfif . Thejr eammtt^t 
tM^B ehtofen, fin' Older to -ptevMt infscbief. '^Hiat eohhi '%ny 
Mem} txiatf expectihttn an aneifiUy wtthsh; in Itt fmrf fbr* 
Mkm, cii¥ibd widi It the seeds'^ civil confbtion l-^Happily * 
llH^^itid,'i:orA'CJMr1ei:60ift, MdtAen Mte hhn, pi«vettteil 
iii4lflrted#lhmiennihigtoikiatiiTirf. Yet, wStH alltbeiriiK* 
ittM«^'tte^wei^ih8(mieriaiStanMi;«birgi^^ 1W 

fti'^iMp dr i fe iuiffy to any<^^nventfanl irhat«rer, waa bejoAl' 
(Mlf(^d#eil "Thi hler^se, thetuccessclrtfie volntte^r^ at!:* 
i fl Autf thenr to pairthelfae of iognd d fi a^B tton ,and Ihey woulrf^ 
hi^iMnMaeaATeAtfon^ thongh tbttrlored generkl hlido**^ 
pinlf 'iHitarecl Wns^lftMalty krimicd to it Many acted, mi- 
^jmSifAMf, fi«ar Hktf "pofffeC inottvea ; othlkn 'IVbtt peHSlcT 
gfiillWahiin tn liir ttMe, aoMgled with no sinda'' attention to' 
lIlitlaiiiiifiMiljr Inte^eeta ; arid' die valintteers, iti one piarti- ' 
etffiMr^dirtricC^ irefe:hroi%hc fbrwaard, udkndwingly, to AM ' 
dfhe cotmnkti ea\i«e af the time time. They* 
h^itir;t(xt,.alr'dfidpan!culiir period, becaiiM thosft^ 
ii^lMbl0«Htan('Beit;^ere'peirlhctl^ hiteiv 

WMtaHrtiyriDtheririse htt'UKylaie^ ortfaat they ciuldiMl 
bii|:«aMed«^Mrtlre^Mttlhilibb^^^ in' ^V^iMriet, and * 
Mik ^iMikf%tiiK, 'eVifr thim Mher' on Hii^ dedini. Thli 

T&eM* ikf^idio lotna who eiftered into Uie ^nibfmMom, fhr 

Mr^pAlpMM'irfniill^U^^t^^ InfelM altogeditr' 



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rgp^md &r « luMiniHl thcva vitli Abaobile i««j^ So elmfx 
l|^,f|o tVf cm4iiy,tf fiaUiiadinoiM and fenond il^ii i iwn 
t^^ c^^Qiderp, ted «» cfnaiA U i^ tbdrWlm the ffcfk. 
•ipi U>.giirtn> witb ^Imoit «no«itroUed waJOtrnkf^ji^fiitS' 

did thittmemUj^ «eti itito^Terj. otHt it dnimcd ff| ^«|i«* 
t%gtf^4H^«t^ ia/ferw toAit^thfti^^ 

«^^i^ta,jS99|^^ it mboifiirwitfd vitb^ pwp tp h i im trnJ^m 

^V^l]l^v»mttMMMSN4icMr. Sach aidctMx iwti ilit j|f »#^ 

Tbfjr D^tvl^y^ ^. ^^^ ^ ttf^aU^^ wdatthriP fl HHH i; 
•^HQOjTfi ¥*.«>*• d^dbwtiaivlMitJiuidCTirtwi ip^^AMtV 

«lS^Wt#«lW ai.waitiwr.haiiliU^. XlM«aM0|fi.<A<W^* 
d^W(|n^4l9fi bfHia£#)«r«d(be ^Tiot<^be«b o^ |lip g ^ f>j >> 
b^QI^ 4t^CQ|i««»tvip«:^ *» iiH«ittfy.«ru»i4iUMt^ t ^j ifi ^ i 

Mi.ViiK «Ml^W(Wrt|| Mil ipie^imilim; Jbot tfaiyvi WtM ! N W 
AflW'Wli^ t)»^l»l»«if« qf.aBBtoidii^r.thiir » iiit »fc | P4" ^ 
OTmjjjdj^g,tlwir> »Pimim:. lk^[.w«itGlJimrM»'«l»'Hi' 
fi|l4^^;aE^^ tMr viii^itiaB t» a»««M«iKr 

<C<mMmkitfft^ti)«u»r.tiMiiia^ tbM tktj^v^pM^^' 

fMiii^tinn im Ihi oiiii •fjaMMMMT ■■< wirtiwtii t tP'- 



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cooviRitfeii aiigfat, or mtglit to* db/tte' 
wtidi'I nam treM wouM not, t)^*f><P«» ^^^^^ ^^ 
tncdiatofy liiienM; at Icdtt, all the good tM wiM mhQfkt 
Atn, would not ; and I Ufiet* fi U ateertaiti tbit, tn tdA 
wmm.'tm equ^ pottkni of poipuWlutred t»dil1dftaTetfncbdod 
a« f o UMniei ' ^ tnul die refbrmed ; the Confendoiit at w'elf ai 
tbfr Ikbac ^f CoBOkMit. Anoilitr CoAtf oAda ^h)ttd 1^14^ 
aAtti, or a aeoMon from tha old onctakm place, and con*' 
fbiao woold have been worse octofbunded* 

: BtttcoAttealiottf oiaybeDteeiiaiy.teon^ljotAfhTedKrf 
dcnj. ' tiM hhibry of Ae ^voliltioil lii» proved it ; But lie^ 
ptfiAm^ or tdo freqacnt recwrreoee pt ra A atsemUieiy ma^ 
fee dmded, etcn by tbe inott rtftfiiitoas adToeates fbr ^fopoW 
pmikfe;- for t&o oollectWe pomer of tbe p^p1e/l^ bein^ 
bonght iA ^lat ihMifierperpetiudty talo #MMi, Will ttatffnQi/ 
ttbMtkielf; it wSU Igga dt its irCf, mil eet^ tblkave th ^ 
jbit; hv^ vegulat^, oomrdi over th4f jfeiooci^tib part 6f th^ 1^ 
|illMGMw wUdi the ^os Mid spifk ^^thfc* eoltstftution ^W * 
citimljr investod It witlU In trutb, all liberty woulf be nU 
tftiatoly. destroyed ; fiir, if there is danger to be apprebeniled' 
immj issesflUy^^otstrietly kkiown Of the cicliutltiitioD, with' 
w^HVf^ portion of the paoperty, incegti^yaiid iHsdbm oftbo* 
eoootry-ftfait asseibbly may Iftr ooniMled^, thenfr is, on the o» 
lliirhaii|]k.ittocb, very tniich^ to be dreaded firdia the linpHit- 
st^,priMeq%ioitf senraitts of power/ Hhb, mVh the afAn^'of ^ 
Wv.«Mmgr catdi M the sIlghtMt eMl'S of generous lOinl^"^ 
ttii<«ietwiteKired with ony irregiilAi^y t^firi^<M, a^/sdod^ 
er^lft^^HeiMfeles them fiagler some iNi<0iir.d*1Sft ^I^My itseR^ ' 
HKNfthUH k may bemked, ir to be doife?*:-^^^^ tku^U^ 
ktfif, tia as so^ a pftc^pl^ {a she ffartnitiim df sudi assto* 
^i«y.sii/t)mrf;onstniGtioa^^pee^iMoK D^ thenilW^' 

n%>f ^Kroigtm^lsiretfaer, if^the^gMMrftlseudmefita^tf iiot/b^ 
nt ottr^QSMsimtte^ )M%ir 9tt%#ftWlt. %Aid ftof'iidfRL • 



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jlpeii^Z, frocUini tl)iitthf tpoilepoe .pfOtf aalMa itialf 4^^ 
IMBdt d»iir iot|NfeivQoe« \* The power of iifipMd»tiit»'' 
Ipid (.ord SofBj9rt« oQce in ijhe Hojme of ConimtiDt^ •' aboiild 
bt liVf, Goliah's awo^» kept id th^ temple^.vid x^ u^ buf 
fo jreet fOQMumf." The aime may Ibe Sfd4 of cenvwi^cioBs. , 
• Tbe re^Kkr who na^ no^ remember die da^a of thia,ift3i« 
Ury eemrentioii will 1^ QfttiireUy anxioiia to en^ie, .i^bac 
femitioii ita e^ mm en l , or mtber iodea^ ita. downfU^ 
e^ted? To the beal of BjnocAeetiaii,Ulti^ IT jHme what- 
ever. Thia indifferenoe can b« accounted. Ibr>—ilafa»aiv 
ftem circymarayora at that time^ pf^rfaqpe, inaopwaU^ waa 
altogether ^oo aarrow; the del^f;a|ea did not* nor ^piiU thiq; 
then indade the Catholic body; ye^ to talkof esteiidiiy tbt 
right of aufirage where^ prapertJ ^** ^ ^ ^^ ^nS^ io^i^ 
^ the aame |ime« ahut^oot ^ minority pf the nati^iv wi|i.i^ 
ftrango coiitradictioD. ^That the C»tboliCf« lher«ibve» ^|b^fd4 
laspent the extincfiiflfi of mAaaeilibly«,whidb» whilst it pny^^fgA. 
toere(^ « temple of general fre^donp^ ooiildjiot bring tbon^ 
even within the vestibule^ wa^^||io^ at «^ to be myp^ctedL 
There were other xfoaona wbi^ had their inflaeiiQe opaoD 
thinkipg men, who atood aloof fitmi the Hooae of Commoifa 
M well as the Convention, and -{egarded the proceedu^of 
^odi inqpartialiy; . 

This Conv^ntioii we^ independent of itr. mBitarjr origin^ 
which aione n^Mr^fficient to condemn it, the leaat juatiftaUo. 
of t^y convenn^ th4t ever att in Ireland, It thooght propec 
, tomeet^^int only iminediately*f|ifter the Revolution of 1792^ 
but directly, at tl^ aame time, with « new Parliam^,- wbeeo 
cbaractefv or wheee ten^r, on any aub]^ had not been trie^ 
at all ;. and anperadded to thai, the particular aubje^ fiir Jtht 
pr.omotioB of which the CoovenUon now met, (a ParUamentiiy 
^Reform^.had never, a« a. question of debate^ been entertained 
hg any House eCKttmqf^oDs whatever, in Ireland. . So that bero 
vpMaJE^vg)utioQ>aKqmPia4iamenttreJtding^^ tl^ ^^^. .?^ 



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tBit ttWAliM(M^;'aAd a'WIg^ct, toWfjr novfel, to t)6^u\ceii ujl, 
b^HWI^iflmtwiiC Tint, VUbont hinririj^ tbe' ))stWc^ to ^ 
4)tottti9uehce^iiat R&volution would have on a new Parlia^ 
iitm, or' ^w far ft might 'affect auch' a popular question partU 
cdWty rabdof c6uNe^^iving no' possible pretext to say, tha^ 
ffie'fl^tloils oft^e *)>ebp!^'were disregarded as tb that point, 
(jkcM indeed liad been presented.) the coBvention came in^ 
■bktdf "to a^ conflict -with Plurliatdent» lti% i^nsequeiircel. 
H^^BiJtli'as might be ejrpected.: Pa rfiameiii stood o^ sac£l 
'^aMagA igrouijcly that ^^e coil vention instantly broke down. 
^^SMne 'cibitBidcrations may'also be added to the above, 
VhiclTiiiSWle ihuch iofipretsion on part of the oorornnBity, and 
rao^^be'enlarged on here. If it is becessary to animadvert^ 
hift\>v!i\ttq\idai\yt oh the misdoilduct of ministers, it is necesi 
iUf alaa to take notice of the faults of the peopW Despicable 
u'&at man, #h6, tb sooth their ear, dwells with a inaiig^ an^ 
,^iflgair ^afacfioit oh the errors of their ruters, and never 
(SkkAeg on' their oWii. In August/ 1783; that is, ibrte mohtha 
w^btt tiie tweeting of the conveiitiQri in Dublin, the Parlia* 
meni was ^ssolved, and a new one summoned to meet 
Here,'tbeo,* were the people called forth to act their part in 
t&e dioTce oPnew representatives. If it be sullenly^ sai^ 
that the system of representation circumscribed the popular 
dhflfce^in too narrow limits, I accede to the proposition ; but 
X beg to add, that it was not ao bound in as to prevent its 
corainj^ forth at all ^ and it did not come forth. Numerous as 
tb« boroughs were, still they did not overspread the entire ^ 
BelA ^ elections ; the counties and several free towns remain* 
ed ; yet most certain is it, that hot one county, not ooe fre^ 
town, or Corporation, throughout the kingdom, expressed their 
mva or the people's gratitude, by electing any one of the emU 
iient men who had so recently, and so gloHously, led them on 
to the best victory, the triumph of rational fi-eedola. Nay, 
country g^iAemen, who hiuCin the Ute contest, acted a 
'Mm 



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|M|Vt wbl^ VtOit I tt vC iMfNtomy W#^ tari^MnV {ft^m X«€t ft D6 1^ 

nwrnb^Hed tot^ that^ «no9 poHiom of the ooun try llad dttideJ 
ihffiMelvM int* twa partieii Om* wot Imt timple repeal, as aU 
raadjrttatect; tlwolbar, flbr w n — c i «tfa» by Act ^ Parlia^ 
OCfit ; and^ aeoerdii^ t» tlw saiial acnrbi^jr wliiah dktiiw^ 
gitnhw My «niai|Mrtattt fhalaaf mankind, tbeyb^^HvlMta 
•aeb alber with ah aa a t OTperf^ eofdiality aatbey hated the 
vmnpa/Ammwf tk% Briti^ ^mtktmevfk It inighi therefote be 
aapactaih l^tboar wli» know t^tat ndanfcitid really n; tiukf 
party dildaiMii woaldt aff^otuate that whieh paMir spifil liwt 
iieglBHed t6 do; amt^ as^Mr. Flood wt» the renowned lieader 
of ana partyv tone phdO M{g(it bofbund wh^rei^at party prei^ 
d^mkiatad} whiblv iiHni(i^ return Bim to PaHUmtenfwhh an nf 
of^Mtperior- gratitudte'' and resphntdent patHotisftr ; in ottnt* 
w oidd , wkli great apparent magranitnify, and nnch wittrfar 
sptioi N^ Pbtty traa loc^ttacibns and Tenehious; and* dh* 
played iteelf ift e^^ery* shape, and' every place, except whe» it 
•hould ha«o tnott di^plkyad iiself, at the moment^ t!^ U, ob 
tha piiblio Huitin^ 

Mr. F!o«5 anJ Ms Ilfustribos riVaT, were obliged' to win* 
dtr, as fbr as eTectfoTis extended, thrmjTh thiamist of pt^pnlir* 
obi i vion, amF find their wsryto Parliament irt any tnanner 
they oouTd! Tire Bbrough of Charltmpnt once more afliot^ 
received '^fr. Ghittani anrlMi*. Flood, had great difficulty hi 
filiditig anyj seat whatevcn At thiV very moment Were dem«*' 
gognes racing fbrth ffom every comer in quest of a piriii- 
m w i t a ry-reformi voetf<^rttting that the people coidd not detti 
single Wend of thetrV, and" dissatisfied with all that hidbeM 
d^me ih both ParJiametHs, unlesa th«y couM'give ft fteer astf* 
more- expanded ntterance to the voice of the consdloan^ 
which voice, when cdled upon by the Constitution itself to 
apeak; wasj attforthe chief ' uphohf^s of tfiat CanvtitutSon, n» 
where tabe heard; The inconsistency, the- imreatmiabAiM^ 
ef aoch- p ro e e cdh i ga certainly^ diaindlncd many to the eonrtti* 



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Jfll 

lion^ and they bebddlta abrupt dlswlntiviii not merelj witk 
unconcern, but tatisfactionr It is pr<»per to record luch thii^gt. 
No people ever jet existed, of wanner hearts, and more lively 
gmtitude, than the Irish. But the public here, as elsewhterci 
iMi its kvitj, its day^ its months, of idles arbitrary domina* 
lion. Anrl of all unreasonable expectations, what can be more 
le, thai) that the person who has embarked solely in their ser* 
▼ice, should proceed in his course, with either energy or efB« 
cai^y, under the chill of their neglect, or the miserable uncer* 
lainty •f their firQwns. or their smiles? The philosophic re* 
presentative who knows what the people, the '< fond many/ 
have l>een, in all ages, may continue to serve them, unmoved 
by their clamours; but he who engages in public life, with e* 
^oal purity of mind at first, but ksa firm purpose, will only 
encounter similar discouragements for a stated period ; he will 
not wait for a return of their goo;.l humour. Me is assaileil^ 
sot so much by the minister, or avidity of increased income^ 
as the suggestions of a wounded mind, of self-love, which tells 
him, that he may be more useful to his country in a ministe* 
rial, than popular connexion. At length, he abandons compa* 
rative povem, caprice, and the crowd, for affluence, constan* 
cy, and the court This is not the course of heroism, but how 
little heroism is, in truth, to be met with ; and if that little -finds 
not its natural reward in the sunshine of the people's general 
attachment, what right have the people to complain ? With a 
few sentences more I shidl close the subject of the convention. 
It has led me further than I intended ; but a sincere wish to 
guard my countrymen against the blandishments of every spe« 
eions novelty must be my apology. They may rest assurecf^ 
that the established forms of the Constitution embrace almost 
every possible mode of redress of public grievances ; and that^ 
impatiently to seek a new path, in quest of that which can 
eertynly, though slowly perhaps, be obuined, by pursuing 
the #U1 parliamentary road, may dazzle their imaginatiooS| 



L_^ 



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t(J8 

and even recreate their minds for a nN>ment^ but will only 
terminate in darkness and oonfusion. It has been said^ that 
the HD^G^ity which resisted Mr. Flood's motion was composed 
. of the fisoal Swiss of the Castle, and the entire array of the 
borough-holders. But it was not so^ The friends of one, or, 
I "believe, two or three noblemen who bad boroughs, vMed 
with Mr« Flood. In the majority were many gentlemen 
totally unconnected with administration ; who, on other oc- 
casions, voted against Lord Northington ; and were uneqnivd- 
cally friends to the measure of a parliamentary reform, but 
. objected to tlie bill then moved for, as originating fW>m an 
armed assembly. When Mr, Flood said^ in the House of 
G>mmons, that his sentiments in favour of that bill were hit 
own, and not borrowed elsewhere, Mr. D. Daly quickly aiki 
justly replied ; '' I do not say, that they are not his own, 
but they are more Fotoriously the sentiments of the Conven- 
tion." Being such, they form the entire justification of the 
House of Commons in refusing leave even to bring in the bill ; 
for, unless some peculiar, and extraordinary circumstances 
]roi)eciously demand such a negative, in limine, the Hoose 
never adopts it. Their decision was as judicious as spirited. 
Had it acted otherwise, the reform then urged might have 
been called a parliamentary, but its only proper den«roina« 
tioQ would have been a military reform ; and what that is, 
had former a^es been as silent as they are instructive on the 
subject, the dread series of events which have taken p1ace» 
since the days of the Convention, has most fatally proiiiul« 
.gatedtothe world. But, if the timid acquiescence of thf 
House, in the decreas of the Convention, had then established « 
precedent for submission, and left to the Commons neither nam* 
nor authority of any sort, however we might for ever deplore 
its imbecility, we cannot on the ether band, applaud its aloioat 
continued resistanise, during a variety of subsequent and j4k>. 
qiiil periods, to the question ef reform^ when urged as coneti- 



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269 

tationallj m abl j. That refbrm required incteed all tbe aid 
which the wisest, and best senators cocild give to it ; and had 
it been calmly, jadidously, and timely adopted, though it- 
coald not have avert^ every evil Arom this kingdom, the 
measure of our misfortunes would, in all probability have been 
much less, and our own legislature remuned unterrified^ and 
nnimpaired. 



^»»<»w»i»»%».»»% 



THE SOaETY OF UNITED IRISHMEN. 

THE foregoing history of the struggles made by the Irish 
Volunteers and their roost Celebrated leaders to reform the 
Irish Parliaments we have taken from Mr. Hardy's '< Meoaoirs 
of Lord Charlemont." We lament that this excellent biogra« 
pher should have laboured so much to put into the shade those, 
persooajges, who by the superior liberality of their political 
sentiments, would have achieved the great work of Parlia* 
roenttfy Reform. But Mr. Hardy himself was a member of 
the Irish Parliament, and could not at this period brook the 
idea of a participation of political power with bis Catholic 
coontr3nnen. Like his great and distinguished patron, Mr. 
Hardy aurrendered his prejudices to the times in which he 
lived ; i|nd was^ in the evening of bis political life, a aealoua 
friend to the emancipation of the Catholic. The Bishop 
of Derry saw into futurity with a keener eye than most of hit 
Protestant countrymen : he asserted the necessity of eiabrac* 
tng die Cadiolic portion of Ireland, on the great prih« 
ciple of Reform, and foretold its deibat unless that principle 
wu acted upon. Some have denied the justice and wisdom 
ef hli opinions. 

We have now, however, seen the result of the struggles which 
thf I^jpteslfnts of Ireland made to reform their Proleiiant Vu* 
liamcnt;-«*w^ here behold the impotenpy of monopoly in iti 



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wmt riiivbte prtdjanyientr It will biccaf^ be. awtter of 
\ pii4 m^tnch^ljr reflection to the (riah Reader, thiit the 
(^iitififuiibed Volunteempf Ireland, men wbo in ifS^ 
y«re CMlPpIciB of vnbeiKided liberality to their Catholic caon« 
pr]fm^ abould in the year ntcceeding onanifett such a ttapid 
fpiftt q( upce)eulii)g bigotry. Had the Convention which 
aatembled in the Royal Exebapge of Dublin, in November, 
17S3, been sq wise as to take the ground which the Bishop of 
Deny recommended to their adoption :-4)ad they opened the 
arms vf Protestantism, and embraced the population^ or, ia 
other wfNxIs, the physical strength of their country, — had they 
enlisted the Catholic aa well as the Protestant heart in the 
eoptestt posterity would not have to lament the destruction of 
those hopes with which Ireland so siuiguinely flattered her- 
selC In yain would the Attorney-General* Barry Ye]verton» 
afterwards Chief Baron Avonmore» have hurled the thundoa 
of bis^loqueoce against the uncorrupted spirit of his countiy— » 
in raip would the Convention have been assailed by the idle 
and silly sophistry that thev were ikUU^rs rather than pe^ 
tiiiomr$ to the Irish Parliament, and should be put down.-* 
Xi^ Parliament would, as it did in llSlg have obeyed the 
Yoiceof an utuinimoua people, and Ireland would not, to-daj, 
be a despicable, dishonoured province of England. — Our men 
^property and our men of genius, would be flourishing ia 
tbeii' native land— objects of envy and admiration to surround- 
ii^ nationf. The energies, and indusdy, and talents of Ire«' 
lafid wpuld have found a theatre of action calculated to 
Mvqplete their utmost develapement 

The people ef the North of Irdand* Mm all diis dimial 
perspective in the defeat of the Reformers, and tfaetr meet 
distipguished 910119 at length sought for hag^' in the adoptfa»| 
of a j^an of N^tionid Union which would consolidate into one 
hafm»aicwis whole all sects and deoomnatieDa of their country. 



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m 

Hence arose the iteUfenrtecf iieMf df WtM IriAn^^ 
wbidi, in Itf ftniMtiatf aoil p r q gfeeeand ttdurftj ^citcd the 
woDder and the w f aieiic e of Eurafic Never was a sjsles 
better calculated to promote Its object— the tinioti— hiqpi^iiess 
mnd strength of the eountry. Never was a plan so wdl coo^ 
structed to obliterate from tUe recolhclion of trets&d ihe su£» 
ferings fnflicted on her by a vicious and insidious poRcj ; or 
to procure by its powerful operation^ Hbe attainment of thai 
union of sentiment throughout Ireland, which Iroufd demoii>* 
atrate to Enghuid the wisdom dt a mQd and benevolent 
policy. 

We shall new .record some of those most , distinguishwi 
docnnKsnts which formed the gronndwork of this preat nationat 
oonfederat y ;. and as Bdfast was the source of this new 'f04 
lilical light which illununated the most deserted eartremitief 
of Ireland, the reader wi))^ observe that the Society of United 
Irishmeib oonstilnte a most importapt part of the Polilios of 
Bdfiiat, . 

^*tiSk Society was coapotad' oT tSe mott~esle^tedr by th^ station 
ift fttr emiuumiiiy, tUe ^kUttfof tfaelr tlOmU skid tlleir feihAag; ani 
t Urti 'n utfs w hi A mi fay the cause $0 dV» sad tiiagkM^ fl s tf i i iii. ih 
I wwa peilfasiidi eonHllaissyv ^mmgm cs p ryb m ut an 
- sT amteaof vbkb iPMdd ssmilniid Uie sttenlibo^ si tte 
I^egialstore ; but tbe viol^ce of maaopelyt and the aperc profouD4 
policy, oT Mr. Pitt, who saw tbe completioii of tbe Union in tbe dividoos 
and difltnction of tbe Irish Nation, droire Che Stbcietjr of Uuited Irish* 
■Seo into the emis of a foreign power, and a plan originally cbhcelved 
9M adtod^upon tbrstreogtlMMr tbe-csuntryagsfnst ttr ftrcign as #^'as 
enemies, became, in tbe hands of an exasperated pSiiy> at 
^ of IbnaiihibletcHoperatisa with belB. Jf n Pitt ledl adfraa- 
t|^ «C th»|Vfeci|^taBcgr of tbe Irish leadefs, aad raised bis favtxiie 
MMure of tbe UnisB» on tbe mln of tbe Irish pionopelist sud the klsh 
patriot* 



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tlflt H6N. SIMOh BVTLlCRf IN THE CBAlR. ^ 

The JbUowing t9cu agreed to : -^ 

WHES we reflect how often the Fre^menimd Fmh<^ 
era of Dublin have been convened^ humblj tp exprepfa.,theiff{ 
grievai^ces to parliament... bow of\en they have; solij^itiaii tb^ 
enaction of gpod and the rejpeal of bad Ujri^— bow, <]#^ All 
sucpessive years, they hare petitioned against the obnoxioui 
Mnd iinconstitutjonal Police Act, and bow o(ba.im tb«qe ap* 
plications baVe been treated with the most perfee^ omtitQlacy 
and contempt.-T^%en these facts are brought ta reeolleclkM^ 
is there an honest man ifill say, that the House of Qgnnmm^ 
h'^Te the ttnallest respe^ for the people, or beKaee^ Ibemnl*) 
Tes thtir legitimate represenUtiveif ^Tbe fact is^ diir tbi^^ 
great oi^ori^ of that Hovse, consider diettselvea«fttht^|«pres 
aeptatives of their own money, or the bired atrranli of *Ar 
English gQntrofaaeviir mhtm muvater Ji«rt, is appointMlisff 41^% 
sole purpo^ of dealiqg out corra|ptipn t» themi ittht «paiia»» 
of^ Iri^b liberty, Iri»h c^meroe^ and Irish. Iaipr»yemf nt*^ A 
Tl^is^li^ng^UKS cue, it i^atimily /uUowii tbat mKh'n&wnmm^' 
Mtwly the repvaaeotative m( th»£Qgl«b Y«MM/i9aulil,tliiMi 
Miinlry» bat is also -the sale Mpraeantati^iQf Uie-fiiapl^^ 
IrcUpd To elucidate w^hich assertion, it is only ilebeasiry^^l 
ask^ whether a single cpiestion in favor of this oppresaed'tta**' 
doo can be carried without Aia .cansent ?-^-)And whether any * 
measure, b«wovei; ioimioal, may^Qot tbroaghiUtiiiAieMe MP 
•Septefl? , ^ . -^ .' u r-i 

In tStm st«te of abject aUyery, noJtopa rtv^sAs^orvi, lMt^» 
hi the sincere and hcaflf iraiaR efaUikepeopH^^^^tbm^Wlf'^ 
and radical relbrm of parliamont ; bedaocfe Itis' *dlf¥iawt;f%itK 



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■ng Ibr Ihrtr coyalry.f Mid tht polk^ of our ralan hm hnm 
^^lyt ttt^br Oft to bMipIlM diCmnC affclffat vcriane^^ in 
wiiicb they ha?e beenbot too well McondoA b)r our own Mljk 
For die ottManem tktn of this great and importaiit ob- 
jatt-^fiirthoraiiioRralofabtui^aiidniiiioM diatinGdona-iHUDA 
ibrpromotiiig acom^ate ooalltioa of tbo people— ta Stociatjr 
ktt boon fbhaed» oompoted of all rdigioya parauaiiaDt, wV 
In^a adopted ftrtliair nane^^-^KE Soaatr or UiaTEJa Iajw»« 
Milr ov DttLm^-HaMl have taken aa tiitir 

DlCLaaATION^ 

llMil af a tilBnar 8odelj hi JMfttt, which it as foilawi 1^ 
IN the fwesent great «ra of refonii, when trojuit governs. 
WBtaareftHinf in averjr quarter of Europe; whta religioiia 
pMabttion i« epmpoUed to alijiire/ber tyiamij aver eonad^ 
Mtfaai wb#a t(ie ti^^ of men are aacertained in th^arjTi and 
that tbooiy aubatantiated by practice; wbeH aatHiaity cam 
rm.hogfst iifSBmi abtard and oppretaiTe fbrma agahMt the 
eoMBioa aonae and ceoimon intereata of mankind ; when all 
gotehnaeitt b acknowledged to or^nate fnna Ae pect>le» 
iSi to'to to tn 0tAf obBgalofy aa it prolicta tbehr.righta and 
pioin oteo their welfare^ w€^ tUhk it oar duty« aa InahaMn, ta 
aimalhiaanlj and atate what wtf IM to be oar heavy grie?» 
aMe» aod what we know to be ita aAKt^afi'mnraijr. 

« W€, Aoae a# wkH&iml goeer aw cirf— we are mkd by En« 
f itabmen^^and the aenranU of £ngllshnien« Whoae object ia the 
hitfreat of another country, whoae im^rument ia corMpdcaf^ 
and ^whoae atiei^[tb ia tbr waakneta of Ireland; and thetlT 
HaKfas^ailhawhlioofthepowaf and pi*nna«o of *e eoun- 
tfyati|ie«ia|oieda<»anflt«bdi^tficbofiaf^andthe qmil 
afheri^pietenUtifea in the le^^ture^-'Sttch an extrinaie 
piwanwding ^th uniform fdra« in a diaaatioo too ftaqueaUy 
4M^^Bita:io IhatiMaBataf ovrpbMoa intenaatair can be,reiiat» 
ad wiik aiealiaoMy by aii<n»«Mty< d o ria io i^ o nd tpirit in thfi 



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fmfii^^^^i(silS6m iiAkitm/fim iK trf mm ItgiSif, mpiSl^ 
mknfilf and «a«icuMs]!]r,'^j Ihat f»eat oMuarB cMentU t^ 
Ac prosptrky^aad fireecbm of IrtdlTiii >■ ry/ iitjwwc^lt lifls 

' * WrdopDibvrvnifBtiraasgrievMMii^lh* nfettm of |i 

i|]* <if peeri^ 19 mm booM^ the coinii^iini pol)i)k]y avof n^ 
■i the od>iM;-^«ir tte nfUbanmiB kifimy of JniilMifk UiAb. ^r 
tWMn'boCh-;— 'Tmi tlut^we «ce iosMtibW crf^ Uiair.fMKiBiig^ 
W that we consider tkcrm «a Imt ^qafiftMBt, cfiHUl moO^ 
diseuc which corrodes tbe viukofoar constitutioDir«odlttm 
to thepeopk^ til their own goveitiiiiRit^ but tiit AtMtf of[« 
'lUine.' • " •• ^ 

'. Impressed Sflih iheie sebtun^nts, we Mini, agreed to top 
^ w6ciiltt8n; to Be called «< The Society of Uniced M^ 
itieli^:'^artd we do pledge ourselves to our connlrjrf and «Hita4|f' 
tb each other, that we wHl ateadilj support, ajid endeatoar by 
9SI due means to carry tnto efibct At following resoIafiiMis:' 

h ^e$Amh Thrt.tl^ w^H 9? 8«ilW^inftM!W».ff^ 
gawemnfot of liiis eouptrjr k^fhgf^ aa^^eqqini ^ cfft^ 
wtign among mU tki.pfopb of Mm^ Vi^ m^xi^w^XA^fifi^ 
whicli.iseaaatttial.tothepvf9anpalimo( Mr Uhr?^ ^ffflt lift 
extension of oar 1 



II. That the'sole cohsti^utippjtil mode bj'wb«eh dm in 
etic^ can be opposed, is bj a complete and radical raCma^ef 
4w ryy^t e n M^tMH'. qf t^e people in j^liagne^t. 

>i»Kbb«1UkU'ndt ineltide irishiBesi of ewf i^I^iqml' paEsn^ 

Satisfied, as wis are, that; the fntitttiae dWIobw mm^ h 
rfshmen ha^ tdtfMto' gitlf»^<«Mni«i«««asili«OTi ^.l^pifi^ 
tA ai}daei6c# otM^ *«6«rap% . adtnkit«tr«|ioiOs^ ia ■iaamrai 
whiob^ but (or these divisionSy'tUiy durst not hovo atteaipCed; 



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m 

we mbnit dor taobtkot !• tbe wilbn •• |hi Utis.of ofv ^ip* 
Btical fitctl. ' 

1^ liiif e ifoite W i»h«t ir^ Mkt»iv^ to b# die ^k tifthe f- 
tO ; we have Mted Vrfemt We Idtacdve li I* the Uonedjl With 
^feperfiraMBnitfioetilbraiedf fverf .t|iiog ieeatj; wit^t^- 
M^in^ cen be dkm; . 4nA we do < 
"exhort oat coofitfymeii in general to 
Ibrm felmtler mctetiei in every ^ 
'Bie proilki(4ion of censtitutioftal^know 
fotry in leligion and politics^ and ibi 
righu el' man thnmgh aU Bt<k$ ancl di 
-^he pe<iplej wKen thus ooQected, wij 
and secure that poWer m bicb theory 
'Ihfir portion, and to which, if they 
present provocations to vindicate it, 
*iiieir pretensjiHiaytfr eMT / . 



TEST. * ' 

I A« B. tn ike presence of God, do pledge myself to my coum* 

tj^.tMi I wiU use all my alilUks and influence in ike aUmwmmtk 

• ff n» kmfaftM "and Adequate rep^esenlatixm b/* ike IrUh Ntdhk 
t» Pmrliimein.'-^And as a meuna 'of absolute and imitiediaie 'n6* 
meUy in ike eeiMiskmeni of. this Chief Good of Irehnd, J milt 

* endbevdlir, nr tnmch ae lies in my abHiiyiJafurmord a hrotktrkqoi 
^ifeifion, tn Udentity qjf inkrett^, a i^Mmunimt df r^kU, IMI 

' 'ilim tnfon ofpome¥ among Irishmen of all religious perskasions / 
miihoul mhich every reform in parliament msut hepfSrH^ not mtm 

< '^ijor ik^/rwedom ^nd Uppniss i^ihis tokiUry. 



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^ . SOaETY OJ UNITED^ JIJ^«J4EN OF,,I?U^N,, ,,, 
, JAtf Am. StMON BuTt^ im^Cimfi, n 

■^ ! ^f Htt tetter is adilreued tp you ttoni t!ie CoraDODdii» 

iciety of United Irishmen in t>ubtin. 

edaration of political principles whicb we 

d ^he test which we have taken, as a toqsl 

to b^d ps more closely tofeiher, , 

18 institution is tu make ati United Society 

to make all IrishmeiH— Citizens :-— an £ir 

SJeent-llrishnien ; nothing appearing to us more natural .j|i 

an timesi and at this crisis of Europe mere seasonablj^ Jb|R 

that those who have common hiterests^ and pommofi .eoemiq, 

who suffer common wrongs, and lay claim to common righ^i 

should know each other aqd should act tcwetlifr. In oiirpoir 

nion Ignorance has been the demon of discorM, wbidi ,Ii||i^f9 

ftMg deprived Irishmen^ not only of the blessings of wdlTf||p^ 

lated government, but evea the common tieoefits of chfil mc^ 

if. Peace in this island has hitherto been a beaoe on the 

principles and with the consequences of civil war. For a oen* 

funf {^st thc^'has Indeeii been tranquillity, but to aaoSt tt 

our d^ ioutatrymen it haa beoi the tranquiOitf of adin*' 

J{eon ; and if th(S land has lateiy prospered, it has been owmf 

to the goodness pf Proyidence, and the strong elTorta of hunum 

bature resisting and ovcrco^iing ihe malignant influence of ^ 

nfiseHdile ad'ttilil)iit)^ionf - ' - ^ 

•: To leibi this inllutnce, whidi rules 1)T discord and eoi- 

broils by^stem, it is vain to act as individuais or m Pf^^^t 

^Tti)rcofiies hecesigry by an union of mindii, and § ^ogf* 



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fedgttif eadi od%i9r»^i^AI^ tojict i^ AMtioQ. To know 
iCach odicr it to know oanelTet--lhe Weftknen «f one and tlii 
•traigtk «r muijr. tXiiMtti, tberefero^ la poWer— 4t u wiadom 
.^-*4t moat pvq?o tibiity« * 

^ c(^;HP9|f. jpl^cb, wbant^rfH MlowfdU nwi coUoe»tiio|W^ 
Ik win, and cpnoentrato the public power into one to)id voai^ 
iho flfect of wbidij, oooe put i^ motipo^ »u%tlbo, QjfMi «iO> 
jikentoua^ and conaequential. ... ,^^, -. 

In thoa associating we have thought little about opr a nca s 
}iiin — much of onr posteritjr. Are we for ever p^^ waUL^]^ 
bc^iStsofpreyy over fields %diich these ancestors stained wi}]^ 
Uood? In locking back^ we see nothing on the one paf$ but 
aavp^ force spcoeeded by sarage policy ^ on the other^ an n|i* 
Ibfeuniate nation *f scattered and peeled* noted out ^ and^ trecjU 
^nddwn!" We see a mutual intolerance, and a oaaunofi 
iittrnage of the first moral emotions of the heart, which lead 
lis to esteem and place confidence in our fellpw creatorcf. 
W* see'this, and are silent! But we gladly look forward to 
brighter prospects— 40 e people united in the fellowship of 
imdom— to a Parliament the express image of that people. ■■ 
lea prosperity established on civil, political, and religions li- 
berty— to a peace>->iiot the gloomy and precarious stillness 
^if men brooding over their wrongs, but that stable tranquilli^ 
^ which rests on the rights of human naturcj and leana on 
ftbo arma by which these rights are to be main|aine(L 

Our principal rule of conduct has been, to attend to tiioae 
^mgs in which we agree, to exclude from <mr thooghts those 
ill whidi we differ. We agree in knowing what are our 
rights, and in daring to assert them. If the rights of men bo 
duties to God. we aie in this respect of one reliffioo* ^ Our 
crofd of civil faith is the aame. We agree in tbi^kii^ tlM|t 
there is not an individual among our millions, ^bff^e bappi* 
. Qe£ can be e st ablished on any foundation so rational and so 



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VtI 

iotid^ hM on &it hkj^iitkis tit tM VbSle 'diiitiJKirnt;^.-lW t^ 
re^, ttierefofe; in thb heC^^sTlir 6f giVing ^itfctl VfttUe AlA 
jitation to the gfeat aajorhy of th^ |^^ple ; and ke th&k ^ 
. wboerer desires an amended constitutioti^ wiSiMit tn^ftHf 
Ue gt^at Wly of the t>eopl^, ^&it oii B& <liA jj^cl^kt be 
*<btiV?ctfcdotp6Hti(a^pertecutron, findpoUtl«a Ibonop^ IT 
Hblb "pte^nt electors bd tbemselTei k morbid (Mth of o^ 'V^n- 
IQtutlOft, ^nrliere &fet irk to f^etk^ for ]r^i^ bii'l ti ^ ^^ 
coDUDiinity f ** A more unjust and Absufd cdn'stitUthNi tiw> 
DM fefe dte^lted^ than ttiat which condemns the lia^eii of a 
MMirtry to jterpettial servitude, un4er the sirbitiii^ ^KNmStaS^ 

. iiTftrtflfeferi ahd duves.'' ; ^^"* 

' Wftiaj^te in thinking, tvkt tl6 first and mdtt &disiMlltt- 
1M ttnditiioh o^ the kws in a iVee sUte, is IHe idsent bf {ii<Sfc 

.iHiittife bbedieace they r^ure, and (bfr ^ifabse benietit only tb^ 
ilrtiefltghed., Without, therefore, aii i£|Mikial and vtequSu 
l^lir^ehtation oFthe community, w^ agre^ in 'declarulg, We 
ttVl hiiVe no cohstitutrob--no counlry-^iJoll-elahll."' ^VitncSt 

V ihil;^ftatfe revolution we declare to l>e bkltac1o\is aiiS i^il; 
A thing dnudi talked of, but neither tkM nor seen: " Vbe fll^'of 
Irish Sovereignty has been merely tossed but b^ the-^ngnlh 
Houses into the Cabins of th^ Ktinistir; dhd ntittiliig feii!a!Ss 
tothfe people, who of riglit are everything^ l>iit a*stf?tic 
ftlAjesty imd a ragged independence. 'V" * ■" * \^ 
We' call inost eamestty on every great and good mab/fAo 
at the late sera spoke or acted for his country; tocbnliSer 

less of what was done than of wfiat ibere remains Id do. We 
call upon their senatorial wisdom to £!bnsider iJie molfttibttS 
igdd immeasurable distance whtcn separates, in tois iisiana« the 
ranks of social life, makes IaI>our ineBectual, tazatioD^mtpo* 
ductive, a^d divides the nation into petty despotism and paSlic 
misery. We call upon their tutelar genius, to remeniber, thpt 
government is instituted to remedy, not to render more gttns 
a ttie natural inequality of nankin<t' anSf that ttnlett*ibt 



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'■■■ ■ w- • 

liotcdlit govmrnent) moit contimifttd pravail^ iviMrfL ibt 
Itrflog ^rvnis0| the ri«li opprest, «nd tW mast, an bn^att 
jn « piartar. Wc call upon them, therefore, V> hnikl tMv 
Of umente and their actions on the broad platform of gctteiil 
good 

. Iiel Mt ih» riy^ of n^tore ftf ei^ed men]^ %y cdb- 
Hivance^ and the lii^ta o^' opnsoience mesdj bf to^cffiiiDik 
tf.yoaraiaeap afnroiie people, kl^not be necely to Ihehi 
^peea. . Let the nation stand. Then will it oattawajr the 1|ad 
h^hit Qt MrvSHide, whieb hat heought wi|th it indtlenofc^ 
%noi w i c e ^ an extinction of dor f acq jt i eg, , an abahdoiqDeiit of 
^at TarjrnatnaeL Then, wiH evesy ngUt obtain^ every ftwM 
dhit^.eKoreisedv prov^ « Med of aobrie^, indiietrj, and regafi 
to dikncter> andtbe numnefi of the people will be iormed ett 
Ike model o£ their free coBdtittition. 

«*' Tlita rapid exposition of okv pnadpt^, oaSr^b^, Mdoof 
i%ie«f oendnct, mutt nature^ niggest the with )of mokiply^ 
jhifsioliltfr SoeiHies/ »nd th? preprie^ of addrening ineh n 
dC^I* yao* It it ne^ewafj fW m to veqnest, that yon will 
Md'ontyoitrband, a»d open ydurheait to youe conntryman^ 
\ «n^.netghiK>inr ^-r^Can youfinrin a hope for political 
an^'«iid by political penalties^^ or ci'tit eafeomftmradirf 
lfe«% tlMihoIdtb# Rights of Nattu^fVoro ymir Brqther^ WjjI 
i Htieeh yttn toinlly aH the frtendi'Of Libhrty wrdria your eiiW 
tf^iwntida Soeiety^^ duakindataoentra ]>ta« tegeCfaei 
yoUr best and bratetttheuj^, yowr best and b^tvcet oien* 
Yon will expertenee, as we bate ^r^^ thai these {Hiintirdf 
nukm wittqiflcUy^ attract ninnbei^ while the aucmblageef 
soch societies, acting in concert, mo«ia|^ m- ono body, .wjtb 
one impulse and one direction, will, in no long time, become 
not parts of the nation, but the nation itself; speaking with 
^ It) voice^ expressing it< will, resistless in its power. We a« 
gain entreat yon to look around for men fit to form those sta- 



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Vmwappfim m whift heland maj Mi tfic^ kver«f Uturijf^ 
If tbtro be iMt xm, takmibom ten. If there Jpe bat two, take. 
t]iQ|enm» and tniet witk con&knce to the siaceritjr of jeur 
■rtentioD, the juftice of jour oeiiae^ end the eupport iff ;|re«r 

Two objects interest the nation— hi pbin of representiKiM 
— ond die means of aceom]pli8hin( it.-*Tblq|e sedelie^ ViUbf 
a meet p«i«reiful mans. Bat a popalar plan wmU ksslCbaa 
amna forks own acoompliihoienC. We have, dieiifine, to 
foqnest) thatyoa will fieiver us widi joor Jdcas rffnmg 
thopkm which appears to yon asost eligible and pf a cl i c abl^i 
esi the present more eRlai|;e4 and libend prinoip&ee whifih*t||; 
tnate the people ; ait the aaaie time gtviitg yoor aeo^MMUft 
tpoo 6ur national coalition, esi the means of prpesoCii^it, aodk 
•■ the political state and dispoattioa of the coantrj or tv»^raa 
where you reside. We know what reai^beooe wfll be mads 1$- 
joor patriotic effiotts by these who Irinmph in the disniien 
and degradation of their cooi^. The greater tiMi aecssaity! 
fcr Teform, the greater probability wM be the i^sistnurn. Weft 
know that there is mncfa spirit that reqaires brin^fc ^ yig^*^ 
to mass^ as well as modi massy body that mnsl be jre6nad ini( 
to spirit. We have many enemies^ and no enesogr is oendamp*' 
liUe. We do not despise the enenMoa of the taaeiutibslibli^. 
^ and the peace of Irelaiidy hot wo are^ot of oiiaM%MC 
have we entooraged the habit of fearing any nmrn^ or mf 
body of men, in an honest and hoMrsMe caiM0» . In grilh 
undertakings like Ae preeent, we declare that no have fo«ttd 
ft always moce ^ificult to attempt, than to Aeeomplisb. Tfaf 
peof^le of trehuid mustpedbrm all that they wie^ if Iksy 
attempt all that they ^aiw 

i 



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ill 

TIOS CiLTHOlJtCd OF tSELAND. 

OWE'ofithenoitdiltifiguishliif events in the hialery of 
PbKtict» it the iwoniuMDt and able pert which iu io^ 
MMflMTtodk eh the gient question of Cedielic EmanctpetMB. 
•hiir'ii^eiftUKtfid tmeqviv^ctl determination to support the 
haniii li i r e eW' il heop ditf jmal lemaiidpatlon of thetr Catholfc 
mmttytMn, tellectt honor on the religion of the Presbytman, 
lllfce «tttegtli of hit Yinclerstandinf and the purity of hit 
Mrt. TIteretoliithNn of the people of BeUktl on the subject 
tf^Girtlidfie Baiancipalion contributed in an tinuicnt degree 
AfMMipate the prijudket of I^Und— to influence the poliejr^ 
4Pdie fc eit ^imn ent of the day, and give incceated coafidtnce 
•'tfie Catholics themsetvet. The successors of those men who 
dW i jjuls hed themselves in' the foHowing debate^ ma^ turn 
iMtpriie to the pages which record it ; they may now asseK 
tb dkifos df their fathers to the character of sound end honest 
^lSticietis» whdte' ^Hghtened an4 benevolent policy W4>uld. 
hMr*0MMieedAetr Catholic countrymen — would have broken 
M*iik^SmyfAA rendered them impotent in their native land,^ 
taf ifAHd 1i#^ made them partnere with their Protestant 
€t iMti ' y<n e n 'W^e*great work ot nattonal salvation : a more 
fiM aMI nfffifrttitiitb course wasf taken/ and the degradatfoif 
aiMiii6u]ityl^IyelSndi debased'into a frmfince, is the iqtritti 
pHBly of bigotry and prejudice. 

TQ ^JiC F^qir AL INHAVTAtf TS. Qg TB£ TOWN OP 
' BELFASPT. ^ / , 

At men, and at Irithmen^ we haiit long kmented' the 
d^iading tlate of slavery and oppretsion in whfch the great 
efotui— tiyiif, theBemao CaHmlkaarelMld^ 

bivw*we Jitnttil it in tiIeDo»*-we wish t^ect all £t» 
CO 



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tinctioiu on account of religion abolished— all narrow, par- 
tial maxims of policy done'awaj. We teaxkmtj wish to see 
, the day when every Irishman iMl be a citizen — ^^when Catho- 
lics and PlrdtesUints,^ eqnaOjr hitmsled kk tbehr oMtay'i 
vielfare, pbsseimg equal freedom and aifiMd pnyikgeif sbH. 
be cordially timtm^, and shall learn to look npot^ eadi Miet 
as brethren^ the ditldren of the «une God, die nathr^ of the 
saone ]and*<*-4md when the oidy strife amongst thrm shall bt 
«wiHio shall serve their connfery best. These, gentkmai^^ait 
mxt aentfanents» and these we are convinced are'yovrk 

We, dierefotf^, request a genenil meetim^ of thci prindpri 
inhabitant it the town-honse, ob Saturday next, at ncM^ to 
eonttder of the pitipriety of a p^titioii to ParUamem^ in fihrar 
of oilt1Rom:lit CtttboBc brethren. 

We are, Ge^tlcttwny 

Your most obedient aervants^ 
Thonw Neil9«n> • Kol>crt Getty^ 
Thomas M*I)oiinell, James Ilyndmao, 



Robert Thojtnpson, 
Thomas Sincliure, 
l^bert Simms, 
Oa. M^Uveen, jun. 
TliDtnas MiUSkeu, 
Samati N«il0on» 
Smntiel M*Tier, 
Uugh Mahlram, 
tirm.M'Cleer7, 
'Win. Tennertt, 
Wm. Mage^t 
Wiai Siimns, 
Bobat Chlweii, 
Hugh MontgoKoexy, 
John M^Donoell, 
Henry Hasiett, 
David Bigger, 
Johnfladett, 



Eobcrt Hunter, 
Thomas M'Cabe, 
Wn* Martan, 
Jamea MMConnidU^ 
James Luke, 
James M*Ku0, 
Ham. Tbompsoift ' 
Hugh Johoson, 
Christ Strong, 
GeoiijeWem, 
James Stephansoa, 
Samud ^*Cle(Ui, 
John Grahaq}, . 
iRTm. firyson, 
John Tisdal, 
Hugh fcraWfoM. ' ' 



Kobert ^lajor, 
Wahcr Chiwfiitdn 
l^oatoel M'Monay, 
Tbouias Bcown, 
John IkafcrhMt 
laaac Pattoa. 
J. CampbeU White, 
J. S. Fetguaoo. 
John Todd, 
Bickard lf>CIeUaiil 
John M^Gonndl, 
John M'CI«^, 
Aad.M<l€an, 
ThoKMsAah, 
John dddweh. 



AT a Meefingof iheBELl'AST RfiiriimSocuTr, Jan^orylTV 
179s, the ibilei^g rtsoluttona were tmaidxnoinl^ iv^eed ti >^ 



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h Resolved^ That ciVil and religious liberty is the birth- 
rigbt •f every huiiijm being ; that Goremmeiiis were forftied 
ta secure them in the posBesston of this rights and that states 
should be re^^ttlated so as to protect them in the exercise of it. 

IT. That doctrines of ^aith^ and modes of worship can 
neither give nor take an^ay the rights of men ; because opinion 
is not the object of goTemment ; because the node of express* 
ing retigious worship should be left to the judgment •f God^ 
and the decision of conscience ; and because persecution, how- 
erer it be disguised^ is destructive of the equality of men^ aacl 
the most sacred laws of nature. 

ni. That while we rejoice with every virtuous and enlight* 
ened mrind^ at the rapid progress which these principles havt 
lately made, and the illustrious eventtf to which their happy 
influence have given birth-— events, which are the proudest 
boast of human nature, and which will supply histoiy with 
ornaments unknown to former ages ; it is with inexpressibit 
regret that we bdlold their circuihscribed operation in thiiiur 
native land. 

IV. That Ireland cav^ never jdeservt the name of a flree 
state^ while a great majority of her inhabitants enjoy the righti 
of citizens in so partial a'manner; while they afe totaDy 
governed by the wHl of others ; in m woid» while they art 
wjustly excluded from all share in the making asid ibf^jiA^ 
ministratien of the laws under whldi diey live. 

V. In iee, it is our most, fervent wish, that the mdstt 
w^uUl caH for tbenr deliverance wMi a toiee so temperate 
aa ta excite no tumult, soaAdionate aa to ooncilfale the hearts 
cttil, bttt so nmi^D, anc( so rownnrL f^fo carry conviction ' 
to oveiy source ef legislation. ^ 

Besolirod, That the above fesokitions Ibe published in the 
ioUtttPApeii, 

JAMES MCORMICK, Chairxan. 



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t94t* 



BxtTAn UEEnnia 6k the ^tOUAS'-CM'aLoiJc^ - 
aeE8ti0M; 

. IN ooBicquAiot of A impitidmi, mgmi hf Utf^Atm Sm* 
hMmm, IbrasMCMvoftfiii tmm^ to cmtMcroftkefi^* 
pritf^^f «>tiedlinBto Parihuniri ia biWr of tiie Itcava 
CatMkiof Irehad— the gfoatoil anemblj wm held thii daj ^ 
tbalw^efiriooillictlMM^ifiPe oxcoplUiofeklimioaoft^ 
FrmdiRefolotiei^oodbolAdiof Jiilflwt At Iht imNbttS; 
thit tp ii i awd oBnid dot bo i c c — lo rt t tn J ia tho TownAown^ 
an adliounimaiit took j^ace ftoa Ibenoo to tbt N(w Meoliiif* 
Hmm, the gallarias and gHNmd floor of iHddw thovigh vwj 
oxtwmitf> *wer^ arach cranpdod* • -), 

the ttev. KfMdave Kalboni waa tailed nnaminoiialy to the 
chair, in wbidi tttnotaon ho {woiidadwidi the aUaoatpro* 
priety ; and^ bgr a knoirledgo of the fakt obtenred in i^ 
r^golalad popriar aiaevhUrt^ he p m cm e d porftct order and 
regularity. 

' Mn John Heliiea, after a pwfirtoiy ep ie ch is fiivor of a 
L'bevatlen of the ItoMn CaAelicir flmm the impditic and , 
ruiiioat tjriem of pfnaL hfwta and ficem their other incapacities^ 
moved for <he ^p pohitineni of a ipecial poainittee, in order to 
draw up eueh e petition to Parliameal as woald probaUjj 
prodtice an ttnaniasoos veto, end wiito thf wbolO' inhabitants 
oC^hif tomi iniose feastal supplicitieii ia beh^ of ^heir,^ 
4>mhrea of the CstheUc perisasinnj and farther, thit it sboidi . 
be knlniCnittico to diet Conunittoe to aiake t^ following 
wordl4het»nqrer of Iha p e titi oa < h e pioaadde aad bodj of 
ds^ pCllltion to be iMdeUed aoeoidiaf taihe ifHriland lae^ 
oTAepfayer: 

'< ^e therefore pray, that the Legislature n^ be pleesedl 
to nffM,fr9m time to time, mnd oi tgiMjf mt tki dreitmtimms 



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Ml V 

mf ikt emmlrji, mi tht ggnerid m^rt €f tU whole Uagiam 

OTirtttto agMOtl ibm Bmoax^ CatiboMct of Ireland ; and that 
tbejr ma}^ thna 'te. tvaloved to tha tank and oonaaqoanee of 
<atten% in etoiy parliailar.'' 

Whadi molini was aeooscM bj Dr. tUUifi bat tha^bat* 
dantearit, fortba appmataant of a doonitlaa^ >waa afte»^ 
fiaiui luupL 

DocCarWUla aikid, if k mm aaaant bf thraMvar, la 
tttcBdidl prhrillgaata Baoum <:alliallB% aa tba papar jaat 
raadaeemadtaba in aaana dcgiaa daobtfbl^ ham^mtmn 
in whidi II wai wMled on tliar pobtt 

AfUraoBMdAafe; tba navar aaphinait, that the i-apaJ 
mi dia .''raitrictiva atatatat" waa BMant ^ applj to ataiy 
apadeaoTpfatftitligal diaabOitiaa^ avan to tftMft whidi 4o- 
ptliraa fliaai of Hia daaifa and odwr fhinf hiiM, ■nafaiwe^*^^ 
dMae JEndiilitkt to" badooa awagfv nal iMnmaneantly, hat 
gndulAj, ^nm thna to time/ aa tba ciramtanooi af tba 
ooontij niajr wanant. 

^Mr/BobartTbonadn, inaiUibeiila attdwdl^Minaatad 
apaadi^ ftacf^ with that aaond Imo w i adga and cool ditqiiid* 
tiaii wbidi dittingoith' hiaa as a apedcMV appaa cd tha wocda 
af dM notibn.' 'Ha ^upiaaiad tba Tafy^ipaat aefaad ha had 
tat the MtopectiMe fantlitnen who mada* and aaoooded the 
stiatiaD, anabitfr^SraC'indiiiBfi^g fraan aidwr. . Ha taid hit 
had bacp lobganada np on 4ha p raaa nt qa aa tia n, Jt 

\xmt towhidifaebNl paid oaMidaiaUa Mtanlioii, and ha. 
wm daarijr oropinaan thattha Caihalie bad^F o^fhtto bo 
jraftotM faUy tovU.tta fiffata^of dliaana— but aa h^ hnaw. 
*aair«Ml'gemIaflk«n*4ifFBtad Jmn hiaa» andaa it had alvaya 



* Tbatpirt tf the piaja marked in ItoUct, thewi what Vu afterwards 
expanced by a majoritjr* 



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b^n his anxioor wisb to gre^nre tmauitnkjp m Ike t6#ni ani 
is be thought an applitetion eit ftKe* pveaeUt «ul>jeei wotild^ 
come 'with more weight if agreed to i» «i i aut m dJieeeMin^ 
voice; he had taken die lihMj to &r^w txp a short ptHkien, 
which he hoped woald embrace the idea of. every tftan-in the 
house; and* he hoped the ge n t lewai t who hesteted ' about 
Anting all theh* lights* to CadwBee at onee, would see diaf 
he had ooBceded considerably^ in order to take ttwa j erery 
groattd of objection ; with their learo he wonM read tt. 

Toiie Kghi flbw o w ha Wg tfwrf Mm»9unMt, ^. « 
The Htimhlt Fvtitien «C ^t*- 

Sbcwstr, 

^niat ^BlitioiierB h«Te long lamented the sMe of digri* 
Jbliott and skiTeiy in whieli the gve«t «a}eiMet lof tbdir 
OQMtrjmen,' the RooMm CmhoKoa are held; hf m iMkitnda 
of tawsj creating meapacMea amilnilietkig peftakiee i 



'' That Fstiliotiefa conceive it hot oid y unjmt in itt prin« 
ciple, but in its.operation highly injurious to the trade, eom^ 
meree and industry , and to the general prosperity of Iieland, 
that the great body of the people should longer cocitiMie to he 
tlraea^^ved. 

'* Petitioners, theiefore, bumWy pray that this HonoanMi 
Rouse may take into seriewa co nsiderati on the case of the 
Roman Catholios, and gvant then velief.'^ 

After many oomplioMUte to tlie Roman Gothoiics, and 
endeavtnmng to prwre tiiat tbey dasei f t d and wese cnpaUe ol 
enfoyiBg the Ussiings of liberty, as persons ofUmr passusHisw 
were those who obtained Magna Charta, and vrho a b Kgi J 
Jhmes, when in this kingdom, to give the roTal assent tP 
several bills of thje 6rst impprtapee to the ConsjtUntion of Irr- 
l^tfid-^he entered into a particular enumeration of the., gvic^* 
ances of this long insulted nation. He shewed the indisptn- 



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reiprc^iitaliY^^ p. ifbich t]^« v©ice^of thjp peopU was ^Idofp 
btarU 4p4 ael^m^ attended to, A house. held under English 
mfliience ; rgi^\T\pd bj veiial I^oimu^^^ smd-np lopg^r exprei^ 
five of,^,^, governed, ^y^ tJie public will ^That wei^urtf, 
ftpkle wub every ^^^od to the la|id mhi<^ it should rfpres^t, 
were dailj proposed to it^ ^ as .often . scouted in 4<sdain ;-*^ 
that. the just i^ibb^s gf the- people >vere treated .^ith cot^enpt 
»-«Qd that wi^hoiit an uuion ef ijta inhi^bitanta no reform qee^ 
ever be . propo^ ed« «9 ^onc^ witbput . jt r eyer ooiild^be. effectei|. 
J9e here ft^ecotcl to gb^i^oe at^tLe^seyera]^ init^ces in the la;^ 
and {brmeir ses^igna^ of rejecting ^ino$>t every goocl bill oflered 
kgiSbf^ [cw )i^o^c^nbe said^to hnv^. ap^i "djy G^nstituenU , in ^ 
apr^ J{oDse«,f^ CoRiinfi^a^ the- refusal of ap)aee« pensiop^.i^nd 
yi^pOD>i|>i]ity->bill ^ „thc reA|s»l pf jin j»P4Miry, ipto.^e sale of 
^P^WIr ^■^.tji^ purfihi|8i^ of.^e^s ip another bpuse.vi'itb 
the mon^ «7^^^ I^^K^t tb^^ honourSj; the refiusal of eyei^ 
Ml /oc amending. the r^pres^ntfUion; and^ in shorty P^-eve/y 
Q^c wJiic^^ha^C^ *^' ubjiBCt th^ regqncfation.of the corjsti- 
Mion^ now beocup^e^ thrqugb the l^ps^ of time, n^utilated, 
jftfiim* aod calculftted hy ^9 corruption of the best principles 
laaap the vkal spirit pf ^ee gov^pnscnt A^9^ jnvei^^hing 
l»tl^ maoh aadxleserved.seyerlty ag%ia«t the vile t|;^e of 
Tott^ boro|4gb^, h^fi^marked that jpvjeii the virtue pf Ireland 
ill 1782^ wlth^ «iq;o«d. hp^at^fts hi^ck, vaigbt not have ef* 
^ctei| w^^jiras cfUled a £fee conpti^^^tipn ; withou^^ the very 
Sttj||Kirt;(}f tbase beroifg|)mmigfi]^wj)o enslave the land, and 
vlwjMUa^tbpic &rt:,» t^i^hat of .the peppleu for the mere pur* 
ixifepf enhap>^in^xh^:^ue of (heir sta^s, wj)ich ,th9y .buy and 
jtU lik«/any ^cle.of ^^ommerce. J^l^ entered largely into a 
detoil oi^ the deo^ptions practised by government to disunite 
the ku^gdom; to^^ep^u-ate the Prptestant from the Catholic^ 
the Catholic from the Protestant D4as9nl;er> wbose religious 
pnoftlphrs it is well known are at Ipast as tolerant aa. those pf 



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any other Met, aad whom pdKticd oms art dioae wbidi ban 
repeatedly drawn a worn-out conatitatioR badt to Hi flrit 
pmcipleay |iartioularly at the Rerolatioo; abortly prior to 
whkh the aim of liber^ had aet qiparendy to riee no morti 
He totd the aaaemUy that it waa a Aet which had fUkn 
within hta own knowledge eight yean ago, about die time of 
the volonteer conve n t i on, that fbr near a eentory past, when 
the Roofan Caiholica <then' weighed down with the Tilot 
reatrictioiia, aince in 4 canaideraUe degree done away) applied 
to goremment for redreae, that the connnon np\j was m 
czpreteion of wiUingneia to grant them relief; but that bo 
petition coold be preferred in tteir beh^ ftom die' Seodi, 
whidi would Mt be answered fimn the North; and diet 
nothing ooold be conceded to thdr widiea by the gof e tuim 
powers without producinga general weaknesa of dte kingdoiB, 
by risings or rebelliona among the Presbyterians of the Nordi. 
That this df lurire trick was ndw past, and that we thoaU 
therefore eome forward and fimn an alliance of power and a 
community of interest with our Catholic brethren ; as a ooo- 
cesnon to justice, and mm the certain meanof dfeeting ereiy 
good purpoae which, without them, we have long sought for 
in vain. He concluded an addreu whidi the Editor regrsis 
his not being able to follow through all its parts, 1^ mofing 
an expungement of the words affecting the time of the repnd 
of erery penal and every reiMcdve statute; fai order to de- 
clare a wish that die restoration of all the righta of Bomm 
Catholics should be immediato and unlimited. Widi mudi 
emphasb he asked, to whom were wo to sobmittlio point oC 
«< from dme to time," when the Catholics were to bo Hberafesd f 
Waa it to Lord Lieutenants and their Secretariea ^ Waa itts 
Fsriiament, in which the rmce of the People waa raised ia 
Yam? After a variety of arguments, in which ho dtfw to^ 
just a pktura of the wrstdiod state of tUaoountry, En ( 
qisenoe o^oor bemg totally depiivod of aa adeqnafee i 



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., tfition, fqmjtlecl on innumerable instances of eur being gorern- 
v^ by ^^ ^^g^^^ influence, his motion was made £oir {he 
, cj^ifMjUgnijg, of the following, words in the prayer of the petition 
^proposed by Mr. Holmes — " from time to time, and as speeitny 
^,u tha ciripurostances of the country and the general welfare 
-, of the whole king^dom will permit.** ^ . 

^ Doctor White said, it is now necessary to go naore at lal'ge 
into the subject, as it appears we are not likely to agree with* 
put doir^ ^^ . 

Jn discussing questions relative to constitutional govern* 

,.^ BQentyjt is necessary to lay down some principles, in whfch We 

^^ ahall All agree ; to reason and draw conclusions from, and to 

, take strict care that pur conclusions or inferences may be Iegi<< 

tilBj^e^ I therefore proceed to say that every man .contribute 

«.jii|^b¥ his, ingenuity and industry to the well-being of any 

state.. ^t, a right to a voice in the government of his countrjr ; 

and as it would be impossible that each member of" a state 

^ fiould be judiciously emplojred^ as a legislator, that business 

roust be transacted by delegation ; he therefore is necessitated 

. to unite with his district to chuse a representative. 

If so far I am right, we cannot avoid concluding that no 

. member of any state contnbuting by his labor, his learning) ot 

l^ijfi ingenuity, to the support and well being of his country, 

can equitably be debarred from a share in the legislation of 

* ^his country, jpersonally, or by a representative. 

. Whoever is deprived of this right, is certafnly a slave in a 

political point of view, and cannot be said to possess any con<« 

« tro^ovpfi or defence against, laws, by which his life, liberty^ 

. . j^p^ property may be abridged or taken away. ' ' " 

^ If these opinions are founded, of which there Is no doubt^ 

^ it ^ould^seem extraordinary that a profession of any particular 

system of religion should b^ a sufficient pretext for' excliisioa 

, . ihim cixil privileges ; as if a conscientious discharge of m 

jnan't duty to God, (and conscientious most luive 'i}teh t(i4t of. 



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f 90 

the Catholics^ as it is in the teeth of their temporal interest^) 
.if»M a fit eaiiae of ezcludon from civil rights. I should be n* 
•ther indiued to believe that it was the strongest inducement 
to believe he was highly qualified for the exercise of civil vir«* 
tues^ 

it has been often alleged, and for a long time believed# 
that the profession <^the Catholic religion, and a belief in its 
^octrineSi were incompatible with good citisenship ; many in* 
stpinces to the contrary may be quoted in the history of our 
own country i to the Catholics We are obliged for trial by jn« 
ry, for the mstitution of parliaments, our right of popular im« 
peachment, and for Magna Charta ; and our Catholic neigh* 
hours oJr France have given us a iuminods view of their caps* 
city in forming a government eminently ddculated for the es* 
lablishment ahd preservation of civil right and equal liberty* 

Historical records sup^^y us with innumerable facts, shew« 
iog in the clearest manner, that the profession ot the Roman ' 
Catholic religion was by no means incompatible with the dtt« 
tiesoi'a good legislator. A RomAn Catholic Parliament, in 
thereigA of Henry IV., ]S99> thought 'it necessary ti> paut 
particular act against the Pope's bull ratifying the statutes of 
Shrewsbury, because it was founded on a principle opposite 
to, and subversive of the rights of the people ; it was there* 
fore declared that the kingdom of England was independent 
of afl foreign power, particularly of the court of Rome, and 
that the Pope had no right to interfere in the civil govern- 
ment of the realm. 

Are we not then to suppose that if such was the conduct 
of CathotioB in such early uninformed stages of society, that 
the accumulated light and information of some centuries, will 
have similar and equal effects in increasing their liberality and 
information, to what it has produced on their Protestant bro* 
thren ?-— Men of science and literature are numerous, very nu* 
tticMos, of that religious persuasion ; and the abilities and con* 



*r«^v.** . 



-*r * 



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291 

•eqocDce of meniben engaged in every deptrtment of ooai« 
■oerce are second to none <^ th^ir countrymen. Indep^deot 
of a,princi|de of jnetitie^ which mast )>e allowed to be the 
leading feature in the business ; ou^ interest essentially de« 
mands k.' I am well convinced that while Catholics are ex« 
eluded fhwn a share in legislation, that great desideratum, a 
parliamentary reform, will be sought ibr in vain ; b it likely 
that such partial application as can be made by the Protes-* 
tants of Ireland, compared to the great body of the people, 
will be properly attended tp? certainly not; but the united 
ami determined voice of Ireland must be heard, and will be 
attended to, in such manner as an application of four millions 
deserve ; and, even in our present circumstances, if CathoHoi 
were allowed franchises on the same terms as Protestants, it 
would be attended with the most happy effects. 

It is said they are more igtvorant than the Protestants; of 
this I have doubts, in so far as elective fhinchise, similar to 
that which the Protestants enjoy, would operate ; and -I must 
positively iieny the conclusion, as I think upon the slightest 
eoneideratson of the subject, the use and power of elective 
frinchise, and the occasional intercourse with their fellow elec- 
tors, and their representatives, with the feeling naturally aris* 
ing from the rank and importance they hold in the state, will 
have a powerful and immediate effect in improving their un- 
derstanding and giving them proper views of their civil 
nguts. 

But I would beg of the warmest opposer of the enfVan- 
chisement of Catholics, to give me a rational and sincere rea« 
aoD, for the great body of the Catholics of Ireland, acting in 
oppositicm to the interest of the ^te. 

The Caiholic religion is by no means bo adverse to the use 
and improvements of the human understanding^ as to render 
it unfit for the t^nnagement of the common occurrences of 
life ; on the contrary, the professors of that religion have ren* 



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29« . 

dered tbemtelfes highly e^nspiaious in etery depaHment of 
literature ; and I believe it may be allowed that they are near- 
ly at the bead of every science^ and have been for a aeries of 
time. May we net then suppose that ' even in the redemption 
of forfeited estates, if such an arbsurdity could be conceived^ 
they would pursue roaiiras of policy similar to those held out 
by our Prote&tant delegates in their attempts to produce a pal^ 
liamentary reform, viz. to recompense, or rather decidedly to 
purchase, corrupt boroughs from their patrons or proprietors 
- ofproperty (if I may be allowed the expression), unknown to 
our constitution and unknown to our laws ; yet these refer*' 
mers purposing to have as few obstructions as possible to an 
adequate parliamentary reform^ were satisfied to sacrifice th« 
national purse, to purchase the assent of vetuil eilizens, cer- 
tainly on the principle of its having fbr a number of yeara 
been supposed as private property. 

You have hitherto exerted yourselves, and contributed t9 
the present improved state of the Constitution of your country^ - 
in ihe capacity of citizens and vol un tee A, and have frequent* 
ly in your application to your governors, and in your appeal 
to your brethren, with your mouths prophaned the word pf&^ 
pU, by -using their name when their will or opinion was not 
consulted : I conjure you then to look upon the men of Ire* 
. land, without respect toVeligious profession, as your bretlirea 
entitled to equal rights and privileges : then may you with- 
out profanation or inconsistency, use the word peopl^ in lt< . 
honest and comprehensive sense ; and then mMj you boldly a^ 
dopt what should be the sentiment of every gOod citizen— &• 
lu$ Populi Skprtma Lex. , 

He was followed by Dr. Haliday, a gentkftaan who baa. 
been looked. u)> to in this place* for near half a century* with 
▼eneratioD and respect, as the steady assertor of tht people's 
rights on every occasion ; as one who ranks ^mong the high- 
est, afe ft professional man, and uaitea the profound schriar 



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with the fine genUemeti. He profeMed hk 9»]y dctc tUtion. 
•f the penal cede ^kwg, which we^ held as a Mourge ever 
the head* efour CathoHe brethreti — add many jeara back ar- 
deody wiebed to dee them done away> But he would net 
grant thaft^ nothing ooM be obtaine^l, without the co*epa«tioo 
of the Roman Catholics of Ireland — because, within -hie aie- 
vawy, a i^eat deal had been. He reve^d to a period, perhape 
aatecedeot tr» the recollection of any man in that aisembly^ 
except hinaelf^ the year 17^3; thitt year in which the latent^ 
»pttk of freedom in tilts country wa«i fanned into a flame, thai 
afterwards illuminated the whole kingdom, and turned its 
attention te iu rightt> afler that lon^ season of depresaion, 
which sueceeded the ideffectual, though glorious efforts of the 
ioNnbrtal Molyneaul. From that period he traced the pro* 
gressive successes of public virtue, down through their st^enl 
stages, to the present day. This space comprehended the 
rsndering of our Parliamenis octennial, in I76B, instead at 
depending lor their termination on the life of a King! and 
consequently giving It the power of a tyranny for that unde- 
cided duration — the recovery ef oi^r right to freedom of trade 
in 1779 — ^^ the restoration of Ireland to imperial dignity, 
hi 178jK» by establishing the independency of its crown and of 
its legislature. That all these, and many subordinate mea- 
sures, were effected without their interference; and that» 
therefore, lie ooukl never grant that nothing could be effected 
without th^r aid ; as all we had^ined was gained withottC 
their weight, in any one instance, being thrown into the scaler 
That he did hot the less deplore the state of unjust degrada- 
tloa into which they had, ill less enlightened times, been 
Jdiuged; aW hoped for every just concession, as much as. 
he should lear the effects of immediate and perfect emaaci- 
p«llon, in a mement He should regret that such an attempt 
wc^ made before the time Was ripe for it ; before the one 
great body was ready to grant, iH an instant^ or the other wae. 



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prepared er qeaUied to Ttceire. That before the day coaM 
mrriTey when, tbe emancipatioD amid 'in everj respect be 
cottij^eto^ mudi infbrmatioo should perrade the general mast, 
which at present iu lowest classes were divested of. That 
the tnHoence of the Priesthood over, the minds of tl^e laity 
must be considerably reduced, before we could with truth saj, 
that an extension, to all their body, of elective franchiie, 
would increase the virtual basis of election. That the lights 
of edacation, long withheld, should first diffuse among them 
Am happy effecu^teach them the independency of tbe 
human'mind — and the nature, as 'well as the value, of those 
blesabgs which a free constitution cans alone bestow. Till 
that period arrive, receiving as electors the whole mass of that 
nninstnicted boc^y, would be dangerouk both to themselves 
and to us, and would not ultimately tend to the interests of 
citter. 

Mr. Robert Getty.— It seems the extension 6f the elective 
IVanchise to our Roman Catholic brethren, is the great objeco 
tion to the prayer of the petition. last read. 

It should be remembered, that the law depnving them of 
this liberty, was made af^er the commencement of this century. 
That they enjoyed in as full an extent as tbe Protestants do 
BOW this right, for a series of time afrer the Revbiution, whb« 
cmt danger to the establishment ; and that then their ignorance 
was not more noticed than that of the other subjects of the 
kingdom. But, Mr. Chairman, the fact is, we found them 
then equally enlightened as ourselves, and our penal lawa 
have been the cause of that ignorance so mudi lamented, 
which actually has debased their nature, and by condmiing 
them, we continue their ignorance. The power of t|ieir cler- 
gy has been much talked of, and it is what Biany liberal 
«kI good men much fear. It has been remarked by a celc* 
brated writer, that wherever we find people profoundly %iio» 
nuB^ there the ministers of their religion . have over them m 



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nighty infltieRce ; I tkerefora say, • tbat jou effect a most 
desirable reform in this particular^ by dispelling that ignorance 
which will ineriubly produce that effect ; and no men at this 
moment in the statej are more arerse to the relaxations spoken 
of, than the Priests, as they dread the decay of their own 
power^ over the uninformed minds of the present race ef 
Boroan Catholics. He ^d a few. Words more on the use of . 
contested elections, which by bringing peqpje together in 
cumbers, have a tendenfcy of increasing their knowledge of 
public affairs, by communication of sentiment; and thb body 
of our countrymen in , their present sitoatioD, have no oppor<% 
tunity of using such advantages. 

Mr. Le Blanc, (a tambour- worker) began by saying h» 
was " a foreigner by birth, but a citiaen of the world by prin- 
ciple," and delivered a very animated speech in lavour of the 
araoidment He concluded with a declaration, thatitap« 
peared a little ridiculous to him, to see a town consisting of 
fiO,000 inhabitants deliberating about granting rights to others^ 
who had no righii themselves. 

D€>ctor Bruce said, he frequently had reason to regret, that 
the more immediate duties and avocations of life prevented 
his attending the meetings of this U^wn as a citisen, or contri* 
botingp the aid of an humble individual in matters of public 
moment as they arose. 

Bom in a free country, nurtured in the earliest love and 
admiration of the principles of liberty, and inheriting equally 
by descent as by religious profession, a steady attachment to 
•very liamsn right; he should once have considered it impos- 
sible to find himself in the situation in which he stood there 
that day. To take that side which could on any question be 
conatmed into the least liberal, is a predicament that be should 
not have conceived any train of events could hi|ve placed him. 
in. However, when be observed around him a number of the ^ 
iirat charicters in this town, professing sc;ntiments sin^ilar to 



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hi« own ; iuai)y of ttNMe'iirfao.ha<itgiv^ ^^}^ ^^ t^f'/^^^t 
^defftmhitmhs ; ifi4 w1idf« MMnes a lotig.jsqr^^cd^ P;ujif][ic virtue 
'^ha^ taught the ifibst diittftit pMrlt of tbtft kingdgoi to .^^nteint 
* j)Yate* wltTi v«>ti'eratl6ri-^1i9 ^U ite hjghcs^ i^i^aMo]|t ^ 
^Cohid reeeive, iifter the approviB^ U^niimanj ^kt^. ^^^J"'^^^- 
Werd h\i aentinents (h# odd) reapediDg l^ IlQ|na^ ,jC^ 
tholfcs of Ireland 'generally known in ibis MseipU/^itj^frf 
' 'unnecessary to asMtC that their gmditsl adminslTiiii to, civil 
franchise^ arid an aboTHion ^the many nojust «ii4; knpp]ij|^ 
' penallaws still in force agftintt thcm^ are out «tit^ ^him t^s 
'transient subjects of a day^ but liad king had his n^i99f^mm(f9 
attention^ and warmest appnibadooi-p- The e:iperieQi;:eqf e^i^ 
' year adlled confidence to his epfnioo* thMMiis CQontiu with- 
out a coalitioti of its MMbftants^ cui ne¥ar pov^iefis ij^t coste- 
qoence !n the scale of eknpfre to wMch its ii«n)b9rs./^oiild en- 
title k: ' A . , 

He sairf, that wheti he heard, at of late hjsjiii^ ^^^l^S?' 
the rigKt's of man pleaded in llm* abstm^ si^Me^ ^ t^t lipc 
fVom which not the smdlest deviatien is >o.p^ju^c«Jo be 
msde ; ivhen he found them adduced as a# arguj^ent .^ an 
fnstant trsnsftr of power IVom one body.of Uie.p^ml^ to snc* 
' therw-^espishig every onition i^^the mqde of granting it^ ^ 
re'gardless of the pikst history of theco^atrj^ Jts^r^a^i^ condi- 
tion, or the mixed^nitts of its inbftbitants ; he HHisl esaeoU- 
nlYy differ from men, the purity of .whose mt«i^tioi|s he ml^bt 
admire, but the precipitancy of ^/((hpse measures he must re- 

. ^ .- ,1 ^ . , 

Bid the natui'e of so krg« • woetiPA. adflEM^ atffenenll jsnd 

intimate acquaintance with-a^ient and^nuwlftrf^^^r^puiat^ of 

the several states which «faave^Qurishe4 Jo tb{{ijf jtujrna ntiliBer- 

' ent peflfedf of the world r he mighty. OQ tbf 5 ^Umo^ of ^»i- 

tory, defy fh**idVocate»&r «ucb.extf/iy«^af%| pp^niana to pro- 

'^rfucea^tiglelnsuneein whi#h ^^^re.a^fjUtjct theory of 



-i,. 



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t&7 

f^;M^,. tlie p^vftN* ^(fOMdity oFiiitb/ w«re «vef; ib fbriirinf tbe 
bmh of any govenimefit, 9tric% applied; 

America, flushed with oemquMtf ttd fWa^ trhHAphntlf 
A^ tbe^«ii^^ of de^^e power, wnhwit^irf tfaiag to con« 
#dl her di^ibA«iidiui oti tbe eMsMiihmeftt of as perAscC firee- 
-AMI « wisdtffti eb«d4 deviie-^iieter mffeFed hei^elf te be 
ftorneaWay bym^iouB MfitlementSj lior to loeetlie iiudif« 
ttiett^ ofeTety^reetitaMe good, in tlie Vain parsuit of idei^ 

France^ after tearibg up her attdeot goter m fl e u t by tU 
fboti^ detfiroying hereditaiy honefrs and reducing tbe bfty fin 
%tk of a long eM^i^hed hierafrky, never entertained tbe wiab 
-^modklbig its new eonttitmioB eo tbe rigfata of meti in the 
j^MMTt.t— Htfd it dione wo, pertona, not property, had been ex- 
ditiiv^y repres^ted : but in the French oonstitotien pnpei!^ 
ty as well at persons, is a basis of representation. 
' If n^e MLdw, witboot restrictioo, tbe theory of haman 
tigfctil, WbeM win it lead as ? In its principle it reqnwes tbe 
<adBils8iotf c^wMnen, of pereona under age, and of pauper^ 
to soffirage at elections ; to places of office and trust, and as 
tU^WM otlfcyffi ffoniies of Parfiament 
' Ifl^fbund hifOs^ warmitei^ tbetefore, in sayings ihaUt, 
ftol^ sKstifiifbd hf as much phUantbropy towards his Romaii 
Ci^ft6lie hi e t hrM ai any'other man, and posiessing as dnoere 
lri»^ibfthi^ii^ emancipation — it was impossible fbr him to 
join ftk ^e wisli t6 throw open to tfaetoi in a moment the 
soareeaof pb^er, without a dereHotton of every principle of 
prudence and good sense. That portion of the Irish comma« 
lrftybeitifMm»eb greater than the rest, a foil extensicm of 
ttie''riglllft^tiMn wb«etdatone^roke, without any previooe 
fil&minalton of their minds by education, without any prepa« 
safioli otf «ltbar sidi^ tranter eveiy pdwer of government; 
fh»d themoM to the lean volenrntj from the roost to the least 
enligbtened part of the sUte^^-<fi^M the ProtesUnts to tbe Re« 
matl CatboKcs of Irel^id; From Cfaeir oonspanftitir numbers 

Qq 



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guch wonld he tbe immediate effiict ; tior P|a any ooe, nuie 

i.^^ UK • » ; 5^./ r./- • .7 r.. ^ .^'.;:l-iR^M5»i« 

Uinine the abstract question of right, deD^ that this ii an lm« 

iaediate resalt from the pnncime. 

:•••'. i . :■ . 

^ He said that no man voi 

Ijc^ (taking them in tbe aggi 

at well informed, or as capal 

.m^ with wisdom and mod 

former from tlie nature of tl 

kuipor In ccmsequence of ai 

o|ipresaion. These will req 

best removed by agraclual 

wUl fX tbe same time have a 

jpg P/otestant as well as d 

41^ one to grant freely fror 

then be^tterquajified to receive., sf.,..* 

That irreat and immediate change a»e tiot olten d^riple 

even m matters of les? con^uence. That to indiyiduab m 

privat^Mife, they w Bfldom produ|Aiye ^f fcaj^ipcss;^^ 

Mtjops, Aey! pfoy^frequentJjr ruinous. , . , . 

f hat a moment's reaction might convince any maOi thi 

.; ,.^ ^„ : ;t vi;/'. 1 . "•; '». ' 1',. '-'jl: '^ •' u^d •'^'■■' • 
innmnerable, unforeseen and dangerona effects, .Indmg to 
'V ■ ''.',■.»'.'-••>: ,»■'"*■ ■'•-*■«/ '. ;x ♦<•.-•'»•. /fiT ni r5DX« 
tumult and confusion, might be expected from^ revdutionof 

power 80 conducted. To enter into' so wide a field woiua 

exceed the limited time of the meeting. . He could>ot.. how- 

ever, avoid briefly touching on a point wqica had qatuKulr 

led to much dtscossioi;! — its possible, confieqiiencec, respecting 

power to the Roman Catholics, be any, bar ^ it, except the 



ncrht which conquest hasTgiveji to the present prQprietoi%ra 

cate^kOuded t!o be linle. respected. tioj*itMtt 

.The tareaty af J-imiwrick ca»not affect ,*« jn#hi ^ Ar a 



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•wigie garnipn could not capitulate for a wfatde VingdoM, dot 
bind It u>r ever. Lawt and cbarters dwno^ invalMate it; 

jT, under direction from a foic^'ga 
[>uld then be deemed usurped 
liese forfeitures' were inc^urred• 
a|pain^t foreign oppression, m 
n the plantation of Ulster^ by 
>f lands to Cromweirs captains^ 
le even on English restoration 
der James the second, the law« 
at the head of his people againsi 
ye9 to the English crown^ Jf^'^ 
lltoth^ Irish crown, excefjt^ 
bould have the same king, whid^ 
ifpiihl scarcely ajpply, and would certainly be set aside, in 
cpse «f .k ^pture yn'iih England. If such cliange of pbwtt 
came about without any tumult or hostilities, it is possible 
tnat still die higher (urders might act froin a principle of righ^ 
ia.claimiiig their estates : the priests, and the lower classes. 
mm .big:9t^» pride of power and clanship. But as there 
mast, in the course of such a revolution, necessarily be some 
i^tatiop, perhaps' exasperation, this wou}d repder a cliange 
of property, with,i^ change of power, the more likely: if a 
ornisidmo^' body.ef the Protestants of rank and fortune re- 
listed the revolution, it ibight be looked on as cerlaui. If 
DUes dould' not be produced, but only a strong probability 
of mnoient right eould be made out, they migtit call on the 
mma^ poaMSSors io produce their titles ; the very production 
o^t^ttK^woum* establish, instead of weakenlIl|^ the old claimsi 

oy ftoong "that the hftuk in qn^ion had been ^pn froijqi 

* .•?"'<>>5 «;Tl»'*'fl ♦'• •-•'''* ''«i* c s "-^1 •■'' t' - • V ■ ' ■ 

Midb 9W Aicil person^ tor such and puch causes, m the very 
'j.»i fu iv»ip''»,." 'II' «r "H* {»•»*'".»' . '■'■' 'V. v;,,'.-i. 'i» !^ . ; 
wd iX oetending the govarpment and tl^.rehgion of uheir 

vvith tvery desire to accelerate the day of the complete 



u 



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^lraiMlH09D3^t of the Roman Ctt|^icf.o£ btWod^'^b^t < 
M^yxd, tbut HI » matter of tncb^jmrneofa ipgiaigaitMdib ^im** 
dual uid progressive change k theioqst 4itii9riiii# (At^asiT' 
practicable (me) and equally theii^flrmt4)jr-4#*-*4ie^4iQil jie 
mint support the address, as originally Wf^or^dbjpMv.'Utbmn, 
prajing that the repeal may ba ** ftom Uma^ lo ^im^ md ^ 
ipeedily as the drcumstattces of tha c^motiy, aod |ha?iiiiHk# 
c^ the whole kingdom will permits" , -• r.' 

~ Considering himself called upon as a juotalisly a liilffta* 
and a divine, he adverted, with irresiatiWa f^ce «f-a^g)i|KM>. 
to the influence which ha eonoeived a caiMidafable ^k| o^Abi* 
meeting roi|^t act under, ia consequanee af 'a iast^ l afa niiiy 
them in the society of United Iriahiaeii^ M*\t»i* fofktUlk 
speech has been the subject of soma eo nv a r oatidw^ -wcNsbadlil 
not, in a matter of nice diseusaiaiij tUnk oorselvaa^Wacfttited 
.m going into it without being able, vary neatly^ ia^ftUgwlhb 
words of the speaker ; especially w th^ tppie has -abica bail 
fully discussed, ,. .^. , -^r** 

Mr, Netlsen sud, he meant (9uly to astifa ona/p<9ftt af tba 
wy lon|t and extiymeous speech thay had jiist iiai^ .Bsro^> 
,tfaat which alluded to ibe Society of Umted Jnatimfn>» 
aopety of which ha was proud to ^IttMw^g^g^^jbi^fmit $ 
member. The learned gentleman. h#d> he ^aid^ gfpMJMT 9"t 
of his way indeed to attack that soaiety and , its* test-; JMit. .la 
what .did tfiis test go? to union apd c«n,8^qiaent.j^mi» rCan 
any advancement in kppvledge, ^y cha^ge^f ^^cuasiofaitanifs^ 
render union and reform imparop^v ? But thaynttfwiii ii b aa , wn 
fttted himsalf ; he baa attacked all taati^ apdyftt^t^HfiTfiiil. 
step takep by that assembly, which be baaao- i^aspprly^stQiii^ 
enlightened, when they sat about ,fmnhig^il>^ oo i ait i l ftww i^ 
was to take a teat. While the gep^ao^. apfs|)^,4?^nin mf9» 
information, asitagj^ffsbe hasdonfl ^the,pr^9^.poiP9)ii 
the ^etiefFaccioquallyliec^dlesaofl^praii^cprc^g^l^awil^ 
bb ceiyut?* . . ^ .- ^ >>r^- ;/ ■M'^^^^^' *..*• 



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set 

^/.iQlK WhSltr^tM', it tiA li^U^ expect iWt a gentle^ 
nuinPfWltk4lil0:j«#ai<^!hfkf:c]^» ttarCcnreidMibmight up vith. 
tfn^HKitl )MbMli46M tif idvitaiid rv)]|rioii8^ilMrtji, Whkli he 
^*he^$hm^k(^4$lMM'i)t luid ^ the mm time a Miiiii.. 
9»4€'ib^'<kifipe%^pkj/iiiMlS'iimmit troin cH «abdcriptum0, 
W^a%«lrie^l^b<hihlir«flkitb, tfioulcT yet iix:liiie todenythfi 
«MM4l«0f«f«l^rigfttr»6f private jbdgnattt, hi aaatters of n^ 
ligiod, to brethren, \ritluautt ^uljec^^ than to ike pentiliieft 
4yf lrf¥9 Inctpacitic^ - IShidV doctrines miglit liave been expecti 
.dt^CMtff tbe foMiiieniitf a differest tdiuixli, whoee abilttuit 
teM>M«|i''bMn fttlD^titttt^ 'te'ineideflEthig even from tbo 
^im^^^e eiplclBM-doctrines »f paa^nre obedkiKse and'nQn- 
«iriMki«irb«it«li«tendb[ opinloDft refx iU bcfeo«ie a pQ>teM«A^ 
'BbMrtivg Minlsta^, aCHbe> ffeient eofiflUe«ed 911a. 
* ••if.^flkiiiiel Alte Tier mUi ifhat 'b» tboiigbi the Soeiely eC 
fhiiiid'iritftioefr^ very iDipiropeely introduced : be liad tbo 
^adbt^4t^bd^ia}g^ to that Mdy, had tmken d^e test, but 
tboaght btmself a( liberty to v^te at be pleased. 
^ ^' iDr. M^MihM'JtHerved.^Wat tlira sboultt rathfef be consU 
deMd^ik a mmf Mm) ^l^us, iBui a pcflitical question. He 
ftad' Mfth'ieonb^eted both bf ^ tte« of iViendahip and of 
MetflHtii tiaVdral fUfhtia Ckthi^c gehtremei), l>oth at home 
MM Mpdad^ lit«^%bulil fiM^nMlfRig i» tbeir political o^ rellgu 
Mi 0pinib«i txfi^ pftNtat fheia^i^t^^ good ciUaeoa ( be b^ 
Meh aiMMtediM^ftett Itts 'eatUett biflncy to bear them flatter* 
«a*«Htb^Ae<iake^Ur>gAag^ mVMi the pr^^nt mild pi^titiob 
hthtff^f^lhH'Vla'Ukfli^ l!be U^iti^e of Ae Protestant pee- 
|m^^Ml^>f%i4MdMiif, and of ever^r printed book tbeae forty 
^^iHlsH^ney wM^ ^l)e liberated from time to time.'' 

-Y* 'm^lM^rtedf^Uir ^iif was tiot the first perioi]/ ba the hfs« 
tf#yo ("fti tf nMh a^S'ftCtrtfae ^me^ gaitre bad been played ; ho 
aa%Mldd1(Hie" kt0>roeeedhigf8 iu EVvgbnd, relatinrg to^e 
3fc»C>ttM»P^ ^ WmiM $i i -of Wh^ Afrlati wis Id be nadiohi. 
CcU ; they would cease importing him from time to thtte^ Id- 



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cording to eipediettcj. He called the attentieB of the Mei9& 
bl/to ft most parmBel exainple* WheQ ikt SfienianU beioune 
mastertof Cuba and* Hiapaidola, tliey cUvid^ the pebpfe a# 
they did their lands and treasures among their dficenu/ Somt^ 
bedune possessed of 600, some of liOO liead'c^ people, ^n^ 
Dominican and Franciscan Friars remonstrated agmat iBia 
^Mide of enslaving &e Indians. They carried &eir mioii^ 
stmnoe to the court of Spain, (a court mBder at tlttt time, 
and more alive' to the feelings <^ bumanfty tluin oor {M^du^ 
ment at prmnt) their cauae was pleaded bdece Jin augu^ tin- 
buna),'' witnesses were heard' on boitn sides ; diey iMrooMSdod 
exactly as we aire proceeding at this indmeftir The qa^iliba^ 
of right to liberty was admitted on the mdSs of ^tfie fxiiSxki^ 
the question orespediency appeared drflioult ; kSISi astei|jfir 
determinedf, ""they showld b^ liberated^'fitm *^ti^ to^iSi^ 
But thai time has*^ never arnved/nbr can it now ever; i^lSfim 
is not at present one sout existing in either Cuba arliitpaJlio< 
hu The race of Indians is iextirpated*-^tBey were eitiraSteilL 
£romtime to time. Woufd to GiiN], therrfor^, uiisii ^cJii'w^l2f 
not join with the language of ' a court in extehdfng KeVblfei ^ 



ings of Freedom to your brethren hy piece-meal; ior wl^^ft^ 
Freedom/ but a jest and a faree, if its t^lesstdgs ire (S wf^a i m ' 
fthd' received as the favour of kindness and' huhiai^i/,' WMSt- 
of being considereJas an infa^rtahdfe ind as i tfgbtV^^^^'' —"^ 

Mr. thomson.— Mudh has U^ ftiliffc^ th^ilAa^iic!^ 
those professing tlii; ifto&iim Catholic rd^on, tof^ii^^i^ 
0ientof freedom, ^t we seem toTol^get that tfi^hUfi^ 
tares of the l^ritish Cob^tution yH^ti gWtSrSS^ iUiaaA Oli$* 
thoUcs, and that to a parliament o^ that '][MMft^sbii ^3^ hU^ 
debted foragraatoiitrinedf an Irish codet^ittel6tK. 'YtMiiktt:' 
iMT referring it tothewisd(»i of ParliatkUt^'t^^ii^'Ui^'' 
from time to time their rights; that Is to ia^^ tl£%n|^ttAr 
Secrataiy, pro temporci is to dcterauAe on ttial time ikIiA 1t^^ 



»- -J i-J o-ijtu; 



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A gentleman has talftcd of SWftz^Thcndl, kxtk Med ft M 
region o( liberty. I will ask that gentleman, are tlo! tiAi- 
lies and Frote^tant^ tmited in timt coDrifiy ; and hi Aot Aid an 
additional argomem, if any were requii^i ^ac tlleW if d6- 
thing in ttie Catholic religion by any meitei id httiisd to dv^ fr 
berty? 

tie eonciuded by stating; tfuet as tB« Cbw* 4f BMfaitM 
' no repreaenUtive, aiid^ at Ae only rfmif^ W baif it^ tte teft^ 
mentation of Ireland was firottf a few oTotlk^h^ fkdioKlen tf 
the coun^ of Antrim, where indeed we are fiutMlty mpi^ 
aented, the petiHon must ber sent to the i^gBt thm. J. Ol^eill, 
in order to be by hiin pnMAt^ to Parliament hi die nkttie < 
the town df^Tf&t: ^ 

In the coarse of the debate ttwaa a^gdl^; tlititet^ AMi- 

ber of a state, contributing by his fngendty and' Indn^Eiy Cb 

its well-being, has a right tO adfise m ittr goverhtbettt ; ^d 

as it would be impossible that every inoonsiderabl&ine^titfr t£ 

it could be properly employed as a legislator, ttat JHatfflfty 

must be performed by delegation, and* t6^t he hrtfafi^eftniMliB- 

cessitated to anite with his distinct in t^e cliokt of g i^epi^esertt 

tative. That no persoA so contributiifg by hk laSklcir, A 

learning, or his fngenuity, to the support oP his ctttitXtf^ 

can be equitably debarred from a share in its legislaftidtt; eitHeir 

in person or by proxy ; especiany aa the lawa so to betttaft 

must affect the life, liberty, and property of aJl. Consfiterinf 

these aa fundamental principles, it seennr extraordmary that 

the professing of any particular system of reltgion aUouhl tik i 

Bufficient pretext ibr exclusion from civil privileg^ea. It' bat 

been often alleged, that the Catholic Religion, and a hfl&X 

in its doctrines, were incompatible with good ^lAkenrafaip. 

How is this warranted by historical fact ? To Romiui Caflie^ 

lies we are indebted for the trial by jury ; for the inatlUltfim 

of pai-] laments ; the great charter of liberty; and owr Caedioi- 

Uc neighbours have given us a luminous view of their c&paK^ 



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ZQ5 

• - 

fg^, fofrniD^^f ,goyernnient eminently calculated to establish 
qiifU rigl%t& a^KJ equal li))erty among men. A Roman CJatliolic 
fft^ufija^io Henry the Foqilb's time (1399) passed an irct a« 
gaiiujt ^e pope's b^ll^ because it was subversive of the lights 
x|f ihp pe«p)e. It \yas therefore declared, that England wi» 
indep^dent of all foreign power, particularly of the Couit of 
jfUynt?* . Are we not then to suppose, that if such was file 
fy^^^cf of Catholics in such ignorant stages of society, that 
jtb^ aecMjinulated light of centuries shall have stftl'mord eiH 
jCtta^ed theAf liberality and information? That no pairtiil 
•IfpUci^ion for a reform of Parliament can ever succeed t t^iit 
.tii^ only effectual one must result from the united and deter« 
mined voice of the whole people of Ireland,-»fio mail can 
^^^ who Jtakes a retrospect of a few years, and the t^Bltlnedt 
^yhich the Protestant prayers of the people for refbnns of 
jcqrery kind have experienced, and daily experience. It was 
further argued that by the concession of the elective suffirago 
$o^ the Catholics, in the same degree as Protestants already 
^enyoy it, an addition of S or 300,000 electors to the presefit 
lii^ber^ would be attended with the happiest efibcts on the 
foedom of election, by enlarging the basis of it. In answer 
to those who are well inclinaLf to their emancipation, bst 
alWe that at present it would be premature, on account «£ 
their want of information and knowledge, it was said that tbe 
Boost certain means of dispelling that ignorance, and rooting 
oyt the subjection which their priests would wish to keep 
them in, would be the exercise of elective fWmchile; whidi 
hj giving them an intercourse with their fbllow-eledors', and 
a coqnmunication of sehtiiAent, would sooii dispel tbe mist of 
i^orance, make them feel their own dignity, imptt^e thelir 
understandings,' and give tfalnn a relish fbr the enjoyment of 
erery civil right. * - • 

The history of elections convinces us that the fbfty shilling 
frediolder is more under the undue influence of' his Imdlord, 



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f 



306 

tkan the menial servant Is of his master ; that therefore Totes^ 
should be given to every description of people^ as the best 
aaeans of rendering bribery^ corruption, and undue influence, 
impossible or of little avail. 

That the argument respecting the recovery of forfeited 
knds^ .had little weight, considering the distant perfod when 
they were lost — few of them less than a century and a half 
back ; since which time they have passed from hand to Band,, 
and many of them again beoomcrby purchase>the property of 
liuraan Catholics^ That the Catholics themselves would pei> 
.ceive such insuperable obstacles to the success of these claims, 
that those descendants of the proprietors of forfeited estates,, 
who could prove their title, would be so few, that the general 
body would never suffer them to be gene jnto ; in order ta 
prevent eonfuaion in the state, and the interruption of national 
tranquillity, then become so much their interest to maintain. 
Let it be remembered what a small portion the forfeited 
estates bear to the whole landed interest of Ireland— and it 
will be granted, that they do not deserve all the regard wRid^ 
u often paid to them, in considering the subject of this dayl 
discussion. The difficultjas^ib the way to a reversion of the 
forfeitures, are many and great ; among others, a bill for that 
purpose would hasfe io- be brought into Parliament^ — pass both 
. Ikouses — and receive the Royal assent. 

On the other hand,— the firiends of the original motion 
professed a» w^irm an attachment to their Roman Catholic feU 
low-subiects as the other side, and as ardent a wish for their 
coippjete emancipation ; but they thought, that this would be 
best effected by degrees* 

Aji the expunging of the words from time to tioie, &c. had 
been supported on tliis principle, that the rights of man are 
indefeasible, and that they cannot rightfully be withheld even 
for a moment. — This was admitted^ but still it was contended, 
tliat no government had ever been constituted upon the strict 



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^07 

thewy of these principles ; — that the French legidatort thctn- 
Belves had thouglu it necessary to restrict the right of suffrage ; 
and that when a country had fallen into the present circum- 
stances of Ireland^ it must extricate itself from them by de- 
grees. That all sudden reverses of fortune are dangerous to 
the virtue or moderation of the wisest individual, and still 
more so to that of a multitude— circumstanced like the Irish 
Catholics. 

That the Roman Catholics of this country are not, in their 
2»resent state, as well informed or as capable of exerdsing go- 
vernment as the Protestants. 

That the Roman Catholics must feel resentment and ill 
liumor in consequence of ancient iniuries, recent insults, and 
continued oppression. 

That these will require time to subside, and will be best 
removed by a gradual extension of immunities and privileges ; 
which at the same time would have another happy effect, in 
gradually eradicating prejudices from the minds of Protestants, 
and preparing them to j^rant what the others are willing to re- 
ceive, 

T^at the Roman Catholics having formerly lost (heir pos- 
sessions, fighting for the liberty of their country^ against a fo* 
xelgn pi>wer, must think that ihpy have a right to resume 
them when they can, and to abrogate any laws passed during 
what they consider as an usurpation, that may stand in theif 
way:. That on the principle of immediate liberation, and unli- 
mited communication of the rights of mnn, this would l)e in 
their power; — and that a moderate exercise of absolute power 
in such ^rcumstances^ could not be expected even from the 
most enlightened peoj^le. 

That the mass of the Catholics arc subject to the influence 
of their priests in an undue degree; and that under their di- 
.rection the lower orders would, in case of a sudden revolution, 
compel their more enlightened superiors to yield to their de- 



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SOS 

sires; and among, other alterations, to restore their hierarchy 
to its foriner splendor and power, as the established religion df 
the land. 

That for these reasons, though they longed for an entire a- 
bolition of invidious and oppressive distinctions, for the gene- 
ral exercise of every franchise, they could not vote for the ae- 
compUsbment of this object, otherwise than from time to time 
—commencing at present with some essential concessions, and 
progressively encreasing, as the circumstances of the country 
and the welfare of the whole kingdom would permit. 

That those who insist on the propriety of admitting every 
denomination of men to elective suffrage, on the principle tbat 
persons not property should be represented, and that it shoold 
go to the admission of menial servants, or, according to the 
Duke of Richmond's plan, even to paupers themselves^-should 
recollect, that the most enlightened assembly the world ever 
saw, the French constituting assembly, with every due atten* 
tion to the rights of man, made property one of the bases of e« 
lective franchise. — Unanimity, as far as It could be effected 
without a violation of principle, was ardently recommended.— 
That as the whole assembly appeared to be of one mind touch- 
ing the general principle, it was for the interest of the Roman 
Catholic cause that Belfast should come to such a decision that 
day as would embrace every liberal man's ideas in its favor.— 
Tbat many of the tnost respectable members of the town ; of 
those whose names were long known as the encouragers df e* 
very principle of freedom, civil and religious, could not go the 
whole length of the prayer of the petition, were it to dedans a^ 
wish tbat the emancipation should be instantaneous and univer- 
sal. That the advice of a prudent Catholic divine;* n^turtever . 
bis dignity in that church, from the Curate of BeUkst, to the 
Titular Primate of Ireland — would be— 1><« let our firienda of the 
North beware of dividing a town of such oonaequence^ of audi 
liberality as this one. Let them remember Aat eveiy d^d^ 



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309 

ration In our fktor u a point gdned ; aiMl mnat ereBtually 
lead to matters of higher comequence.— That generana 8enti« 
iftents ummlnaoiifely decku-ed by andi a body, will do more to 
banish prgodice on both sides^ than the most forcible reaolu- 
tkm carried against a respetstable minori^. Thift the repeal of 
a great part of the penal eode was the offspring of the divine 
spirit of tobratien exemplified at the volunteer assembly in 
Dungannon, in 1782 ; that had more been thto attempted^ 
less perhaps had been obtained ; that we have since thai perii* 
od experienced the decay of roor^ religious prejudice than any 
equal portion of the history of man can find a parallel ta That 
thert ia a natural progress in human affairs^ a slight atten- 
tion must convince every man ; and tliat^ as one favourable 
step is the parent of another^ in gradual measures we have the 
best chance for success." 

Having now gone through m6Bt of the arguments which 
we at present can recollect, with some trifling addiiions, for 
the purpose of connection^ we shall conclude by mentioning 
the issue of the day's proceedings ; and reminding our read- 
en, inhabitants of Bdfast^ of tthe salutary advice which feU 
with so much propriety from a divine of the Protestant Dis* 
senting Church, Dr. Bruce : that we were met on a glortooa 
principle, the relief of/ our Catholic brethren ; that every ak 
lowance should be made for the unavoidable shades nf diffi;fu 
ence^ which in a question of such magnitude must occur b^ 
twcen the most enlightened minds;— ^that being all ok oneo» 
pinion regarding the general snbjectt it was our duty to pre* 
serve the most perfoct harmony, let the issue of the day's bu- 
naeo be what it inay ; and that any asperity which the ardor 
of d^Mte may possibly induce, should be forgotten with the 
fiiolnent. -^ 

. The question for expanging was then put, and carried by 
a rery eonsidtrablf majority. 



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31^ 

Ifis prtitiim» hi araeiMlcd, and .fotwirded to Mr. O'NeiB 
1^ {ivestiitatioii, ii«in«xtcL 

Aiilotum waa made by Mr. Joy, .tiiat th0 resolotioD wUcb 
succeeds the petitnm should pass, respecting the clergy and 
Iktty o^ Ihe Roman Catholic persnasioa -coraii^ fenrard with 
t deckrrftion of their religtoufl sentimeiKs, as far aa they are 
tohiiefct^ with ciTtl and political liberty ; and it was fully, ex* 
plained that the expectation was that their clergy and laitj 
shoald^ it» as separate bodies— which resolution having met 
widi an unanimous concurrence, the assembly a^joufned. 

AT a Vay nvmevous and respectable meetii^ of 0^ town 
of BelfiMt^ conrened by public advertisemeaty signed by 5S 
inhabitants^ held in the town-house, and from theooe adjourn- 
ed/ fbr wwit lif Mfitao/ to the New Meeting-house : 
rnnmEV. sinclabm kblburh, in thb chair : 

A nAotios' was made and seconded, that a committee be 
'^mr appointed to prepare a petition to Pacliament, and that 
the prayer of said petition be as follows : 
' That oof Raman Catholic brethren have long been» and 
«titt are, m a d^aded situation, from numerous restrictive 
land penal statutes hanging over them; and conscious as we 
are, lliat the pixKperity, happiness, and improvement xif this 
country, must eventually depend on an union of ioterestSi a- 
tnong all religions denominations of the inhabitants — We 
therefore pray the legislature may be pleased to repeal, (from 
lime to time, and as speedily ks the ciretimstances of the coim- 
try, and the welfiire of the whole liingdom will permiQ all 
penri and restrictive sUtutes at present in exiatonce aganwt 
the Iftoman Catholics of Ireland ; that they may be thus re- 
"stored to the rank and consequence oC oitteem. 

A motion was made and seconded, that said petition be a- 
mended, by expanging the <V&lowinf words-p-'' from time to 



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tiae^ and i^ spetXlf as the circumstances of ' the c&eenWf, whi 
the welfare of the whole kingdom ^1 permhf /'- wfuehiBotioa^ 
after a long debate^ passed ia the affirniative» by a weary large 
majority. 

A motion was made and seconded^ that the said petition* 
as now amended, do stand the petitieo of the iabj^itmtta of 
Belfast to Parliament, which passed in the affriMti^^ withoot 
a division. 

A motion was made and seconded, thai the foUowiiig be 
the preamble to said petition : 
To the Right Hon. and Honorable the Knights, Citisens, and 

Burgesses, in parliament assembled ; 

The humble Petition of the InhabitanU of the town of Bel&at, 

by public advertisement convened in t&e town^honae ■ • 

Which passed unanimously. 

A motion was made and seconded, ttat the aaid petition 
be^ copied fair^ signed by the tiihabttantt, and iadosed tnti 
letter from our chairman to the Right Hon. John O^NtiH, re- 
questing him, in the name of the town, to present the same Jo 
parliament ; which passed unahimoosly« 

Aifi^ion was made and seconded, that we think k the du* 
ty, as well as the interest, of the clergy and laity of the Ro- 
dman Catholics of Ireland, to fbltow the recent example of fif> 
teen hundred CathoHcs of England, by making a solemn d^- 
'claratloii of their religious principles, as far aa they are con- 
nected with civil and politioal liberty— which parsed imani* 

mously. 

Reaolved unanimously. That the prooeedinga of the day 

^be pd^ltshed twice in the Dublin Evening Pos^ tmd in each 

of the Belfast News-papers. . 

SINCLAR? KELBURN. 

The Chaiman h^vipgleft th^ cbair, aj^ ^aipes Ferguson, 

Esq. having been) citUed to iXr^ 

» Hesdved-iinanimoii«ly,/Xb*t.^he.wjp!m?st thanks of this 



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sift 

tDActing «rt due to our rlm'nnan^ for bh veiy iis|Mirtial and 
prqpev CffoAl^ in tbe ob*ii-. 

• JAMES FERGUSON. 

AT a numesoQi and f)Nf«c^l|}p q9ae|p|p of the Cathotki 
af Bd^ ami iU dMHrujt : 

rJM 1U7F. JSr. GtDONNELL^ P. P. /V rHJ? Ci7i</J2 1 

Tht fliUow^ig vetolfitions weri» umf^imgosly fgraed to : 

Resolved, That the hitherto peac^aUe demeanor of the 
Catfaelm of Ireland, must give tbe l^da^ure the moat nne- 
qaivocal proof of their loyalty to Hie Majesty^ obedience to 
die la^% iui4 .atti|cbfQent to tbe constitution of the reaUn. , 

Resdv^, That die general committee of tbe Catliolics of 
Dublin, deputed as they are by tbe general voice of our body 
from allpmrts of the kiogdom, is, and ought to be, the only 
orgam tbtoMgh which our opinions ean be dedarod, and 
Ihrq^gh whieh our sentimenis can or ought tp be made known ; 
and we aoliciti that coipmittee of friends and patriots in the 
cause of our emancipation, to accept our sincere ai^d warm** 
est thanks, for their uniform zeal in supporting our,9|fue, by 
humble applications to tbe legislfiture in o^r. behalf« ,^ 

Resolved* That we detest and hold in abborrenoe any in« 
dividual, however ejudted his rank or situation^ who steps for- 
ward with insidious zeal and untrue fabrications, to represent 
us as a divided people, indifT^reat to that degree of emancipa- 
tion which the general committee are constitutionally, and we 
trust not ineffeetually, solicitbg from govemmedt ; and well 
knowing that our sect entertain no principles hostile to the 
constitution, we bold in abborrenoe the sentiments set iefth 
in a late address, <' that any circumstances, or situation of tbe 
empire, should render the repeal of all penal statutes danger- 
ous or impolitic." 

Ileselved, That as some doubts may 4till exist, from mB« 



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IIS 

}%fiMaaft insininittotis having gone forth^ that our worthy Pro* 
testant Brethren of Ulster^ (who hare lately so clistinguished 
iheoiseWety by Corming the societies of United Irishmen^ by 
their proceedings at the late tewn-^meeting/ and by oihea; 
pahlio acts in our fsLvar) are 4iot sincere in their expressions, 
as . atl feRth in their liberal dedarations, we cheeHully stand 
forward to assert, that such insinuations are groundless and 
Totd of truth ; and that we with great pleasure contemplate 
that true spirit of Christianity which produces the harmony, 
■ brotherly love tjod afiection subsisting among us. 

Resolved, That our warmest thanks be given to Mr. Fat- 
rick Byrne, Mr. R Cross, and Mr. James R. Kelly, our three 
worthy repre8entative3 in the general committee. 

Resolved, that these our unanimous resolutions be pub- 
lished in the Dublin Evening Post, in the B. N. Letter, and 
the Northern Star. 

Signed by order of the meetbg, 

HU. O'DONNELL, chairmak: 



* This alkides to a meeting of Freeholders of the couoty of Aa- 
trim, resident at Belfast, re^pectin^ a Knigbt of the Shire in the room 
of Lord Langford, on the 18th of January, 1792, ene of which reiolu* 
tions ran thus t 

** That we consider the proceedings of the freeholders at the late 
county meeting, held at B* Jlymemi, deserring our highest approba- 
tion, in haWng establisked a proper test, to be taken by every can^- 
date for the representation of the county— a test, in which an adequate 
representation of the Tria}i Nation in the Commons* Hou8e» forms the 
principal feature— a represenution, which, when introduced and esta- 
blished on liberal principles, including every religious description of I- 
rishmen, roust procure all those beneficial measures so properly point- 
ed out in said test.** 

S8 



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Sli 

AT a meetiDg of the Third Society of UDited Iri^unen of 
Belfast, on the S3d of January, 179^: 

Resolved unanimously, that we adopt the f<^lowing as the 
engagement of our plighted faith to our country and to each 
other, to be subscribed by every member on his admission^ 
vis. We pledge ourselves to our Country, and mutually to 
each other, that we will steadily support, and endeavour, by 
all due means, to carry into-«ffect the following resolutions : 

1st, Resolved, *' That the weight of English influence in 
the government of this country, is so great as to require a cov- 
.dial union among all the people of Ireland, to maintain that 
balance which is essential to the preservation of our liberties^ 
and the extension of our commerce. 

2d, Resolved, *' That the sole constitutional mode by which 
this influence can be opposed, is by a complete and radical re- 
form of the representation of the people in Parliament* 

3d, *' That no reform is practicable, eflicacious, and just, 
which shall not include Irishmen of every religious persni^ 
sion." 

Signed by order> 

ALEX. WATT, skc. 

Belfast, SOth January^ 1792. 
LEST any misapprehensions should arise respectiag the 
difference of opinion which took place at the late meeting of 
Protestant and Roman Catholic inhabitants of this town, held 
on Saturday last: We the undersigned, who disaent, in a 
certain degree, from the proceedings of that day, think it 
proper to declare, that the only point of difference was— 
whether the entire enfranchisement of the Roman Catholics of 
Ireland, including sufirage at elections, should be immediate, 
or progressive—" from time to time, and as speedily as tbe 
circumstances of the country and the general welfiure of tbe 
whole kingdom will permit'^ 



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[[The words marked with inverted coramas were thoft 
which were expunged from the prayer of the petition.] 



Wm. BristQw, Savn. Alex. Bailie, 

of Belfwt, Bobert Kingsmill, 

A. H. Haliday, M. D. Charles Brett, 



Win, Bruce, D. D. 
B. Meade, (Rtvd.) 

P. Tance, (Uevd.) 

John £win^, 

John Holmes, 

Wad. Cunpjngfaaina 

Thomas Hyde, 

Barth,Fiiller» 

Henry J07, 

John Ashmore, 

Cunningham Greg, 

Narcissus Batt, 

John H. Houston, 

Jas. Bvistow, (Knt.^ 

fhuL H. Batt, 

HiU Walhu», 

Robert Holmes, 

John Brown, 

Darld Dunn, 

James Holmes, 

Robert Davis, 

Stewart Banks, 

Robe. Apslej, M. D. 

John Clarte, 

Thoe. Oreg, 

Wm. Seed, 

Sam. Brown, 

Wm. Burgesi, 
Wm. Burden, 
VaL Jones, 
John Alexander, 
Jolin Cranston, 
G«orge Black, 
Alex. Orr, 



Thos. Banks, 
George Bamber, 
. James Black, 
Arthur Buntin 
John Holmes, junr. 
Alex. Gordon, 
B. M'Chmey, 
John Mili'ord, 
John Robinson 
Darid Thobum, 
John Brown, 
John Ferguson, 
Samuel Law, 
Chas. Mackenzie, 
Thomas Cayan, 
Andrew Macnevin, 
Jas. Montgomery, 
Samuel Ferguson, 
John M^Canunon, 
James Martin,, 
Alex. Moreland, 
James Wier, 
Hugh Graham, 
Robert HUditcb, 
Christ. Hudson, 
Adams M* Master, 
Simon M*Creary, 
Bobert Hodgson, 
Francis Joy, 
John Thobum, 
Jos. Thobum, sen. 
Marcus Ward, 
Joseph Smithy 
AVm. Stewart, 



James Williamson* 
James Mullan, 
Geo. Robinson, 
William Irwin, 
James M*Adam« 
James Steele, 
Robert Montgomery, 
Adam Brown, 
James Russell, 
Henry Bleakley, 
Wm. Donaldson, 
Robert M'Millen, 
John M'Curdy, 
Andrew M*Clune, 
David M*Adaai, 
James Park, 
John Lascelle^ 
Wm. Lascelles, 
John Sanders, 
Stephen Strickland, 
Joseph Germain, 
Thomas Ansley, 
John M'Nair* 
John Germain, 
Thomas Gray, 
John Moor, 
John Fraaer, 
Francis Warrick, 
Henry MilhoUaad^ 
James Sloan, 
Robt Singleton, 
Thomas Alien* 
Wm.AJlen, 
James A^sworth, 
Samuel Smith, 
Robt. M'DoH^ell, 
Henry Ingram, 



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Jobn Brown, 
Wm. Stevenson, 
Wm. Inrin, 
John Campbell, 
Charles Utnken, 
J. Mallear, M. D. 
George Joy, 
James Ferguson, 
John Hasullon, 
Roht. Gordon, 
Jas. Cleland, 
K. Gordon, jun. 
lUchard Bamber, 
David Tomb, 
John Gall Smilfa, 
John Mathers, 
Bobt Biadshaw, 
Hugh WilMB, 
John Macartnej, 
John Henderson, 
Abel Hadskis, 
Jobn Gregg, 
Jas* T. Kennedy, 
Geo. Bbck, jun. 
Sam. Hyde, 
John Smylie, 
Bobt. Stevenson, 
Sam. Robinson, 
Wro. Thornton, 
John Getty, 
Robert Walkce, 
Fat Mc Master, 
Gilbert Webster, 
ThoSi Andrews, 
Wm. Seed, M. D. 
Edward Patterson, 

(Bev.) 
Ezek. D. Boyd, 



Samuel Smith, 
Geoige Beck, 
Hanis Beck, 
Joseph Beck, '' * 
John Reid, 
Richard Murdech, 
James Moore, 
T. M'Cracken, 
Arch. Stewart, 
Wm. Walker, 
Robt Elliot, 
Ferdinand PiUsdmons, 
Jas. Graham, 
Stewart Lowry, 
James Frazer, 
Jos. MoUineaux, 
James 31illiken, 
Robert Brown, 
Robert Getty, 
George Herdman, 
Wm. M'Cune, 
James White, 
David Giliiland 
Richard Lunn, 
Thomas Herdman. 
Robert Byars, 
Robert Trimble, 
James Law, 
David Mitchell, 
Wm. Anderson, 
John M'Kee, 
Samuel MK:ielUnd, 
Joseph Thobum, 
Robt. Henderson, 
Alex. Moody, 
David Bradfoid, 
John Tumley, 
Edward Hunt, 



Michael Smyth, 
Samuel M*Cutcheon| 
Wm. Greer, 
Alex. Brown, 
Clotworthy M*Quin, 
AVm. Fletcher, 
Nat Main, 
A. M'NeiUy, 
Jn. Boyd, 
Wm. Campbell, 
Wm. Ta^kr, 
David Irvin, 
Jas. M'Master, 
Conway Carleton, 
Jobn Baker, 
George Rippet, 
James Baker, 
Arch. M^Clure, 
Thoa. Herdman, 
Robert Bailie, 
Wm. Scott, 
Walter M*Maw, 
Wm . Martin, 
John Beatty, 
Sam. Hodgson, 
James Mulligan, 
Charles Heniy, 
David MoUyneaux, 
John Gilmore, 
James Suffereo, 
James Johnston* 
Samuel Mitchell, 
Wm. Soyers, 
Thomas Fulton* 
Stewart B. Craif , 
John Sutton, 
John H. Corbttt, 
John Elliott, 



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sir 



J. Hanailtun, Rev. 
Frmuds Turnljr, 
Joseph Stevensoa, 
VaL Joyce, 
Wm. England, 
Wm. Gow, 
Juaes Cronbee, 
Samuel Brown, 
Tbos. Qrabam, 
Hugh K/Ie, 



G.B.Mft(Uen, 
Tboft. Ljle, 
John Stevenson, 
Nicholas Mercer» 
Richanl Barnet, 
Hugh Jelly, 
James Johnst<3n, 
John Lynch, 
Win. M*Oor»idc 
Wm. Goyer, 
N. Alexander, 



James Banter, 

Jos. Stevensoo, jua. 
John Ross, 
Alex. Mc. Ihrath, 
John Mc* Milkn, 
Lcwta H. Macklin, 

(Revd.) 
Wm. AtkinsM, 
^liehad Campbeil, 
Orr Reid, 
Robert Scott 



BELFAST ROMAN CATHOLIC SOCIETY. 
AT a meetmg of the Roman Catholic inhabitants of the 
town of Belfast and its vicinity, held at "Mr. Hugh DoweU'a^ 
•Q the^ihof April, 179S> 

AIR. JAMBS MOONEY, IN THE CHAIR : 
The declaration of the General Committee of the Catholi<it 
of Ireland being read paragraph by paragraph, the follow- 
ing resolutions were agreed to*- 

Resolved unanimousl}', That the declaration is strictly 
conformable with our principles as Christians and Catholics, 
agreeable to the tenets of the faith we have maintained, and 
that we will ever adhe>^. 40 them. 

Resolved unanimoui^ly. That we solemnly declare we have 
never harboured opinions inimical to the civil, religious, or 
political liberty of mankind ; particularly of our fellow mxh* 
jects of a different persuasion. 

.Resolved unanimously. That so far from entertaining the 
nost distant thought of disturbing the tranquillity of the 
kingdom, by unsettling the landed property thereof, our high- 
est ambition is, to participate in the constitution of our coun- 
try ; and we do most heartily concur in a solemn declaration, 
that we never will join in any attempt Co overthrow the Pro- 
testant government of Ireland 



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sit 

RefloWei vnanimouslj. That the liianks vf this mieetiiy 
be presented to the Greneral Catholie Consmittee, ibr their 
steady^ manly, and constitutional proceedings in their late ap- 
plication to the legislature ;, and we entreat they may perse- 
vere until their efforts be crowned with success. 

Resolved unanimously. That the sincerest and most grate- 
ful thanks of this meeting be given to the virtuous and en light- 
ened members of the legislature, who supported with their 
unrivaled abilities, the petition of three millions of his Ma- 
jesty's faith fill subjects, in order to restore them to their long 
lost rights; and to obtain for them a participation in the scale 
of government, with the minority of tlieir fellow-subjects. 

Resolved unanimously, ' That the warmest thanks of this 
meetiog be given to William Todd Jones, and Theobald Wolfe 
Tone, Esqrs. for their laborious and unwearied exertions, to 
rescue the character of the unhappy Catholics from the as^ier* 
lions of malevolent and bigoted partizans ; and for their uni- 
form tenor of conduct to restore the injured Catholic to the 
State that God and Nature designed him for. 

Resolved unanimously. That ** while memory holds her 
seal," we shall never forget the glorious and philanthropic ef- 
fort our fellow-citizens made on the S8th of January last, in 
being the first Protestant body in th^ kingdom, who evinced 
that they felt for the sufferings of their Catholic brethren, by 
presenting a petition in their behalf to the legislature ; and 
they are hereby requested to accept of the warm effusions of 
hearts overflowing with gratitude for the same. 

Resolved unanimously. That our chairman transmit a co- 
py of the above resolutions to Edward Byrne, Esq. chairman 
of the Catholic Committee, Wm. Todd Jones, Esq. and Theo- 
bald Wolfe Tone, Esq. 

Resolved unanimously. That the above resolutions be pnb« 
li^ied twice in the Belfast newspapers, and National Joomal. 
Resolved unanimously. That 5000 copies of the declara* 



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Z19 

tim of the Gelitral Caihdic Committee of Irdi6d, with diese 
our resolutioni, be printed in liand*biUt, 

JAS- MOONEY. 

Mr. Mooney having left the chair, and Mr. Heyland hav- 
ing taken it^ 

Resolved^ That the thanks of this meeting be given to Mr. 
Mooney, for his praiseworthy conduct in the chair. 

CHARLES HEYLAND. 



THE following is a copy of the letter from Edw. Byrne, Esq 
Chairman of the General Committee of the Roman Catholics 
of Ireland, to the Rev. S. Kelbum, as chairman of the meet- 
ing of the inhabitants of Belfast, held 28th January, 179^. 

SIR, 

IN compliance with the instructions of the General Cora- 
mittee of Roman Catholics, I inclose you a copy ai the reso« 
lutlons which passed at our meeting on this day. 

I am directed to assure you, that we feel a deep Sense of 
the obligations we owe to you, and your worthy feHow-citisens 
of Belfast, for the marks of kindness which we have, on for- 
mer occasions, received fVom you, and particularly for the 
petition which you have lately determined to present to par- 
liament in our behalf. 

We hope thfs petition will have its due weight with the le- 
gislature ; at all events, it will remain a lasting monument of 
your liberality and patriotism. — Indeed we are convinced that 
you long regretted, though you did not feel in your own per- 
sons the weight of the absurd prejudices which disturbed, ami 
fUn continue to disturb, the harmony of social life, and t^ dr- 
vide the people of Ireland into distinct, and almost hostile 
communities. We now, however, look with confidence for a 
melioration of national manners ; and we hope your example 
will induce others to lay aside their animosities against us, anii 



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500 

to ncccpt ttie flieiidBhip wfileb we are anilKtums ta cohivirte 
with our co»antrymen of •very rdigtout denomination. 

Notwithstanding the calamnies which are dailj propaga* 
ted to atiT disadvantage^ iMid the imidiou^arts wbicb b«d inen 
employ to keep one part of Ireland in a state of sullen sepa- 
ratfon from the other, ^e venture to progvosticale tlie ap« 
proach of that auspicieua day, whan the ptopk of this'ceim* 
try> moulded into one coipmon mass by the compreasiog hand 
of the same protecting system, shall cease to have a«y other 
object in view than the public good and public happiness. 

Among the various descriptioTis of men whom Pravideoot 
has placed in the same country, there are features of moral 
distinction, as well as of moral resemblance, and yet the busi- 
ness of society is carried on under all the known varieties of 
temper^ opinion^ and ability : in the same manner we conceive 
that a diil'tfence of sentimciit, with regard to religious doc- 
trines and modes of worship, would not be likely to inpair 
tlie strength and unity of the state. There is one point in 
^ which we all agree — tlie civil and political wellare oi our 
country ; and by this point do the Boman Catholics wish to 
Be connected with their countrymen, in a common bond of 
fellowship and constitutional right* 

We feel no political insufficiency or defect which should 
exclude u?, in nny re$>pcct, from the bosom of our country, 
and we are happy to find that you view us in the same light* 
Resting on this proof of your liberah'ty, we trust, however, 
that you will not clmrge us with any degeneracy of spirit, if, 
willing to gratify the prejudices, which are still to be found 
among many of our countrynaen, we solicit admission into the 
cor.stituUon, on Aich terms as shall ofTer as little violence at 
possible, to tlie feelings of men, who tliink that every change 
is an hazardous experlijcnt, a^d that every link taken from 
the chain ot oppression is lik^Jy to produce anarchy Instead 
of order, public tumult instead of public security. 



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S41 

The ob|€ct of our present spplicalion it tberefere a pirtial 
arl Mission only to the rights of flree sulqects, but if oar snecesi 
should go bejond our expectations, we shall feel a mere livelj 
sense of gratitude to those, who with such a superiority td 
prejudice hare declared us worthy of total emancipation. 

If we have yentured to call the attention of our country 
to our serious and manifold grieranees, it is not to kindle ciTil 
discord, but to strengthen the bonds of dvil union, and tm 
give to our Protestant brethren an opportunity of ennobling 
their own character and that of our common eeuntiy, by a 
generou^ triumph orerthe jealousies and antipathies which 
have farced us ftom our natural rank in society. 

Whatever may be our fate, whether we shall be received 
into the Constitution^ or dismissed from ita door with disdain, 
we shall ever retain a grateful r emembrance of the patriotic 
exertions of you and your feUow-dtiaens in our fiivor, and 
we earnestly solicit a contbuance of your friendship and patro« 
sage. You have set an example of true public spirit to 
Ireland, and to Europe at large - and we flatter ourselvea that 
joa could not have 'better evinced your love of liberty, than 
by the means which you have recoo^mended for ita cons^« 
vation ; a communication of its blessings to the Roman Ca« 
tholics of this country. 

I am further directed by the General Committee to inform 
ywa that, idthoogh our oath of allegiance contains in substance 
an explanation of our tenets and opinions, yet in deference to 
your advice, we have it under consideration to follow the 
example of several English Bebian Catholics, by making a 
folemn declaration of our religious principles, as far as they 
are connected with civil and religious liberty ; whiUi we hope 
will give satisfaction to all, who like you, are open to convio* 
don founded on truth and reason. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect. 
Yours sincerely, 
DMUh ith FOruMfy, 1792. EDWARD BYBK& 

Tt 



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AT a m^etiDg of tbe General Committee of Soman Ca« 
Ibolict, held at the Kin^a Arms, in Fownea'a-atraet, on Satur^ 
da J the 4th day of February, 1792 : 

EDWARD BYRNM. ESQ, IN THE CHAIR. 

The following ResolutioBS were unanimously agreed to : 

Retolved, That the warmest thanks of this Creneral Com* 
nittee be given to the inhabitants of Belfast, who with a 
liberality that does the gr^test honor to themselves and to 
their country, have agreed to present a Petition to Parliament 
fi)r the repeal of the penal and restrictive statutes mnder whidi 
the Roman Catholics of this kingdom at present labor. 

Resolved, That the chairman of this meeting be requested 
to forward a copy of tbe above Resolutions to the chairman of 
the Bel^t meeting, accompanied with a letter, expressive of 
our gratitude to him and his fellow^citizens. 

EDWARD BYRNE, Chairuak* 

JtXECUTION OF THE LAW BY THE CIVIL POWEB« 

4^14,1791. 
ON Thursday morning lastj a detachment of the Belfast 
First Volunteer Company, marched at the request of the sber« 
iff of this county, in order to aid him in taking possession of 
a house and farm, in the townland of Derrymore, and barony 
of Upper-Massereene, which was forcibly withhekf. The 
party marched at six o'clock in the morning, with one of the 
company's field pieces, a brass six-pounder^ and arrived at tbe 
spot, distant SO miles, about two o'clock^ Upwards of an 
hour having been spent in fruitless entreaties and remonstrant 
ces, to prevail upon the deluded people to give up the pos* 
aessbn peaceably, and every proposal of representing thnr 
oonduct in the most favourable pcnnt of view, to the proprietor 
of the lands, having been rejected ; at three o'clock the sheriff 
endered the corps to fire -upon the house, which was occupied 
by a considerable body of very desperate banditti, in support 



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S2S 

of thepo686fl8on. A hot action immediately commencedy la 
iirhlch the occupiers made every exertion^ as well by a con^ 
tinued fire from the house^ as by saDies^ and annoying the 
party from the hedges. The assailants, however, rapidly 
advanced, and |cept up a well directed fire from the artillery 
and small arms : about four o'clock, the house, though very 
strong, having been much shattered, the occupiers, who 
bad retired in the rear, began to make their escape^n different 
directions ; about ten of the most timid, who were the first in 
flying, got off in a boat over Loughneagh, some others escaped 
by land, but four of the ring-leaders, including' two of the 
people who held the possession, were apprehended, and de- 
livered over to the n^agistrates and constables of the district, 
in order to be sent to the county gaol. Thus a decided con- 
quest has b^n obtained by the corps over the opposers of the 
laws of the land, in one of the wildest and most lawless dis- 
tricts in this part of the kingdom. 

It gives us much pleasure to announce, that in the ezecu« 
lion of this important business, no individual was materially 
hurt. The detachment returned to Lisbum on. Thursday 
evening, having marched upwards of thirty-two miles, and 
arrived here yesterday morning, without the slightest injury 
or accident having happened to any individual. 

The parties who held the possession forcibly, were not the 
descendants of the former occupiers, who had been tenants at 
will, but distant relations, who obtruded themselves upon the 
prembes, and who had no claim on the inheritance, either in 
law, equity, or benevolence. 

The sheriiSr could not, on this occasion, obtain aid from the 
army, without a certificate of his incapacity to enforce the law 
-with the civil power — and such a certificate, it was thought, 
-would not only be disgraceful to the County of Antrim, but 
-would tend to the extension of the infamous Police Bill, to 
tbif quarter of the kingdom. 



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S2i 
TO TVADDEL CUNNINGHAM, ESQ- 

CAPTAIN Of THE BELFAST FIRST VOLUNTEER COMPANY. 

I REQUEST you will accept, and have the goodoesi to 
' present, my warmest thanks to the other mesabers of the First 
Company, for the very kind and honourable support I ha?e 
experienced from you in the execution of the law : I am alto- 
gether unable to say how touch I feel personally the obliga- 
tion, from the flattering manner of it, or how much I admired 
the steady perseverance of the Company through a march of 
forty miles, and a service both hazardous ^nd fatiguing. I 
know the object of the Company was to enforce the law ; and 
rely that this proof of their zeal and resolution, ' by making it 
evident that resistance must be ineffectual, will in future pre- 
vent it; and^I am persuaded that on this occasion, you have 
rendered a fresh and highly essential service to your country. 
I remain. Sir, your obliged. 

And most obedient humble servant, 

ALEX. M'NEILL, 
Under-sheriff of the County Antrim. 

COUNTY OP ANTBIM. 

AT a General Quarter Sessions of the Peace, keld at 

Antrim, in and for the county of Antrim, the 19th of April, 

1 792, the Justices then and there assembled, did unanimously 

resolve that the thanks of the Bench be returned to Wad^i 

Cunningham, Esq. and die First Belfast Volunteer Company^ 

under his command, for their manly and spirited exertions in 

the support of the laws, having marched twenty miles with 

artillery and small arms, to assist the sheriff of said coanty in 

executing a writ of Habere on the lands of Derrymore, ia the 

upper half barony of Massereene, in the possession of Patrick 

Corr and others, who with an armed force> not #D]y opposed 

the said sheriff in the execution of bis office, but on tb* ap« 



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proich of the Tolunteen^ commenced a he«vy and constant 
fire firom behind hedges^ and also from a dwel1ing*hou;(^ on 
ssid lands, which last they defended after a considerable part 
Was battered down and till finaUj carried by assault. 

Resolred unantmoadj« That the thanks of the Bench b» 
returned to Mr. AlejLander McNeill, Under Sheriff of said 
county, for his spirited and proper conduct on the above ofc- 
oasieB.* 

By Order of the Court, 

SAMUEL HERON, 
Acting Clerk of the Peace. 

POLISH BEVOLUTION. 

ON the 5d May, 179^t being the anniversary of the 
Bevolution of Poland, a numerous and very respectable com- 
psny of gentlemen, dined together at the Dooegall-Arms Inn, 
in this town, in order to commemorate that happy event.— 
Waddell Cunningham, Esq. was appointed Chairman^ and 
amongst others, the following Toasts were given.—- 

The Revolution in Poland, and iu Patriot King.— The 
Revoliition of France. — The Rights of Man, and Mr. Pame.-^ 
The Sovereignty of the People.— The King of Ireland.— The 
Prince of Wales.- May Philosophy enUghten all Nations, and 
fbrmthe whole into one vast family. The Constituting and 
L^slative A8send>Kes of France/ The American Congrts% 
and the illustrious Wa8hington.-«Lord Charlemont and the 
Volunteers of Ireland.— 15th February, 1782.— The Society 
fbr the abolition of the Slave Trade.— The Revolution Societjf 
of I^ondon.— The Conquerors of the French Bastile.— Tbt 
Memory of all good citizens who have fallen in the cause ef 
liiberty*-*The Liberty of the Press.-— Mr. Fox, and succesi 
to big Bill, for rendering truth no longer a libel— Mr. Grattaiv 
and the minority of the House of Commons of Ireland.— A» 
equal Bepsesentatlon of thit People of Ireland, in Farliamenl^ 



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St6 

— James Ntpper 'Tandy, and a speedy cbeck to unconstitu- 
tional and undefined *priviIege8.-«May the People of Ireland 
be united, and all enjoy equal Liberty. — ^Magna Charta, aid 
the Barons of Ruitoyniede,-«-An hearty drubbing to the King 
of Hungary, and all the enemies of France. — ^May we be 
speedily called upon to celebrate the emancipation of all the 
enslaved nations of the world 

• •^^^■-« 

Jf«y» 18, 179S. 
THE Belfast Second Society of United Irishmen, at a 
meeting on Tuesday evening, unanimously resolved on con« 
tributlng their share of money to assist the people of France 
in the present war, undertaken in support of the new consti- 
tution of ^that country — and that they will continue so to do 
while the present war, in defence of the liberties of mankind^ 
may last. 

At a general meeting of the Northern Whig Club, held on 
the 15th June, 1792, (Anniversary of Magna Cbarta) : 
MDWARD JONES AGNEW, ESQ, IKT THE CHAIR^ 
The following resolutions were unanimously agreed to : 
That we have observed with pleasure, the introduction 
and success of a bill in the House of Commons of Great Bri« 
tain, declaratory of the power of Juries in matters of libeL 

That it is our ardent wish, that a bill for the same purpose 
may be carried through the two Houses of Legislature in Ire* 
land, and become the law of this land. 

That we highly admire Mr. Fox, that steady friend to ci« 
fil and religious liberty, as the original mover in the British 
House of Commons of a bill so long wanted, to settle the in- 
tent of the law, by making its spirit and practice agree ; as 
well as Earl Camden, for the ability and consistency with 
which he supported it in its progress through the House of 
Lords. 
^ Admirmg, as we do^ the principles and structure of oar 



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CoDftitutum^ we think Hincambent on of to .express >oiirari . 
dent wish^ that it may soon be rendered as perfect ie facto, 
as it is i€jur€; m, in other words^ that the people may spee« 
dily oome to be fiurly and equally represented in the Legisla« 
tnre of both kingdoms. 

EDW.J.AGNEW. 

NATIONAL MUSIC OP IRELAND. 

A RESPECTABLE body of the inhabitants of Belfast 
having published a plan for reviving the ancient music of thir 
country, and the project having met with such support and 
approbation as must insure success to the undertaking, Per« 
formers on the Irish Harp are requested to assemble in this 
town, on the tenth day of July next, when a considerable 
sum will be distributed in premiums, in proportion to their re« 
spective merits. 

It being the intention of the committee that every perform 
tner shall receive some premium, it is hoped that no Harper 
will decline attending on account of bis having be^n unsuc* 
oessful on any former occasion. 

ROBT. BRADSHAW, 
JB^att, AprU Si, 1792. sxcacTAET Aim TaxAf uaca. 

NATIONAL MUSIC OF IRELAND. 
JULY IS, 1792- 
1*HE number of Harpers that were present in our Ex- 
change Rooms on Wednesday last, and who are to continue to 
assemble in the same place for three days longer, were ten;— a 
sufficient proof of the declining state of that simple but ex- 
pressive instrument, and of the prc^riety of holding out every 
lure to prevent the original music of this country from being 
lost. As a principal motive in this undertaking was to revive 
some of the most ancient airs, now nearly obsolete, their dates 
and authors perhaps for centuries' unknown, pains will be ta- 



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ken to reduce to motes euch of thoie that have been played e& 
this occasion, as maj lead to a general publication of the best 
•ets of our tunes. No one that remembers the exquisite fitw 
ger of Dominie, will hesiute to conftsa the capability of the 
Harp of Ireland, and how worthy it is of preservatioiL By 
such means alone can our national airs be saved from obli? ion. 
Wales and Ireland have a national music, while England has 
none; if she had, it would not, lil^e that of the two first coon* 
tries, be only in the hands of a few itinerant minstrels. 
The following is the order in which the Harpers played ; 
Dennis Dempsy, blind, from the county of Derry, aged'8& 
Arthur O'Neill, blind, from the county of Tyrone, aged 55. 
C harles Fanning, from the county of Cavan, aged 56. 
Dan. Black, blind, from the county of Derry, aged 75. 
Charles Byrne, from the county of Leitrrni, i^;ed SOL 
f ' • t . Hugh Higgins, blind, from the county of Mayo, aged 55* 
V"! y Pat. Quin, blind, from the county of Armagh, aged 70. 
W« Carr, fhnn the county of Armagh, aged 15. 
Rose Mooney, blind, from the county of Meath. 
Jas. Duncan, from the county of Down, aged 45. 
The Irish Harpers were succeeded by a Welsh one, whose 
execution was very great. The contrast between the plaintive 
tones of the Irish instrument^ and the bold martial ones of the 
Webb, had a pleasing effect ; and marked a difference of cha« 
racter between the two nations. 

JULY FOURTEENTH, 179*. 

BELFAST REVIEW — AND CELEBRATION OP THE 
FRENCH REVOLUTION. 

ON Friday evening, the several country corps mardied 
into town, and were billeted on the inhabitants ; who were 
happy in renewing expressions of affection for their neigfa« 
hours and friends in the fourteenth }^ar since the comnience- 
ment of reviews, and in the sixteenth of the vc^unteer aera. 



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S2d 

Assemblies of smaller bodies than formerly, having l>eeft deem* 
ed best calculated to preserve at present the military spirit a- 
niung the citizen-soldiery of Ireland^ another review is to be 
held on Broughshane Moor on the first of August, The num- 
ber of corps which would otherwise have attended at Belfast 
having been thus considerably reduced, it Wad not thought 
proper to call on the venerable General of the Volunteer Ar* 
iny of Ulster, the EaA pf Charlemont, to attend on this occa- 
sion ; but the Reviewing General, who acted in liis room, was 
requested by the committee to make a regular return to his 
Lordship of their numbers, state of discipline, &c. The gen- 
tleman appointed in his place was Colonel Sbarman, oi^^XIoira 
Castle, who presided with such dignity last yfear in the civil 
assembly of the inhabitants of Belfast and its neighbourhood, 
at the celebratibn of thet^^rench Revolution. An unexpected 
illness having prevented that justly admired character from 
filling an office for which he was so eminently qualifiecl, Majof 
Crawford, of Crawford's-bum, was unanimously nominated to 
act as Reviewing General ; in testimony of the respect due 
to decided virtue in public and private life^ 

On Saturday morning, a brigade was formed in High- 
street, extending from the Bank to the Quay ; and the whole 
were marched off to the old review ground in the Falls, at - 
about eleven o'clock, by the Exercising Officer, Major Mc- 
Manus. 

On their return to town, at thr'»e o*clt»ck, there was a 
Grand Procession, the order of which is mentioned under- 
neath, and feu de joycs were fired in Linen-hall-stref t by the 
whole body, in honour of that day, which presented the sub- 
lime spectacle of near one-sixth of the wliole inhabitants of 
Europe bursting their chalns> and throwing off, almost in an 
in^nt, the degrading yoke of slavery. 

UU 



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OBBER OF THE MILITARY AND CIVIL PROCESSION, 

MAJOR CRAWFORD, GENERAL AND PRESIDENT 
FOR THE DAY. 

Belfait Troop of {Jght Dragoons^ Captain Thomas Brown-*17* 

MAJOR M'MANUB, EXERCISlNO-OFFICER, 

and his Aides de Camps. 

Artillery of the Belfast First Company, their number * 

incliided in that of their rorps undermentioned.. 

The 9olors qf Jive free nations : viz. 

Flag of Ireland — motto, * Unite and be free.' 

Flag of America — motta, * The Asylum of Liberty.' 

Flag of France — motto, * The Nation^ the Law^ and 

the King.' 

Flag of Poland — motto^ ' We will support it,' 

Flag of Great Britain — motto^ * Wisdom, Spirit, and 

Liberality to the People.' 

A Flag was prepared tor the Dutch, (but no one could be 
fbund to bear itj who were to be represented by « piece of 
c&nimon woollen stuff, half hoisted on a pole^ and to be faoot^ 
ed by the populace ; on account of the States having joined 
the wicked con4>u'*cy of tyrants against the liberties of man;— 

kOTTO, 

' Heav'ns ! how unlike their Belgian sires of old f 
Portrait of Dr. ^Franklin— motto. * Where Liberty 4s, 
Ihere is my country.' 

Belfast First Company, Captain Cunningham, 102 
Muckamore Fuziliers, Captam Swan, 42 

Lame, Captain Lieutenant Farrel, iO 

Randalstown, Captain I^ickey, 80 
Moira, Captain Bateman, ' 75 

Dromore First Company, Captain Vaughan, 42 

Villa Independents, Captain Hamilton, SO 



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SSI 
Ball^nahincb, Captain Arinstrcmg, 104 

Total number of First Brigade 532 

Artillery of Belfast Blues (numbers included in those 

of their qorps in Second Bngade.) 

THE GREAT STANDARD, 

Elevated on a triumphal car, drawn by four horses, with 

two Volunteers as supporters, containing on one 

side of the canvass a representation of ^ 

TH£ R£LEASEM£NT OF THE PRISONERS FaOM 

THE BASTILE, 
Motto-—' Sacred to Liberty/ 
The reverse contained a figure of Hibernia, one hand and 
fool in shackles ; a Volunteer presenting to her a figure of 
liberty. — Motto, 

' For a people to be free, it is sufGcient that they 
WILL it/ 

Belfast Blues, Captain VViUiam Brown, 92 

Downpatrick, Capuin Ilawtliorne, Sh 

Dromore Light Inf^Eintry, Captain Bodle. ^ 34 

Carrickfergus, Captain Craig, S6 

Broughshane, Captain Duflin, 62 

Total number of Second Brigade, S5S 

Total number of both brigades, 790. 
Portrait of Mqps. Mirabeau-— Mot'tq, 
* Can the African Slave Trade, though morally wrong, be 
politically right ?' 
A considerable number of inhabitants, 1 80, fropa Carmo- 
ney and Teraplepatrick, formed part of the procession, fall- 
ing in at the rere of the volunteer body. They bore a green 
flag, with the following mottos-^ 



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* Our Gallic brother was bom July 14, 17S9 ; Alaa ! we are 
still in embrvo/ Reverse, — • Superstitious jea- 
lousy, the cau^e of the Irish Bastile ;*— let us 
unite and destroy it !' 
The whole moved forward in the order related, through 
the principal streets of the town, acco.npanW by such an im« 
niense -multitude as never before appeared in this place. Af* 
ter the three feu de joj^es, the body of volunteer and citi- 
zens entered the ^eat square, within the Linen-hall, ard hav- 
ing formed a circle, elf vated in the centre of which sat the 
President, Major Crawford- 
Mr. Win. Sinclaire moved an Address to the National As- 
sembly of France, inserted afterwards. After some delibera- 
tion, but without the slightest appearance of opposition, it was 
carried without a single dissentient voice ; and with such efi- 
ergetic bursts of applause as declared that its principles had 
the sanction of every understanding, in an assembly of about 
1500, according to the Bdfiist News-letter,- or 5,000 according 
to the Star, that thus beheld the triumph of human nature in 
the freedom of France. It may with gre»')t confidence be as- 
aerlcd, that in no spot in Europe has the f'rench Revolution 
\>ee\\ celebrated with more splendor, seriousness, and feeliog, 
than in the town of Belfast, if we except the very coontrj 
where that astonishing event took place. 

The particular business of the day being thus happily dls* 
posed ofj the former mover proposed an address to the People 
of Ireland, inserted underneath. A long debate took place, 
which did not terminate till seven o'clock In the evening ; 
turning iipon a motion by Mr. Joy, for expunging the follow- 
ing paragraph which stands part of tlie address, and insert- 
ing another in its room. 

\Ve shall updemeath recite both of them, in order that 
the transactions of the meeting may be known ^n all its parts 
^ those who were not auditors. 



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333 

PIRAORAPH, THE EXPUNGEMENT OP WHICH WAS MOTED POR« 

" But while we thus state our sentimeDts on the subject of 
wform, we feel it incninbent upon us to (kclare, as we new 
do, that no reform, were even such a^ainable^ would answer 
our ideas of utility or justice, which should not equally in« 
dude all sects' and denominations of Irishmen. We repro- 
bate and abhor the idea, t^at political inequality should re« 
sult from religious opinions ; and we should be ashamed, at 
the moment when we are seeking for liberty ourselves, to ac« 
quiesce in any system founded on the slavery of others." 

PAIUGRAPH PROPOSED IN PLACE QP THE PORMER. 

" In seeking redress of our own grievances, we should be 
unworthy of the blessing of a free constitution, did we, un« 
der the influence either of religious or political prejudice, de- 
sire to deprive any btnly of men of their due weight in th« 
government of theijr country. On this principle we have uni- 
formly rejoiced^ in the gradual emancipation of our Roman 
Catholic brethren ; and we ardently look forward to that day 
when their entire enfranchisement shall be a measure not pnly 
of safety, but of expediency'; when Protestants shall be ready 
to grant, and C<itholics to receive. Whatever shall tend' to 
accelerate that event uill have our most strenuous support, as 
we shall zealously co-operate with the rest of the inhabitants 
of Ireland, in the attainment of an object so devoutly to be 
wished !" 

Mr. Joy, af^er mentioning that the idea of a gradual eman- 
cipation df the Roman Catholics of Ireland^ had had for many 
years bis best wishes, took thp liberty to allege that it were 
Dot adviseable for the meeting to declare to the world, that 
*' no reform would answer their ideas of justice and utility 
which should not equally include all sects and denominadoaa 
of Irishmen." That on a subject involving so momentous an 
experiment, their language though firm, should be moderate 
and precise; such as to foster the growing sentiment of liber* 



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SS4 

alhj among «ur prolestant brethrra, who are jret ipiprepared 
to go hand.and band with the inhabitants of this place in an 
instantaneous and unlimited change. That nether the Pro-r 
testant mind was sufficiently prepared to grant, nor the Ca« 
tholic one universally prepared to receive, a plenary and hn* 
mediate exercise of every right which members of a state can 
possibly possess. That^ therefore, holding it forth on such aa 
extended scale, might rather widen than close the unhappy 
chasm which had long separated the two bodies ; and that 
an union among Protestants on this subject, would be highly 
desirable, as an essential means of serving the very cause in 
question. 

In defimce of the paper; as it originally stood, and was car- 
ried^ it was said, that its expressioffs were so guarded that 
no point of time for their liberation was even hinted at To 
this it was replied by Miv Joy, that the passage for that very 
reason was objectionable and carried its own condemnation ; 
as a solemn address frpta such a public body as was then at« 
ambled, should be clear and explicit ; whereas this part of it 
was ambiguous and equivocal. That it should ingenuously 
declare either a wish to behold an immediate and complete 
enfranchisement, or one gradual and progressive ; as that style 
of writing which the dignity of so great a popular meeting de- 
manded. 

Mr. S. Nellson expressed his astonishment at hearing tha^ 
or any part of the address, called a Catholic - question 1 to his 
understanding it no more presented a Roman Catholic qnea* 
tion than a Church question, a Presbyterian, a Quaker, an 
Anabaptist, or a Mountain question ; the true question, if 
apy, was, whether Irishmen should be free. 

Uev. Mr. Kelbum rose to oppose the amendment, upon 
the grounds of right, reason and justice, and illustrated his 
reasoning by a comparison to the case of one man's having 
<rot possession of the purse of another, the detention of which. 



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Sis 

he was willinf^ to allow, was unjustj bat would tell binif*^ 
" Friend, I have kept this parse so long from jou, that it is 
tinpossible you should not be out of humour; therefore I 
cannot answer for the use you might make of it a I must watt 
till 1 am sure jou are pleased and satisfied, and the way I , 
shall take to iquiet you is this ; first, I 'Shall consider your 
case, and perhaps I shall give you the promise of a guinea out 
of your purse next week, if not sooner, and, if you please me^ 
I shall perhaps, give you more some other time, may be all ; 
and if you should be dead, I can, you know, as well give it 
to your children. You cannot now, from the nature of things^ , 
be in any capacity to receive it, therefore, for the present, be 
thsnkful for what you get, and the man who advises you to 
the contrary, ts a seditious bad man.** ^ 

He concluded by observing, that he had listened with won- 
der and amazement to all that had been aaid about giving and 
receiving ; he wished that men, before tbey indulged ia al 
Uio munificent ostentation of bestowing so liberally, wo«ld re- 
flect a moment upon what they had to give, that their gtot- 
rosity fsight be measured by thar means. Poor simple peo- 
ple 1 what have you to give ?— If I have summed it right, the 
whole inventory of your possessions amounts to no more ihan 
this— your rotten constitution, your boroughs, your exciae,^ 
your pension^list, your taxes, and your tythes ; these are your 
inheritance. Truly it is time to quit this foolery about giving, 
and join hands and voices with your brethren, to recover the 
birth-right which you both have lost. 

Mr. Thompson then rose^-He observed that the question 
dt right had been established by such irretVagable arguments, 
(alluding to those of Mr. Kelbum) that he should consider it 
•9 admitted, and confine himself to that o( expediency, which 
seemed the only gr^nd of opposition now existing ; and he 
would weigli expediency against expediency. It was not only 
expedient, but absolutely necessary, tliat every Irishman who 



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S39 

wished for refbrm and for freedom^ should closely unite^ anj 
c^ose to be divided by names^ >vbich only rendered tHem con- 
temptible to their oppressors, Wh^n 70,000 men were up m 
arms, and demanded a reforro> and oflen tried to obtain it, 
tljey as oflen tried in vain ; — why ? because there was no a- 
nion amengst Irishmen. When any proposition was brought 
forward in parliament, favourable to the general liberty, it 
vas the subject of ridicule and contempt to both parties — the 
parliamfint treated it with deri<;ion, because it wanted the e« 
nergy, that unanimity alone could give iti and the Roman Ca- 
tholics themselves laughed at an attempt so impotent and abor« 
tivc. 

The Rev. T. Birch, of Salntfield, said, he was very much 
astonished to hqar such talk of liberality and concessions, 
whilst we were criminally unjnst, as well as impolitic, in with« 
holding their rights from our Catholic brethren. He would 
rather, he said, transport himself to Botany Bay, than live in a 
country which continued to keep itself in abject slavery, by its 
internal divisions^ 

Counsellor Stewart, in support of the amendment, argued, 
that it was unfair that an address should go abroad as the 
voice of the- people, wbe£i such numbers were strongly averse 
to a gr^t part of it. Certainjy he said, there were many who 
might, afler a little time, «nd by gentle degrees, be persuaded 
to yield up their prejadijces, azid many who wislied well to the 
cause, aa he himself did, who had their fears, and their habits 
of associating danger,' with the idea of immediate emancipa- 
tion* To disgust this portion of t]ie citirens, by any precipi- 
tate resolutions, could not fail to b6 dangerous — it would only 
be to make enemies of those who were in the way to become 
friends and, by .creating unnecessary divisions, ruin the gene- 
ral cause. It would be much wiser, by tempering our mea- 
sures to the actual state of aflTairs, and the general mFod, to en- 
deavour to bring with us all descriptions of men. By ftd do* 



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S37 

ingi the ettuae w^uld be all powerful ; at present there was bi- 
gotry on both skies. There were bigoted Catholics as well at 
bigoted Protestants-^tlll this bigotry could be o?ercome» it 
would be In vain to look for union — Mr. Stewart, however^ 
condacled his speech, which was of considerable length, with 
expressing his sentiments strongly in favor of liberality, and 
his abhorrence of any thing like oppression or unnecessary re^ 
striotioD. 

Mr. Getty rose to tirder, and added a few words in answer 
to what had been argued, respecting the state of the public 
mind. No later, he observed, than the session before last, 
no man was found bold enough to bring forward any proposi* 
tion in parliament favorable to the Catholics<'-4u>w great a 
ebaage has there happened between that period and the pre* 
sent day— see also how^tnruch the inhabitants of this town and 
its ne%hboarhood have changed their minds. At last year'a 
commemoration, even the amendment pn^Kised by Mr. Jey^ 
and the learned gentleman's ai^uments, in support of that a« 
mendment, would have b^en measures in flavor of universal 
liberty, too strong to have been attempted with any prospect 
of anccess. From wlrich short review of tlic dispositions of 
parliament and people, it was a necessary inference, that the 
public mind would rapidly fall in with the sense of th'u assem- 
bly, that all fears on that head were groundless, and that we 
were warranted in venturing to declnre our sentiments boldly, 
and trusting for proselytes to the justice of the cause. 

Coossellor Sampson begged tlie indulgence of being heard^ 
wbile he endeavoured shortly to expresa his approbation of the 
address, as moved by Mr. Sinclaire, and his reasons for ap« 
proving it. He found himself in that assembly almost acci- 
dentally, and aato the question before it, he stood unconnect- 
ed with any party, or with any person ; nor had ever heard 
•r seen tlie address, till tluK moment. He had been led, from 
the rumor of tlic day, to expect something rather intempe-rote, 

WW 



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bat WM pk«ied !• find in the addreM to tlie p90^ of Irf. 
Und* T^Q more than ^e, ai a man, toltrMj ii«e IWia prejiL^ 
dic^s upon such labjecte, could niJltngly a«d warmly aaatnc 
lo. Tbat no reform could an&wer the porpoae^ of utility at 
JuBtice, but such a^ included aU IHshmen wiliiug to be free, 
and that we fhouUi blush to accept of any syitem 'Cbunded on 
the tlaTcry of others, was a liberal and general sentiment of 
generosity and benevolence which he would be ashamed So 
dissent firom. But there was another point started by die a- 
mendcnent, and supported by some argumeoiy upon wfaioh^bo 
Was not so well prepared to give either his vote or his opioioi^ 
which was the necessity of gradual emancipation to our br** 
Uher Catholics, He was as far from embracing that fentiment 
as he was from opposing it, but he would hesitate about girag 
his veioe, which, however humble, would go forth as «6c ia« 
dividual in that aggregate, which it was plain, would bothtt 
majority of the assembly, if he conceired himself thereby i»* 
▼olved in a question, which, important and interasting as it 
ivas, he had not sufficiently considered. ' He hoped if he 
should ever be present where tbat question was ^ real point 
of discussion, to be better able to give his aentimeRts ; and if 
by fair argument and reason, some difficulties which appeare4 
to him at present, could be dispelled, he would be as warm to 
support that point, as he was now to eopport the address. 
MesBlime, for want of having sufficiently thoagfat nn die wb^ 
ject, and of the habit of ^leaking publicly, he despaired ctf 
making any impression, and would content himself with to- 
ting against the amendment, -beeanse he could not see i6 tbw 
address, any necessity for amendment, and becauae it proro« 
ked a discussion, which he did not think very propeiify intto* 
duced, either as to time or place, and whkh the addi)tsa is i^ 
stands, was more wisely and temperately calcukted to avoid. 

Doctor Caldwell, nf Magherafe)t> delivered hie sentitnositi^ 
In so lev a tone of voice, that we eottld not dtstinetiy ktiw 



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S»9 
him^«*he seemed principally to dW^ll on th^ abtorditj oFcel^ 
brating tbe emancipation of tWentjT-five nnlltoDt of French* 
men, twenty- two millioni of whom are CadioKcs, an^ yet 
hesiute to aid in tlie emancipation of tki^ millions of our 
fellow-subjecta, of the same perraaaioD. Thoae who i^ert 
within hearing of the Doctor, speak in Warm terms of tifa^ 
manly good sense displayed in his speech, 
. ftev. Dr. Dickson, of Portaferry, addressed the issembly 
in a speech replete with kuch strong sense and keen irony, aa 
iPenders ns unid>le to give our readers an adequate oonoepdon 
of it. He was happy to find, by the confession of gentlemen 
Aemselves, that there was no (fifference of opinion, as to the 
point of justice ; the question rested in expediency. Oentle« 
men had abruptly hauled in the word Catholic, where no audi 
people had been talked of, and spoke of something which 
they called gradual emancipation ; the words sounded like 
something ; yet what was their meaning?— -no man had point- 
ed out how, when, or where this ladder wa$ to be formed, bjr 
Which three millions of men were to mount to liberty ?— »What 
was the first step ? — How many were there ?~What was the 
interval between them ^ — He would suppose this ladder to bt 
the penat code, which was to be gradually abolished ' statute 
by statute, section by section, sentence by sentence, or rather 
to meet^he gradual progression of gentlemen's ideas, he 
would suppose, letter by letter. But when was the emancipa« 
tion to commence ? — Was it to begin to-morrow, next month, 
' liext year, next century, or haply in the next world ? Qenm 
flemen had aho talked of the incapacity of the Catholics to re* 
ceive liberty, from their ignorance ; if they were ignorant, it 
must |>e owing to the wild system of our laws ; but he denied 
the fact. There was no such ignorance or incapacity in them ; 
wherever the law allowed them to exercise their fhnctions, 
they' did it rery much in the ordinary way; they make and 
wear their own clothes as we do, they understand Mid prit- 



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tise t^. cultivation jof ,th^ land aa well as y^e dp, tHey exed Ui 
^ tbec^mmon arta a* veil a9 w.o do ; soul do we not see ibem.. 
qi^ ihe humble. patbs of life to. prove themselves ^n ingeni- 
ous apd coten^ercial p^ple^ aa weW as bending their minds to 
the ^ufly of ,phllosopl\y^ the usefql br^qches of literature, and 
th^.fine {^tSy as succesjtfullj as we do? If we look back to the 
publications of the last twelve months, produced by members # 
c^ that bocly> Protestants may find 4mple .reason to Wush on t 
cpjpparison.. .4n what respect then have they ipdicated that 
^ant of capacity which we have been so ]lbera% propcaing to 
impart to tl)em« before they can become fit for the enjoyment 
of fraadatn? And what is mcaiijL by the word gradual ? Are 
thoy. t^ ascend in a determinate pr indeterminate length of* 
t^e to this d^ree of capacity ? .Is it to come to pass in this 
generation, or is it to be postponed till a future one^ till by 
intermarrying with ^he wise ami capable Protestants, and par- 
ticularly with, us Presbyterians <they may mend the breed, 
and produce a race of beings who will inherit a capacity fram 
us ? But since they are at present so deficient, why do not 
spme of tbe gentlemen who /ire? now exercising thieir brilliant 
tdlcpta in opposing their emancipation, proceed to iUarainate 
their mhids, and out of the overflowing sjaperabundaaee of 
their knowledge an4 ability, part with a little nlodicum to 
eidigbteni t|ie darkness, and fill up the mental deficiency of 
t^e Calbolics of Ireland^ Liet it atilU however, be remett- 
bered^t ^|iat. we can da no more in thiaiaasemUty than eapreas, 
oui:^w»a^niments— we do not dictate to any other people,' 
D«r is ilh in the power of this assembly, t^ aay titat jthe Catho* 
lici «ver shalibe free, still less^ when they shall be sa; l»ut 
0m good eOect w'i^\ result from our. resolutions, that gohig 
abroad intO/tbe country |. they .will stir np tlie apirit<of ini|iiiry.; 
for -sum t^honow ^Iffw widely from us,' will be kd by curio- 
Siifj to inquire, by wrhat reasons .and npon jrhat principles the 
iababitanM ofiDaUast and its vicinity,; who are knowh to be 



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xe^ek of «eil8e and md^pendence^ nirho cutdvate their iindef'^ 
staiidiAgB^ and hold a considerable intercoarse with mankind, 
have taken up their mode of thinking ? And they, in their 
torn. If ill be gradually emancipated from the slavery of pre* 
judfCe, uid bigotry, and their reason and their consciences 
having fair play, they may become as enlightened as thej 
seem to think it necessary their brethren should be. 

. The issue of the debate was, that the motion for expunging 
was lost by a great majority, the dissentients being confined 
to a very small number ; and that the address, as onginally 
proposed, became the act of the assembled body. 

The evening closed with an entertainment, at the DonegalL 
Arms, where 104 persons sat down at dinner, when the Gene« 
raly who was also President of the day, announced the toasts 
prefMced by a committee ; of which the following is a copy. 
THE FOUBTEENTH OF JULY. 1789. 

The King of Ireland. — The constitution of France ; may 
it be permanent^The constituting assembly of France.->«The 
national assembly of France ; may wisdom, spirit and decision 
direct its counsels.— The French army ; may an ardent lovt 
of tnetr country be held paramount to every other duty in the 
diaracter of a soldier.— ^ConTasion to the enemies of French 
liberty.— May the glorious revolution of France teach the go» 
wmcfients of the earth wisdom, — May the example of one re- 
Yolutioti prevent the necessity of others.— Lasting freedom and 
pTDopg r ity to the United States of America — The people of 
Poland,! and success to their arm& — The rights of man; may 
idl nations have wisdom to understand, and spirit to assert 
thetti.— «The union of Irishmen, without which we can never 
be free.--^The sovereignty of the people, acting by a just and 
equal TeprMentation.««-The liberty of the Press.— The Volun* 
tiers' of Irelaody and their revered General, Earl of Charle- 
mo<it.-^The constitutional societies of Great Britain and Ire^ 
land.— The society for Uw abolition of the Slave Trade.^Presi. 



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dent Washington. — Stiinrslaus Augustus, itaay his eiatnple hb 
itasitated.-— "Mr. Paide ; may perverted eloqaertc^ eVrt* find Ho 
able ah epposer.— -Mr. Fox and the rights ot jaries, jn tub- 
dance as well as form. — Mr. Grattan, and the minority of the 
Irish House of Confiinons. — The literary characters, wb6 htVi^ 
Tindicated tlbe rights of man, and may genius ever be employ* 
cd in then,—- May all governments ht those of the laws, ami 
all laws those of the people. — May* the flre^ nations of tbe 
world vie with each other in promoting liberty, peace, virtae, 
a^nd hap|)iness among men.— The enc^eltted, encreading, and 
sacred flame of liberty. — Ireland.— The cause of freedom.-^ 
The memory of John Locke.— The memory of William kfely- 
neaux.— The meniiory of Dr. Tranklin.— The memory of Mir- 
abeau.— The memory of Dr. ftpice.— The memoiy of Mr. 
Howkrd. 

^OPT oir THK ADDRESS 

TO T&E NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OP FaAXCE. 

IT is not from vanity or ostentation, that we^ the dtifeos 
of Belfast, and citizen-soldiers of that town and neigbbonr- 
hood, take the liberty of addressing the representative majesty 
of the French people. — We address you, with the rational res- 
pect due to a title elevated far above all servile and idolatrous 
adulation, and with that affectionate fraternity of heart which 
ought to unite man to man, in a mutual and inseparable union 
of interests, of duties, and of rights; which ought to vsnit» 
nation with nation, into one great republic of the workL 

On a day, sanctified as this has been, by a declaration of 
human rights,, the germ of so much good to mankind, we meet 
with joy together, and wish well to France, to her nationsl 
assembly, to her people, to her armies and to her Kin^. 

May you, legislators, maintain by the indefatigable spirit 
of liberty, that constitution which has been planned by tbe 
wisdom of your predecessors^ and never may you weary in the 



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I 

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work you bav^ undertaken, until 7014 can procUiai.wldi trU 
IKnpUm q^curity^ it ia fioith^ ! J4i|9i&3t to an aUentir? 
9mi pr^greafive world, \h$t i| jg nottb^ pbrenzy of pI^L^sophy 
por tbe fever of wildap^ pcecariout liberiy, wbich could pro* 
^ce aucb continued agitatipi); b^t Uu4 impeMsb^L^e spirit of 
freedoqi alonc^ which a]w«.ya exisu in tb^ b^^rt of mai^ 
which now animate the heart of Eiurppe, and wbicii im tfir 
Itveot, vf]ll eorooiunifiate itf energy throughout tbe world> kh 
yiBciUe and nomortal 1 

'We rejoice in the sincerttT of our ^ohU, that tbig cceetiVff 
^parit anuoatea the whole mass of mind in France. Wt luii? 
pioiate happinew and glory to tfad boman race, from fftrf 
gsaat erent which calla into activity tbe whde vigour of tht 
wbcle comnranity ; anipUfiea eo largely the field <^ entfrpriat 
and ifoprovemen^, and gtyes fre^ acope to tbr nniver^d wq^ 
of the empire. We truat that you will never submit tbe libeM 
lies of Fsance to any other g uavantees, than Ood, and tbe Qghl 
bf nd« of the people, 

Thj? power ^at preaumef to Tnodlfy or to arbiteite wi4l 
f«ap(^ to a conatitutipn adopted by tbe peopl^. is an usurper 
fn4 It dfispo)^ whether it be 4he meanest of the mob^ or th^ 
r^LeK of empi^res; and if you condescend to ncgociafe tbi 
#lterfKtion of a comma in y^ur consti^tion^l code^ France frauf 
tJ)#t mon^en^f is a alaye* Impudeot despots of Europe! If 
i^ not enough to crush human nature beneath your fee^ 9t^ 
b^jooe, ^at you thu^ cpipe abroad to disturb the demeatiq 
ifiUlemeDt pf ^ natlpns around you, and put in motion yquff 
§f%Mmfi9, thNie ^ffprmous pw^s of human machinery, to bcft 
dovm every attempt that man makes for his own happiness ft 
1^ is bigiti thfie tp p^m thes^ dreadful enginef against their 
iur^Mt^m, md organised »s they have hitherto been, for the 
i|si3ery oC a > »n lM od, to «M|ke them now the instruments of its 
9hr^ ami M« r enowitlpo. 
- 3fl«ce99l)iitefiHi^iit^ndt)K Arqde^pfFranceJ 



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544 

May jmtr soWen, wttb whom wor is n«t a trade, but i 
duty, re m e m ber that they do not fight merely for themiehes, 
Hut they are the adTance guard of the world r nor let them 
ItTiagine that the event of the war is uncertain. A single 
battle may be precarious, not ao a few campaigns. — There h 
an omnipotence in a righteous cause, which masters the pre- 
Itnded mutability of human affairs, and fixes die supposed 
hiconsistenoy of fortune. If you will be free, you must ; there 
is not a chance that one million of resolute men can be en- 
•laved ; no power on earth can do it ; and will the God of 
Justice and of Mercy? Soldiers! there is something that 
Igbts fbr you even in the hearts of your enemies. The nadve 
energies of humanity rise up in voluntary array against tynoti 
meal and preposterous prejudice, and all the little cabslt of 
the lieaft,'giv^ way to the feelings of nature, of country and 
•fkind. 

Freedom and prosperity to the People of France ! We 
think that such revolutions as they hare accomplished, are so 
far from hieing out of the order of society, that they sprang 
inevitably from the nature of man and the progression of 
reason ; what is imper&ct he has the power to improve ; what 
he has created, he has a right to destroy. It is a rash oppo- 
sition to the irresistible will of the public, that in some instan- 
ees has maddened a dispositbn, otherwise mild and magnani- 
mous, turned energy into ferocity, and the generous and gal- 
lant spirit of the French, into fury and vengeance. We trust 
dmt every effort they now make, every hardship they undergo, 
every drop of blood they shed, will render their eoDstitntion 
more dear to them. 

Long life and happiness to the King of tbe French ! ndt 
the Lord of the soil and its servile appendages, bat the King 
•f men, who can reserve their rights, while they entrust their 
powers. In this crisis c£ his fate, may he withstand every 
attempt to estrange him from the natioD ; *te nake him an 



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S45 

exile IP the midtt pf France, and to prevent bim from iden-* 
trfyiog himself ^ a magiltrate with'tbe constiUition, and at 
41 Frenchman with the peopk. 

We beseech you all as tnen> as legisktors, as citizens and 
as ac^ierSy in this yoar great conflict for liberty for FranceT^ 
and €Dr the worlds to despioe all earthly danger, to look op 
to God, and to connect your covncib, your arms, and yodr 
empire to his throne, • with a chain of union^ fortitude, perse- 
verance, morality and religion. 

We conclude, -with this fervent prayer : That as the Al* 
mighty is dispersing the political clouds ^which have Uthertb 
darkened our hemisphere, all nations may use the light df 
Heaven ; that, as in this latter age, the Creator is unfolding in 
bis creatures, powers which had long lain latent^— they may 
exert them in the establishment of universal ^edom, harmo- 
ny and peace — may those who are free, never be slaves— may 
those who are slaves be speedily free. 

\^0n the motion of Mr. Thompson, the above was to be 
transmitted to the National Assembly.]] 

COPY or THE 

' ADDKESS TO THE PEOPLE OF IRELAND. 

. WE, the volunteers and other inhabitants ci the town and 
neighbourhood of Belfast, assembled to commemorate thi^ 
great day, embrace with earnestness the opportunity which it 
iHbrds, at once to express our zeal and afiPection for the cause 
of Hberty iri France, and our undisguised opinions on sub- 
jeeii^f' ths last importance to our native land. ' 

Trained from our infancy in a love of freedom, and an ah^ 
hofrentt dt tyranny, we congratulate our brethren of France 
QXid aurs^lvetf, that the infamous conspiracy of slaves and des- 
pots, aganlat the happiness and glory of that admired and re- 
qyecCed "nation, ^iind against the common rights of man, has 
liUbend pt»vted'abo#CiVe. 



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U6 

Fixing ^ur Tiew steadily on the great principle of Gallic 
•mancipation, we will n(A, be diverted from that magnificeot 
object^ by the accidental tumults or momentary ebullitions of 
popular fury« We will not estimate the wisdom of her legis- 
lators l^ the transports of a mob ; nor the spirit of her araues 
by the cowardice of a regiment ; nor the patriotism ci her 
people by the treachery of individuals ; nor the justice of bar 
cause by the numbers of her enemies. We judge with other 
views and on other principles. We see with admiratioDi 
France extending the land-marks of human knowledge ia 
Uie great art of government, and opening to the world new 
systems of policy and of justice. We see her renounce ill 
wars on the principle of conquest We see her propose an 
universal broUierhood and an eternal peace among the nations. 
We see her even now, when forced into arms and bloodshed, 
by the unjust and unprincipled machinations of her enemiei, 
separating^ as far as possible, the innocent subjects from the 
guilty despot ; respecting, amidst the horrors «f war, the pro* 
perty of individuals ; and exempting from interruption the 
peaceful traffic of the merchant It ia fhmi views like these, 
that we estimate that stupendous ^vent, the Revolution, which 
we this day commemorate ; not fVom accid^tal irregularities, 
which, while we condemn them, we are compelled to pity, 
as feeling that they spring not merely from a spirit of licen- 
tiousness, but from a sense of inju^ working on a sengnioe 
people,' «till galled with the recollection of rtocent tyranny and 
oppression, and jealous of liberty, but jo^ recovered, and 
scarcely jet secure. 

Such are our schthnents on the subject of the Frendi ^de- 
volution ; — we come now to the state of bur o%b country. 

Imprest us we are with a deep sense of the exceHence of 
our constitution, as it exists in theory, we rejoice that w^ are 
not, like our brethren in France, reduced to the hard iteccssi- 
ty of tearing up inveterate abuse by the roots, even where titi- 



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547 

lUy was so intermixed as not to adaut of separation.— Ours it 
an easier and a less unpteaeing Utki to remove with a steady 
and a temperate resolution^ the abuses which the lapse of ma- 
ny years inattenliop and sopineness in the great body of the 
people, and unremitting vigilance in their rulers to invade and 
plunder them of their rights/ have suffered to overgrow and 
to deform that beautiful system of government, so admira* 
hij suited to our situation, our habits, ami our wishes* We 
have not to innovate, but to restore. Tlie just prerogatives of 
our Monarch we respect ^nd will maintain^ The constitq- 
tioaal power of the Peers of the realm we wish not to invade. 
We know that in the exercise of both, abuses have grown up ; 
iMit we also know that those abuses will be at once corrected^ 
ao as never again to recur, by restoring to us thk pboplc^ 
ifbat we. Hot oorsclves^ iemand as our right, oar due weight 
and iniuence in th«t estate, which is our property, the Repre* 
lentMion of the Papple in Parliaments 

Thoroughly ^pressed with the unjust and ruinous ine* 
quality of that representation, with the consequent cogpup^ 
|J0Q» wbieh pervades all ranks in the state ; with the destruc« 
tsoD of the morals, the sacrifice of the commerce, and the hour« 
l|^ and imminent danger to the liberty of our country, we will 
inflexibly persevere in the pursuit of that great remedy for all 
cor politioal evils> a parliamentary reform ; a reform tempe- 
rate, equal and just, which shall restore lustre to the crown, 
dignity to the peerage, and their due weight and influenee to 
the people of Ireland. 

But while we thus state our sentiments on the subject of 
reform* we feel it incumbent on us to decUure, as we now do, 
that no reform^ were even such attainable, would answer our 
ideas of utility or justice, which should not equally include 
jiU sects and denominations ef Irishmen. We reprobc^te and 
abhor the idea, that political inequality should result from re- 
ligious opinions; and we shoidd be ashamed, at the moment 



I 



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348 

>vhen we arc seeking for liberty ourselves, to acquiesce in any 
system founded on the slavery of others. 

We have no>^ declared our sentiments to the world. In 
« declaring them we spurn with equal disdain, restraint, whe- 

ther proceeding from a mob or a monarch ; from a riot or a 
proclamation. We look with a mixture of abomination and 
contempt on the transactions which, on the last anniversary 
of the French Revolution, degraded the national character of 
England ; when neither the learning, the piety, the public 
spirit, Dor the private virtue of a Priestley, could protect 
him from the savage fury of the vilest of an ignorant and a bi- 
goted rabble ; before whom the religion of the country was 
dishonored, the name of the Sovereign insulted, and all law 
and order leveled in the dust ; to the disgrace, not less of the 
integrity of the magistrates who were the fomenters, than of 
the spirit of the people, who were timid witnesses of ^be ra- 
vage and d^tructioo. As little should we respect any at- 
\ tempt, under color of authority, to fetter down our minds or 

prevf&t the publication of Qur grievances, and our determi- 
nation to seek redress. In the pursuit of reform, that great 
measure indispensable, to the freedom, the happiness and the 
glory of our country, we will inflexibly persevere, and for its 
attainment we rely with confidence on the steadiness, the pub- 
lic spirit and thesealous co-operation of our countiyroen. 

AT a meeting of the Belfast Volunteer Company (blue), 
• 7th September, 1792, 

CAPTAIN BROWN, IN THE CHAIR s 
The following resolutions were unanimously agreed to : 
Resolved) That we are happy to see the present revival of 
« volunteering throughout this province, confident that tbe 
rights of the people are most secure when they are able to as- 
sert them. ^ 
<rhat we are firmly persuaded that thif country is indebt- 



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349 

ed to the spirit and wisdom of the Yolttiiteers for whaterer 
commerce or constitution it possesses, atid that tbeir success 
was owin^ to the justness of the princtpleQ on wfaidi thejr 
acted. 

That we consider it necessary, at this crisis, for all vo* 
lonteers to recur to those principles which have stood the test 
of time, and have become by their universal adoption, sacresi 
and incontrovertible. 

That these principles are fully expressed in the resolationt 
of the first and third Dungannon meetings; and that a strict 
adherence to them by the old volunteer corps^ and the adop- 
tion of tb^m by every new corps, is essential to the welfare of 
Ireland. 

That we again declare to our countrymen, and to the worlds 
our firm determination to adhere to the principles contained in 
the resolutions of the first and third Dungannon meetings; 
and we warmly recommend to every volunteer corps in the 
kingdom the adoption of similar declarations. United in sen« 
timent^ the volunteers will again become the happy instru« 
lilent of producing essential benefits to the welfare of the{r 
country. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be published in the Bel* 
fast news-papers ; and alfto in hand-bills ; with the resolu* 
lions of the first and third Dungannon meetings prefixed, and 
be dispersed through this province. ^ Signed by order, 

JAMES MACLEAN, sec. 

AT A MEETING OF THE 

FIKST BELFAST VOLUNTEEK COMPANY, 

HELD AT THE DONEOALL-ARMS, SEPTEMOEQ 7> 179^ ; 

MIL HUGH JOHNSON, IN THE CHAIR. 

AT this important crisis, which is likely to form a remark* 

able^aera in the history of man, when many of the European 

despots have combined to crush a great nation strugglbg for 



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%• Ktvive ]» feUs neigfabcnirbo^d, W9 b«pt k will not be dMin* 
^ premiifitiTe in m, who fint look of «niit In the eaoie of 
our coantry^and who heYe nerer kid them down^ aor •ladcened 
m opr eflbiCs to promote itd protperitjr, lodedavetbopiinciplet 
we hold, relative to the Volimteer laatitiitioQ of Irriaod which 
we eanneC do hitler than in the woidt of our own aeiociatioas^ 
and in the following resolotiene of the Daiqiannon meetin§i 
of Pefaraary ITiS, and Sqitember 1781 : 

(association or TBB first BELFAST TOLUlfTCXIl COMPAirr.) 

*' Wty whose names are hereunto subscribed, having as* 
sedated ourselves together, to learn the military disctplinej 
for defence of ourselves, this town and country, and the sup* 
port of the Righu of IreUnd, under the name dT^ 'First 
Belfkst Volunteer Company,' do plight our 6ith each to aB^ 
to be governed by the voice of die majority in every case that 
may arise; that we will not withdraw fhxn the company 
from any other cause than removid or bodily indbpositioQ, 
and that we will never accept of any wages or reward ftom 
government as a volunteer company, or submit to take any 
military oath or obligation therefVom." 

(DUNOANNON MECTINO, FEBRUARY 15, ITSt.) 

^ Eesolved, That we hold the right of private judgosent 
in matters of religion, to be equally sacred in others as in our* 
selves. 

«' Resolved, therefore, that as men and as Irishmen, mM 
Christians, and as Protenanls, we rejoice in the relaxation of 
the penal laws against our Roman Catholic fellow subjects; 
and that we conceive the measure to be fraught with the hap* 
piest consequences to the union and prosperity of the tnhabi- 
tanta of Ireland." 

(OUNOANI90N MATING, BBrrBMBBlt 8^ 17S5.} 

^'SaseMd, thai Freedomia the indf&aiiMt birtb-rigbt 



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351 

«f Iriahisen and Britcmt^ derived ftom the Aodier of their 
being ; and of which no power oa earthy moch lets a delegat- 
ed power, hath a right to deprive them. 

** ReaolTed, that thej only are free^ . who are governed by 
no laws bnt thone to which they aesent, either by themtelvei 
in person, or by thehr representatives fteely cboaen, subject to 
the control, and ftequendy retnming into the commoo mass 
of constitnents. 

«' Resolved, that the majority of oot Heoie of Cottdnotis 
is not chosen by the People.** 

Resolved nnanimously, that the foregoing association and 
resolutions, form the bans of oor creed as citizen-soldiers. 

Resolved unanimoufily, that the foregoing resolutions, passed 
at the Dangannon meetings-— adopted by the whole vtdnnteer 
army, and by most of the counties in Ireland— we look upon 
fm a standard, by which to judge who are, and who are not, 
volunteers upon principle : and that we will not associate, or 
be reviewed with any, if any there be, who are formed on 
principles opposite thereto. 

Resolved unanimously, that we will persevere in the 
pursuit of an adequate representatbn of the Irish nation in 
Parliament, without distinction on account of religious opi- 
nions. 

Resolved unanimously, that, venerating order, and abhor- 
ring licentiousness, we will be ever ready, as we have hereto- 
Ibre been, to support the Magistrate in the execution of the 
law, in this neighbourhood. 

Signed, by order of the First Belfast Volunteer Company. 

HU. JOHNSON, cHAiaMAN. 

Resolved unanimously, that these resolutions be published 
it% each of the Bellhat newspapers. 

JOHN RABB, scr 



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552 

... Bcf/iut, OcioUi 2, 1791. 

AT A MEETING OF TUK 

FIRST SOCIETY OF UNITED IRISHMEN, 

jyR. T, MILLIKEN IN THE CHAtH ; 

The following Declaration was unanimously agreed to^ and 

ordered to be published ; 

THE nght of petitioning^ that sacred claim of those who 
aufier, is a natural right which municipal law neither gives 
nor can take away. • Every age, and nation^ has recogni^^ it 
It has been consecrated in these. realms under the sanction of 
common and statute law ; and it is exerted in Turkey under 
the sabre of despotism. With respect to the manner of pre- 
ferring complaint, it would have become those Grand Juries 
who have confederated against the common right of the sub- 
ject» to point out any mode by which three millions of people 
could express their grievances more peaceably than by dele- 
gation. 

Attached as we are to one favourite principle^ — the good of 
the whole — the greatest happiness of the many^ it is neither 
petty political scandal, nor peremptory diction, nor the throng 
of names, and chorus of corporations, which can divert ui 
from the unity and integrity of our political faith. 

To render authority either secure or permanent, it must 
be established in the affections of the whole people, am] we 
have no scruple in declaring, that without some share of po- 
litical power, no people, nor any class of people, can have any 
•ecunty of personal freedom, their property, their trade, or 
their religion. It is so with Protestants — it must be so with 
Catholics. The self-same principle which makes the former 
call fur a reform, makes the latter anxious for the elective 
franchise, as a shield from oppression ; and that principle we 
venerate, whether lodged in the bosom of a Protestant or • 
Catholic, an African or an American. To circamscribe liberty 
is to destroy* it ; and without free circulation, like the air we 



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SifS 

Hrmtbe, it lost s rto spring, itiignates, comiptt, and then itsocv 
cmt from th« «mind jucj poomt, hot and peiliferomy la check 
ihe rt»mg prospects of the nalionf and to Uatt the glorict of 

Ajifor nn, we disdaim, we abhor Ac idea of establishtiig 
frfloveretgnty oiver our ftHaw-dtiBent. We refbae any ahare 
in an asoeadanc^ which clasana exclusive and eternal doBiinioii^x 
lunnoiints hiw and kgUiture, and cnts off, with mercBeat 
protcription, a whol^ P^of^e imn all hope of political e^ali- 
tf» The law, in cTory free country, ought to know no excep- 
tions ; bat to make the exceptions more general than the role, b 
monstrous ; and with concern ne say, it is Irish policy. 

We, who in 178!^, pledged our lives and fortnnes to gain 
soreieignty to Ireland, will not, at this day, subscribe to the 
sorereignty of any party, who under the pretext of religion, 
disguise political jealousy and the selfishness of monopoly ; 
nor will we dress^np any such proud assumption with the at^ 
tributes at royalty, and with the spoils of our countrjrmen.-* 
We, who in the hour of, dang«r, and in the fkce of Uie ene- 
my, were glad to take the Catholics into our ranks, will not now 
throw them off as noxious incumbrances, and belying the na- 
ture and end of the volunteer instituticm, blaspheming the 
writ of Dungannon^ set ourselves in array against the very 
men, whom, the other day, we embraced as brothers. 

We who have always asserted the honor, the interest, and 
internal independence of Ireland to be maintainable only by 
the firecdom, fVeqaency, and power of parliament, will not 
compliment the abuses of the constitution at the expense of 
the community ; nor wilt we, with heroic indifference to con. 
sietency, pledge lif^ and fortune to the support of a political 
ayatem in all its branches, while resolutions still tingle in our 
ears, that without atlequate reform, there is no salvation for 
Ireland. Nor, finally, will we add ourselves to the train of 
thoae upstarts in office, who acquire character and importance 

yy 



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354 

abroad, in th« same proportion at their country u losing botk 
at home ; vfha turell into unnatural stgn^caace bj civil dit- 
8endon> and wboM hani^tinest increases witb, tnd by, ni- 
tional humiliation. We follow that excellent man wbosepet- 
spnal glory is bound up with that of his country; wboindsii 
.great question, rises above the sordid atmosphere of party, 
and we beseech him and his liberal coadjutors, diough they' 
may, fbr a tioie, be unsuccessful, to go on and complete the 
redemption of a long-sufimng people. 

We have reeved, and we keep our resoluUon. We have 
chosen, and we pursue bur choice. We act honestly, and 
therefore conclude, that we think justly. Let the law jodgr 
of our actions, but for our faith we appeal unto God-— theGsd 
of all mankind, in whose presence there is no ascendancy but 
that of virtue and justice^— distinction of religion, like dis^ 
tinction of colors, is of his ordination. We will never viliff 
the religion of any man, and far less will we presume to make 
those varieties of £aid», which are perhaps natural tfod neces- 
Spry, the engines of civil persecuti^i and political nsurpsUoo. 
Signed by order of the society, 

JAS. HYNDMAN, sic. 

AT A MtETINO OP THE 

TUIIB SOCIETY OF UNITED IBISHIIEK 

IN TUB TOWN or BELFAST, 3d ' OCTOBER, 1792> 

MB. CLOT. BIUNIE, IN TBB CffAlR : * 

The following declaration was agreed to, and ordered to be 
published : 
ASSOCIATED as we are, for the purpose of prododn; 
union of interest and afiectiof among all the inhabitants of 
Ireland, we ablK>r the idea of withholding frdth our Roman 
Catholic brethren their civil and religious /ights, at the time 
that we would Wish to enjoy those ri^ts ourselves. 



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555 

We are persuAoed that the religion of anj nian« and hit 
politics^ are not necesaarily connected : on the contrary, that 
the former ought not to hare any connection with the latter. 
In a cirO view, there un Joubtedty is a comoiunion of interests' 
and rights, and that every individaal wiio contribntes to the 
support of the state, ought to have a voice In franung the laws 
vchich regulate that state. But religion » personal; the in« 
dividnal alone accountable ; we therefore deem it impious to 
intrude between his conscience and that Almighty Being, who 
akme knoweth his lieaK; We assert, that the right of petition- 
ing in the subject, of whatever denomination, is nc^ only na« 
tural, but perfectly agreeable to the spirit of our constitution ; 
and we confess ourselves ignorant of any mode by which our 
Catholic brethren could have so peaceably o^ected, end ex- 
pressed their sentiments, as by delegation. 

We have seen of late the publications of Grand Juries, 
which ought to have contained mild and peaceable sentiments, 
Oliberal and ungenerous; directly calculated to sow dissen<« 
tion, and keep up that religious animosity which has to kmg 
distracted this island, and subjected it to the ridicule of a fo* 
reign administration^ Persevere, Catholic brethren ! constitu- 
tionally persevere! The cause in which you are engaged it 
natural and virtuous. A oau^e In which the Catholic and Pro- 
testant are equally involvM ; and whether opposed by wicked 
administrations, or by silly corporations, whose understand- 
ings and liearts are equally frozen, whilst there exists an aU 
mighty and righteous Ruler, jour exertions will be drowned 
with, success. Our endeavours shall never be wanting to at- 
tain the much desired object; and we trust the day wilf spee- 
dily arrive, when Catliolic and Protestant, Mahometan and 
Jew^ over the whole world, shall equally enjoy the sacred 
blessings of freedom and of peace. 

DAVID BIGGER, ^tcRETART. 



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956 

AT A MEETING OF THE 
BELFAST SECOND SOCIETY OF UNITED iniSHMEN. 

OEOROE-INN, TUESDAY, OCT. 9, 119^, 

The following declaration hafing been laid before them, by 

their commUteey ^aa unanimously aj^reed to, and oiv 

\dered to be published : 

ASSOCIATED oa the principles of huansnity, and^ealoui 
for her rights^ we view with generous indignation, the coobir 
nations of despots, to keep her in degradation, and suppiva 
the voioe with which she attempU to recite her sufferingi, sikI 
prefer iier daims— Whether thote despots be decorated with 
dtadems, arrayed in the livery of a hunting club ; or the petty 
tj^nti-of the country, asaentbled in a jury room, their prin- 
ciples and object are the sane in themselves, and to u« equal* 
ly detestable. While we reflect with regret, on the success of 
dei^otism in Poland, and execrate with horror its attempU in 
France, we cannot be inaenaible to its preaumption aud auda- 
city in our native laad^ and the ii\justice ami cruelty ivbidi 
ii ft o ^mt m to peepetnate. We have long seen, and seem with 
pity, thre^ millions of oar brethren degraded from the Fsnk of 
citisens, add langaisfaing in slavery. We have seen the aans 
three milUons peaceable and submissive to, and scrupulously 
amenable to the laws of their country, — ^their haughty Lordi. 
Kay, we have seen them forgetful of themaelvea, their ioju- 
ries and their inaults, armed for the defence of the uograteftd 
miniona'* who vilify their chamcten, insult Heaven by pro- 
Aauncing them incapable of the rights of men, and pled|p 
their iivca and fortunes to keep them and their posterity io 
eternal thraldom. 

Captivated with thia unparalleled mi^^nanimity, and 
founding our judgments on the solid basis of character, fp- 
proved by experience, we pronounced those three millions of 
our Catholic brethren not only capable of citizenship, but wof^ 
thy of its blessings. Oatbjs foundation, as men of integritji 



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357 

we pM^d oarsetv«s to our country, 9xu\ etch odicr, to um 
our utiocMt Influfince to remove the stifma from thear charac* 
tor, Aod the slavery from their persons, of which they baYe so 
long md 9o J4ASt)y compbined^ and restore them to a couu 
rounity of privileges and interest, and consequently^ of affiaCf 
tion with their brethren. 

We now declare, that we are neither ashamed of our jodg* 
went nor sorry for our conduct The foundatioD of the enf 
appfsgs more solid, and the propriety of the other more ooa* 
apscuous, every day* The dignified moderitioa, the ItgfX 
preois«aii> generous ardor, and iinawed caagfianimity of ^baif 
procedttfCy demonstrate that they are worthy of our friendship 
awl the freedom of their country. Of ihaU friendship we 
solemnly assure them, in its utmost extent ; and we trvst the 
period ts at hand, when the wisdom of the h^isktore will 
justify our judgment, sanction the propriety of our oondnct, 
and realise our |N*a8pect8, 

While we thu^ repeat the avowal of our frieadsbipb ani 
express our trust, we declare at the same tiane, thai the hono^ 
prosperity, peace and happiness of our country, wet our grcnt 
object, and a regard to these our leading principle* Of theae^ 
we know, identity of interest^ equality of privilege^ and har- 
mony of affection, form the only solid base. Neither bouse 
fior kingdom, divided against itself, can possibly stand. We^ 
therefore, disclaim all cqnnection with, and attachment t#i 
party or cabal. We reprobate with indignation, the idea of 
^m ascendancy, whose imaginary height depends upon de* 
pressing brethren, and plunging them in the depths of aenri* 
tude and wretchedness. We wish to present the ascendangj^ 
'whatever it is, in its true elevation^ by restoring all around to 
its proper level. Nay, we wish to secure to our countrymen^ 
not excepting venal burgesses, sel£>devoted jurors^ and otfaeip 
resdutioners, who vblunteer ii> the cause of human dc|(rada» 



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9sn 

ItoR-^those very lives and properties^ which they have to 
mA\y pledged themseltes, wantonly to throw away. 

Las^y we declare to you, onr Catholic Brethr^, that wm 
are fully coirrinced of the justice df your dains, and the le« 
gality of your proceedings. Tour right of petitioning all or any 
of the branches of the legislature, is unanimously sanctioned 
by the voice of common sense, the laws of the land, and the 
p ramiceevett of despotism. Goon, then, generous, though 
degraded men ! Liberty is your object ; and ye have \cog 
deterred it 1 Let the love of liberty be your principle, the 
law your guide, and unanimity your support I Ministers may 
fW>wil, courtiers intrigue, and juries fulminate proscripCiom 
without end. Be not afraid of them, neither be ye disconcert* 
ed. Their firown is. insignificance, their intrigues foolishness, 
and their -fulminations, like the showman's flash, from pound- 
ed rosin, Art only the amusement, or the terror of children. 
All these will speedily disappear. Your voice, preferring the 
claims €f justice, and supported by reason and sound pob'cy, 
must, and will be heanl. ** The night of political ignorance, 
delusion, and superstition, is far spent ; and the day is at 
hand."— The day, which shall raise you to the dignity of men, 
and yoor country to a name among nations. We look forward 
to its appearance with ardent expectation, and shall hail its 
presence with hallowed joy. We recognize you with sympa* 
thy as brethren, disinherited, proscribed, and alienated, fa 
yoor native land. 

We have pledged ourselves to support 3rour claims of res- 
toration to your natural rights, and we will be faithful to our 
ssord. V 

Tn this cause, we stand not alone. The brightest oma« 
menta of the senate and the bar, the wise and liberal in every 
Corner of the land, and above all, the etcmsl pnnciples of 
feaso» and justice arc mustered on our side. Thus supported 
wt may be disappointed for a season, but cannot despair. 



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$S9 

We repeat, ''your Toice mutt, and win be heard;" your 
prayers granted, and your rights restored. The day whioh 
thalX enrol you in the ranks of fellow-sutjectSi will give se*^ 
curi^to the liberties of Irishmen, nenresto their industry,, 
and honor to their name. Till that day, we must continue, as 
we are, a weak, wretched, and insulted people* 

WM« OSBOfiNE, cHAtmiuir. 

WM. MITCHELL, aficasnmT. 

AT A MKKTIHO OV VHB 

FOUETH SOCIETV OF UNITED IBISHHSN 

or BBLFAST, OCTOBBE 19^ 179^ f 
MR. MDWARD KELLY, IN TBS CHAJRi 

The following declaration was nnanimously agreed to, and or- 
dered to be published : 

IMPRESSED widi beneTdeat sentiments towards all^be 
homan kind, we lament, at this great sera of refoms, that 
there should exist Irishmen, who, living under the enjdyment 
oi constitutional privileges, wish to debar their fellow subjects 
of the same rights. 

Connected as we are with another country, whose aggnnw * 
dizement has been the destruction of Ireland, we view with 
astonishment and abhorrence, tlie weak policy ei those men, 
who, firom whatever motives, wish to prevent the Union of !• 
riahmen. 

We are satisfied that every individual, in whatever conn* 
try, and of whatever persuasion, has an equal, natural right in 
the blessings of the state in whidi he lives ; we regret that 
any part of our fellow-subjects should be deprived of those 
blessings;— and we do sincerely lament that Protestants whe*- 
tber under the garb of religion or policy, should even dans to 
wish for a continuation of such slavery. 

We congratulate our Catholic brethren,, qn th# appeaiance' 
of that happy period, whexi the general interests of this 



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' ifland winbe'the'ofty oHjctt h» Tle# atnoiif tit k^iHlu^ 
Umtfl; when CathcAteand Prote8UMirin"be*idliiliiiillf «iAv 
cerned m €ne commoiY cifitse-; mbdit veHgloiii '«|iitilnii shdl 
no longer d^bar a subject froortbe eiijoyAicnt of HVii vigtoi 

The just claim which tVer^ anBjecrha^ t^ftfief^f Ms peti- 
tion to the legislatuie, for a redresr of those i^rievancet wdv 
whioh he labors, we believe, tteed not now he disputed. * We 
admire the if isdom and modesty of our Catholic brethren, in 
the node which they adopted of preferring this claim ; and 
we feel ourselves peculiarly happy in assuring them of oor o- 
niform co-operatioRy and dedtted support m the attainment of 
an object that 86 ituicfa coneema the |;enend good. 

Some late publications no fortfief mertt our at«^ Ai(«ft, than 
by urging us to declare onr uticr abbonrettee oTtbr sen&scAts 
they contain, in order *to dissuade weak aainds from adfacring 
to such assertion^ to forcemen to thiaik Ibr thesucltei, ooftt- 
tered by grand juries or corporBtioii»-^o act a just psrt, 
and leave the cAnaequenee to the Supfetna DbpcNr sf 
events. 

At this remarkable period, we do most Wntily iijsict 
with all the IViends of ia>erty, at the downfall wthkdt tpmoj 
has received in France— *a dowtifiril, ^atnra^ iadeedW->ta 
which the inhabitants of Irdaad as wett as France, m inter- 
ested; and we hail that happy day, when deajMtisa, under 
whatever mask, over the whole earth will receive a -sittibr 
iat»— and the standard of liberty be erected m its stead.* 

ISRAEL MlLLiK£N,<B& 

< BELFAST VOLUNTEKRS: 

BY command of the committees of our respeerire corps» 
jointly convened by summons, we request the attendance of all 
their members in full uniform, at the White Lineii>IhJl^ to- 
morrow, precisely at 12 o'clock, for the purpose of exprtssing 



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S6l 

their joy at Uie success of the arms of the French Republic, by 

£i'ing three feu de joyet. 

The volunteers request the attendance of their fellovr-citi- 

aens, at the DonegalUArms, at seven o'clock said evening, to 

join with them in declaring their aentlroenta on this auspicious 

event. 

Monday, t9th October, Htf . 

HU. M'lLWAlN, Sec. Belfast Troop, 
JOHNHABB, Sec. First Belfiut Vol. Com. 
JAMES M'CLE AN, Sec. Belfast Vol Com. 

Mfut, NovcfiAer f , 170t. 

AGREEABLY to a late advertisement, the successes of 
the French were celebrated on Tuesday by the yolnnteers 
and citizens of Belfast, with that warmth of affection whidi 
they generally display in every good cause. 

The two VQluntee^r artillery con^panies, and the two in« 
fantry corps, assembled about two o'clock, and fired three 
feu de joyes, in honor of the day, on which a Duke and a King 
at the head of an armed host, ingloriously deserted the field, 
after a campaign which, both in point of design and execu« 
tion, was aa disgraceful to the arms of Austria and Prussia, as 
its object was detestable and unjust. 

In the evening, a numerous meeting was held at the Do« 
^egalkArms, consisting of volunteer citizens, and citizens 
unarmed, in pursuance of an advertisement requesting an as- 
sembly of the inhabitants ; when the following declaration was 
unanimously agreed to : 

MIL S. METIER ly THE CHAIR: 

WE, the inhabiUpts of Belfast, with hearts overflowing 
with joy, again assemble together, publicly to declare our hap« 
piness at the glorious success of the French arms, against in- 
numerable hosts of enemies — the enemies of the human race 
—and their final expulsion from the Gallic territories : an e» 

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36fi 

Ytnt bj which every obstacle to the Complete establuhment of 
civil and religious liberty, is removed from that hallowed 
land — an event which secured liberty to surrounding natiohs. 

Sanguine as our opinions were of the invincible power of 
a nation of freemen, opposed to the armed slaves •£ tyrants, 
yet the event has surpassed our fondest expectations. 

When we contemplate the treachery of the executive pow- 
er, the perfidy of oflScers, the disorganized state of the army— 
when we consider the combination of formidable enemies, with 
generals of the first* military abilities at the head of veteran 
troops, yet observe, that these armies have not been capable 
of achieving a single important object, credibility is almost 
staggered, but the World has witnessed it We cannot help 
attributing the success of the French arms to the signal inter- 
position of the Deity, as an example of the success with 
which he will crown the efforts of mankind, in every attempt 
to establish civil and religious liberty ; and we fervently im- 
plore the influence of the Divine Spirit, to guide the councils 
of thcf national convention in perfecting the great work in 
which they are engaged, so as to render it productive of hap- 
piness to millions yet unborn. 



The town was almost universally illuminated. Every 
thing demonstrated sincere pleasure in the disgrace of two ty- 
rannical courts, that attempted to dragoon an united nation in- 
to that deplorable state of spiritual as well as political bondage, 
from which it was just recovering ; and that dared to tell ftS 
millions of men — i^ shall not be free ! 

In the windows of six or seven houses, a number of trans- 
parencies presented themselves : a few of the mottos are tub- 
joined, as trifling circumstances sometimes mark the disposi- 
ti<m of the times. 

Perfect union and equal liberty to the men of Ireland.-* 
ViVe la Republique : Vive la Natioa — Church and state di- 



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363 

varced. — ^Liberty triumphant — Tbe riglits of men establish- 
ed. — Despotism prostrate. — The tyrants are fled ; let the peo- 
ple rejoice. — Heaven beheld their glorious efforts, and crown- 
ed their deeds with success.— France is free; so may we ; let 
us will it,— Awake, O ye that sleep. — A gallows suspending 
an inverted crown, with these worcls : " May the fate of every 
tjrrant be that of Capet." — A check to Despots.— The cause of 
mankind triiimphant. — Irishmen rejoice. — Union among Irish* 
men.— Rights of man. — Iri&hmen ! look at France. — Liberty 
and equality. 

IRELAND. 
. 8th Sept 1783.-^Armed citizens spoke- 

2d Dec. 1783,— Their delegates ran away. 

30th Oct, 1792.— -We are taxed, tythed^ and enslaved, but 
we have only to unite and be free. 
FRANCE. 

14th July, 1789. — Sacred to Liberty. 

10th Aug. 1792.— The people triumphant 

2«d Oct. 1792,— Exit of tyranny. 

The night closed in the most orderly manner, without ei- 
ther bonfire or any kind of irregularity whatever. 

NORTHERN WHIG CLUB. 

AT St general meeting on the 5th of November, h^d pur- 
suant to notice, the following resolutions were agreed to : 
ARCH. H, ROWAN, ESQ. IN THE CHAIR: 

Resolved, That it is witlT the greatest satisfaction we em« 
brace this ppport unity to congratulate our country on the late 
Ignominious flight of the enemies to liberty, from the t^rito- 
ry oTthe French Republic ; and to express our hopes, that the 
present disturbances in that country may speedily terminate 
in the stable tranquillity of a good government,, fonitded pn 
the principles of equal liberty, and the unalienable rights of 
man.— Unanimously. 



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364 

HevWed, That as an e^rly dCqufescflfice in the' jiutMle^ 
mands of the people is the surest pledge of peaoe add tran« 
quillitj In any country, we trust we «hall spde^Hy see the 
wishes of this nation comph'ed with, by Hn honest and tffecv 
tual reform in tlie representation of the people, nn a braad 
principle of equal justice and equal liberty to 'all sects and de^ 
nominations of Irishmen ; satisfied as we are that a sincere 
union among ourselves, and a total oblivion of past dissen^ 
tions, from whatever cause arising, can alone sectire to this 
country, freedom, happiness and prosperity. One dissen- 
tient. ' ' 

Resolved, That we see "with the gi^eattf t satisfkrtion the 
rapid decay of prejudice and bigotry in the part of the coati- 
try most immediately within our observation ; and we antici- 
pate with pleasure the day of their total downfaL-^-^^^UDani- 

fhdusly. 

WM. SINCLAIRE, sec. 

BELFAST VOLUNTEER COMPANY. (RLUE.) 

AT a meeting of the Belfast Volunteer Company, blue, at 

the Exchange, November 24, 1792, 

BOBERT GETTT, ESQ. ly THE CHAIR: 

THE packets having this day brought the glorions intelli-^ 
gence, of the French having obtained the possession of Brus- 
sels, the capital of the Austrian Netherlands, and thereby 
having virtually completed the liberation of the Belgic people-— 

The company unanimously agreed to publish the follow- 
ing declaration of their sentiments upon that great event — 

Again has Liberty triumphed ; again have her sons con- 
quered; and again we rejoice! We rejoice thftt another great 
country is free ; and that in Belgia we are now able to receg-' 
nize a nation of freemen. 

We congratulate our countrymen on the good news ; and 
we hail it as a certain pledge and forerunner of that reform in* 
parliament, which will procure to the people their tine weight 



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in the legjilatiire of tlri* coui^tiy. Alroad^ corrqptimi trem- 
bler ; and, ere long, at the uyATEo voice of thip PiOPifK^ 
rfic.muat depvt the LhuI. "Sdw is tJie tioae for Irishineii to 
banish prrjudioe, and to embi^ace each other as bk*ethreD^ the 
chiMran of the same. God. Forgetting past errors, let them 
strive in future, to provaote the happiness of every religious 
sect a()d denomination ; anc} their country must be free and 
fIouri4(bi|>g. 

JAS. M'CLEAN, ate. 

EEPLY TO THE SHEFFIELD AXD BELFAST ADDBFJSSES. 

Answer of the President of the French Assembly, (Citizes 

Grqgoire) to the Addresses of the Societies of Sheffield 

in Englaml, and Belfast in Ireland. 

ClflBENS OF THE WORLDy 

YOUB addresses to the representatives of the Frencb 
nation, have filled them with pleasing emotions. , In imposing 
on me the honorable duty of a 'reply, they moke me regret 
tliat I can but imperfectly express, what all with io muclv 
energy feel. To have the honour to be an English' or a 
Frenchman, carries with it a title to every degree of matnal 
afVction that can subsist amopg men. 

The curious in your country arc pleased to traverse the 
glube io order to explore nature ; henceforth they can visit 
Montblanc (Savoy) without quitting France ; in other words 
nuthout leaving their friends. The day on which free Savoy 
tinites itself .with us, and that on which children of high 
minded England appear among us, are, in the eye of reason, 
day^ of triumiJi. Nothing is wanting in these affecting 
scenes, but the presence of all Great Britain, to bear testimony 
to the enthusiasm with which we are inspired by the name of 
liberty and that of the people with, whom we are about to form 
eternal alliance. 

, The National CpQTention has wished to testify its eatisfii^ 



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S66 

tion to the English^ in ^creeiDg that they would coindoct in 
the presence of some of them the trial of the last of their Kings. 
Sixty ages have elapsed since Kings fir^ made war on liberty : 
the most miseral^le pretexts have been sufficient for them to 
spread trouble over the earth. Let us recollect with horror 
that under the reign of Ann^ the falling of a pair of gloves, 
and that under Louis XIV. a window opening from one apart- 
ment into another^- were sufficient causes for deluging Europe . 
in blood. 

Alas ! short is the duration prescribed by Eternal t^ower to 
•ur weak existence ; and shall then the ferocious ambition of 
some individuals embitter or abridge our days^ with impunity? 
Yet a little moment^ and despots and their cannons shall be 
silenced ; philosophy denounces them at the bar of the uni- 
verse; and history, sullied with their crimes, has drawn their 
characters. Shortly the annals of mankind will be those of 
virtt^e; and in the records of France, a place will be reserved for 
our testimonies of fraternity with the British and Irish Socie« 
ties ; but especially for the Constitutional Society of London. 

Doubtless the new year, which is now approaching, will 
see all your rights restored. The meeting of your parliament 
attracts our attention. We hope that then, philosophy will 
thunder by the mouth of eloquence, and that the English will 
aubstitute the great charter of Nature, in placQ of the great 
charter of King John. 

The principles upon which our own republic has been 
fouaded, have been discovered by the celebrated writers of 
your nation ; we have taken possession of their discoveries in 
Che social art, because, truths revealed to the world are the 
property of all mankind. A people which has lurought reason 
to maturity, will not be coBtent with liberty by halves; it will, 
doubtless refuse to capitulate with despotism. 

Generous Britons ! let us associate for the happiness of the 
human'race ; let ua destroy every prg^dice; let us cause uit- 



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S87 

M knowledge to filter tbrougfa erery branch of the aocitd 

tree ; let us inspire oar equals with a sente of their dignity ; 

let us teach them above all, that vices are the inseparable 

companions of slavery ; and let us depend upon it, that our 

efforts will be favored by the Ood of liberty, who weighs 

the destiny of empires, and holds in his hands the fate of 

nations. 

Sie safut AUtuu f^t 342. 

BELFAST VOLUNTEER COMPANY. 

At a meeting of the Belfast Volunteer Company, Blue, 14th 

December, 179^^ to take into consideration a late Pro« 

clamation, issued by the Lord Lieutenant and 

Privy Council of Ireland ; 
MR. JAMES MUNFOAD IN THE CHAIR i 
Resolved, That a Committee of five be appointed, for the 
purpose of taking into their consideration the said Proclama- 
tion—and do report the same to this Company on Monday 
next 

At a meeting of the Belfast Volunteer Company, Monday, 
1 7th December, 179«; 
ROBERT GETTY, ESQ. IN THE CHAIR: 
The following Address was unanimously agreed to : 

TO THE VOLUNTEERS OF IRELAND. 
FELLOW-CITIZENS, 

WE are induced to address you on the present occasion, 
with an exposition of our sentiments, in consequence ©C the 
late Proclamation, issued by the Lord Lieutenant and Council 
of this kingdom, against the assembling of certain new volun- 
teer associations in the county and city of Dublin— and we 
ahall be very happy indeed, if our sc^ntiments shall meet yonr 
approbation — which will be best known by the resolutions 
which the said proclamation is likely to draw from other asso- 
ciated corps, like ourselves. 



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Whether the peace of tike cauotry it inteinddd hy thu pnv 
cUuiMtioD, we shall liot preteiwi to »ay— we are however more 
oonfident in believing tliat it& aim t& to divide ; mid tlie forced 
cotnpliraent paid to more ancient associatioBS, in contradistinc- 
tion to those now forming, against which this proclamation k 
levelled, leaves us on this head little room to doubt 

We do not suppose it possible, however, that this effect 
will be produced ; our country has been too long divided by 
trifles, and is now too sensible of the rising consequence of its 
people, by the unity which pervades all ranks, to fear such an 
event— We all look forward to the same common object of 
political liberty, and We know too well by sad experience, 
that it id not by divisions we are to accomplish our purpose. 

Philanthropy, the oflTspring of charity and benevolence, is 
shedding over us its influence like the best of blessings, and 
mankind becoming wise are determined to be free. 

We originally took up arms for our defence against for- 
eign invasion, and we have continued in the use of them, be- . 
cause we consider it a means of producing internal tranquil- 
lity. 

We have always when called on, given our assistance to 
the magistracy of pur country, in the due execution of the 
laws. In a word, wc esteem it proper that citizens should 
know the use oi* arms, and we consider that country in the 
best state of defence, when the people are strong. The same 
force which was ready to defend the country against the at* 
tempts of foreign force, we hope, will be ever found eqoallj 
ready to assert domestic quiet ; the preservation of private 
property ; and the common rights of all the people of Ireland. 

We consider for ourselves, that it is the unalienable ri^ht 
of all the people of Ireland to carry arms, and in conflrmation 
of the said opinion, this CorapaHy always nas been open to the 
admission of men of every religion ; — and the experience of 
many years proves to cur knowledge, that a man's sentiments 



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569 

Iti tins respeet brtk> test of his ability, beeaose we havs found 
'tkne satn^ ttttdresf, and the same good behavior in our brother « 
•SdWIiet^, professing to be Roman Catholics^ as in those of anj 
AyHherTeligionu 

Impv^BsseA with these sentiments, and highly sensible of 
die great and useful consequences which may result from the 
people embodying theftiselves fcr the purpose of learning the 
uM of itfnie l^^'-we bail as brothers our fellow-citizens; enter- 
ingwintoassociationS like our own^ for the welfare, prosperity^ 
iOxLemaDcipadon of their countiy; under whatever name or 
*^'Wfaataver f el%ion ; and we will cultivate with them one 
oonynesi interest; We declare &r ourselves, that the freedom 
piwm ooMBtry is our only olject ; and if we are adced, what 
atce cm views and our wishes, without hesitation, we answer, 
we want the renovjatioii of the oonstitntion ; and to those peo« 
pie who. are pleased to call all public virtue treason, and all 
improvement innervation — ^we reply, thai an effectual and ade- 
^nafee reform in the representation of the people in parliament 
is our only object, in the pursuit x>f which object we shall ne- 
iHOf slacken our iefibtts. 

. If bad advisers, or weak and wicked tnen, ihakX force the 
pei^le into extremity -^-ou them let «11 the miseries fa^l «f <»vii 
convulsion. 

The people demand that shore of t^ Constitution which 
'it9 epint Warrants, and in the pursuit they <ve justified. — We 
are now united— let us persevere— and success will crown 
«iir endeavors* 

JAMES MACLEAN, ssc. 

A3 



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S70 

AT k MEETING OK TH« 

FIRST BELFAST VOLUNTEER COMPANY, • 

DECEMBER 18,, 1792, 
WILUAM TENNBNT IN THE CIIAIIt, 

THE rOLLOWINfl ADDRESS WA« UNANIMOUSLY AOftCCO TO: 

TO THE VOLUNTEERS OF IRELAND, 

FELLOW-fOLDIESB, 

YOUR COVNTHY tS IS BANCER ! 

THE period of a few fleeting months has scarcclj elapsed, 
since the First Belfast Volunteer \Joaipany, impressed y^lth 
the interesting situation of this island, and the extraordinary 
increase of its armed citizens, did publish to the world, anew, 
their sentiments concerning the volunteer^ institution — a t'i ;• 
niiied and most honorable institution^ in whose lists should be 
found enrolled the names of ALi^the virtuous ioluibitants of 
Ireland. We, who in the Iiour.of danger, and in the face of 
the enemy, took up arras in defence of our country, when left 
to its own energy, by an abandoned and imbecile administra- 
tion ; We> who have received the unanimous thanks of every 
branch of the legislature, did not imagine, ^at the afm of 
power would ever be uplifted in this land, to suppress the 
revival of our laudable associations. 

When the right of the people to appear in arms is called 
in question, byji proclamation of the Lord Lieutenant and 
Privy Council of Ireland ; when the exercise of this right ia 
branded with the epithets, illegal and seditious— *w hen raenac* 
ing.prejparations by land and sea, indicate the near approach 
of war ; and when false and malicious reports are industriously 
circulated, with a view of spreading jealousies and discontents; 
we call upon you to be firm ! — to persevere ! — to unite ! 

The union of the people now mt^kes despots tremble in 
foreign lands. It is to union Ireland must owe its salvation : 
the want of union, ten years since, rendered abortive^all your 
efforts for emancipation. 



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571 

O ir fellow. ^olcKers of Dublin, are charged with assembling 
" to withstan J lawful authority, and violently and fbrcibly to 
redress pretender! g^rievances." What ! are the grievances of 
which the people complain, only " pretended ones ?" Is seek- 
ing s restoration of our rights — a refarm in the representation 
of the people in parliament, an attempt to subvert the consti- 
tution ? We say, no f it is to restore it. 

Under these circumstances, we esteem it our duty to make 
a further declaration of our principles and opinions. 

We associated for the defence of ourselves, this town and 
country, and fer the support of the rights of Ireland. We say, 
that it is the right of tlie people to be represented in parlia- 
meat— taxation without representation is oppressiou<^that 
the people are not represented — that parliament is not as it 
ought to be, an emanation from the people — ^that the grievances 
under wliich the people labor are almost innumerable and 
intolerable. But we add, that a real and radical reform in the 
representative branch of the legislature, would restore the 
people to their duo weight in the government of the country, 
and every lesser evil would quickly vanish. 

These ape our opinions.—- Neither proclamations nor threats 
shall deter us from the pursuit of our rights. Our desire is 
peace ; — the welfare of our country, of our families, of our 
friends, requires it of us. Let those who, by resisting the 
united voice of a nation, drive the people into extremities, 
hm alone answerable to God and their country for the conse- 
quences. 

Fellow -soldiers !— Unite !— increase your nu fibers and 
improve your discipline ! — a people aspiring to be free, should 
be able to protect liberty. An armed nation ran never be 
made slaves.— Persevere ! and our country must be saved ! 

WILLIAM TENNENT, pHAiByAV. 
JOHN RABB^ sEcaETAav. 



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*7«' 

TOWN MfeETING. 
We, the subscribers, inhabitants ef the town of Belfaet^ 
earnestly request the attendance of our fellow-citizens, at a 
general meeting of the town, at the market-hoose, on Wed- 
nesday next, the t6th insl. at noon, for the purpose of ex«« 
pressing our sentiments on the present state of public affairs ; 
and to enter into sucb otl^er measures as may be deemed ttf 
pedient for the accomplishing that great object — an equal 
representation of the people in parliament. 

Beifaitrlkeember 19, 11(9$. 



C. Ranken, 
Wm. Brown, 
Cunxi. Greg, 
A\ei.. Orr, 
WilL Stevenson, 
Jas. Ferguson, 
John Macartn.ey, 
Sam. Thompson, 
James Holmes, 



Eobert 1>a?i8t. 
Iloberl Thomson, 
Wai. Sinclaire» 
Robert Getty, 
Alex. Mitchell, 
John Holmes, 
John Brown, 
Alex, (sordonv 
% John Bobinson, 



Wm. Mageer 
John Cuming,, 
Wm. Tenoeat, 
Thomas Brown^ 
John Bojle, 
Tboa. Sinclairer 
Sam. M»Tier, 
Henry Haslett. 



COPY OF AN ADDRESS 

To the Delegates for Parliamentary Reform, in Scotland, mU'^ 

nimously agreed to by the Second Society of United Irish* 

men, of Belfast ; and recommended to the other societies 

of this town, to be sent as the joint address of four sodetiei^ 

which was accordingly done, December, 1792. 

ASSOCIATED for the purpose of promoting union i[- 

neng Irishmen, restoring three millions of brethren to the 

rights of citizenship, and effectuating a radical and completft 

reform of parliamentary representation for the people of Ire* 

land, we cannot behold, with indifference, tbe ^iyid glow of 

patriotism which brightens the face of other nations, and tho 

irresistible elasticity, with which man, long bent down into a 

beast of burden, shakes off the yoke of despotism and resamet 

his fonn trect, in neighbouring kingdoms. We exult in the 



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trtumpk of faumiliijty whieh regenerated Gaol exhibits ; and 
the revnral of tbe long*dorniant valor, whicb made the Cssart 
treaaUe, and in earlier times, filled Rome itself with suppliant 
mourners. We accompany with raptures, the steps of free- 
men traversing the mountains of Savoj, erecting the standard 
of Hberty on the strong holds of despotism, and uniting the 
great family of God in the bonds of fraternity. In the fruit- 
ful plains of Belgia, we hail prospects equally grateful to the 
enlightened eye^ and flattering to the liberal heart. The arm 
of despotism palsied — her hosts discomfited — ^her throne tot- 
tering to ruin — and her motley train ofiitLvet and sycophants, 
with all her proud abettors, plunged in despair, or meditating 
with fell revenge a last convuluve struggle m her cause. 

But our raptures and our triumphs might be ranked with 
die transports of children, did we dwell for ever, as with the 
stare of foolish wonder, on these the glories of another land ; 
while even the fainter brightness which open^i on dur own« 
and sister kingdoms, shines unnoticed. Thank God ! ther^ 
too we see the light of political knowledge widely diffused ; 
and the seeds of liberality vegetating with vigor in the genial 
warmth of restored fraternity, and united patriotism. With 
us, that knowledge hath already assumed the form of lan- 
guage, and, in humble respectful petition, presented tbe claims 
•f a proscribed nation at the bar of the legislature. We are 
iorry to say these claims were not treated with deference, or 
decency. ' We were not dtscduraged, but reanimated by their 
rejection. The chaos of Irishmen, as by the voice of Omni- 
potence, was instantly moulded into a body> its members ar- 
ranged, and tbe frame organizetl. Nor were vigor and har- 
mony ever characterized in greater perfection, than in the re- 
presentation of that body now exhibited in the metropolis of 
tbe kingdom. And as it reflects the image of the original, 
we know it will speak its voice— the people's voice ! — the only 
** jure divino" law of nations ! 



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We know, ino, that ^toice ikali be liearcl. Tnsfinten fiaftf 
villed it, and they mtal be fr^. The violations of their con- 
stitution, the perversion of its principles, the vbuse *f its pow. 
ers, and the avowed influenee of venality and corruption, 
must be swept away together ; not, we hope, by the awful 
experiment of a contested Revolution — may heaven avert t\e 
dreadful necessity ! but, by a volimtaryy immediate, ^d n- 
dical reform. 

WhUe this is the object of our desires^ oor actions, and 
oor onion, and we are unalterably determined, by peaceable 
and con8tituti6na) means, to obtain it, we reprobate the roean 
idea of enjoyinf it exclusively. Liberty is the desire of M 
nations! the birthright of all men! To preserve it with 
watchful jeiilousy, is the first political doty ! To recover it, 
when arrested by the band of tyranny, the highest pinnacle 
of human glory. That all men may asselPt, reclaim, and en< 
joy it, IS, therefore, the fervent prayer of our hearts ! . 

Tliat Scotland, for ages the asylum of indepen4ence, and 
equally renowned in arms, and arts ; ' tiiat Scotland, the tmn 
dem nurse of literature and science^ whose seminaries have 
supplied the world witk statesmen, oratolrs, historian^ ^aod- 
philosophers ; JScotland, whose penetrating genius has forced 
its way into the repositaries of nature^ unveiled her hidden 
mysteries, and brought forward all her richest treasures for 
the healing of the nations! Scotland, where a Beidanda 
Beatty broke the spells of an annihilating philosophy, which 
had reduxred the universe to a shadowy idea ; who bdd bar 
up to ridicule; and presented creation anew, in her native 
substantiality and solid glories, to the sight of all men ! That 
this same Scotland should have so long forgotten her dfgni* 
dcd state as a nation, slept over her political insignificance, 
or silently acquiesced in the mockery of a popular representi- 
tlon, amoTipr the senators of another people, hath long filled us 
wiih inexpressible astonishment. And, when we reflected oo 



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375 

0ur relation of fellow-subjects, or, as our Catholic brethren 
have more properly denominated us, fellow-slaves ! and tha 
more solemn ties of religion and blood by which many of us 
are connected with you, we candidly ovra our astonishment . 
was not free from a mixture of regret ; for, however humilia- 
ting our own situation may have been, the Protestants and re- 
formed among us in the scale of freedom, were much supe* 
rior to the Scott.'sh people. ^ 

What your state, as a fieople, was, previous to the day 
whh:h set upon your independence, and blotted your name 
from among the nations of the' earth, we presume not to deli- 
neate. What your state from that <Iay has been, and now is; 
we know, and ye, tlie delegates for promoting a reform, must 
feel. Delineation of it is therefore unnecessary. We only 
say, and we say it with confidence^ Scotland bm a nation, or 
p^rt of a nation, has no people ! The idea, therefore^ of a par- 
liamentary representation of the Commons of Scotland is only 
a political fiction ! a fiction so bold that we are astonished at 
the audacity ^ which first presumed to hold it out as a reality. 
And when we consider that a whole nation implicitly swal- 
lowed the idea as a reality, we cannot be surprised that the 
genius of a Hume should invert the position, and endeavour to 
impose the reality of the universe, upon a credulous sce^ticid 
wxirld, as an idea only. 

Your eyes, brother-friends of a reform, are how opened to 
the deception ; your tongues are loosed, and your pens ready. 
While^ with youf eyes ye behold tiie necessity and importance 
of the political regeneration which you httve united to pro- 
mote^ let your tongues make it familiar to the ears, and your 
pens present it to the eyes of your brethren, whose fathers 
were a people. We are assured of your abilities, your learn* 
ing, and your eloquence ; your patriotism we doubt not ; and 
on your perseverance we rely with confidence. Nor can we 
•appose for a moment, that ye will ever suffer the whisper gt 



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aaalwy^or the firownt •£ «^ Wvc(0lm yam jfwfcy tfwr p^nnift. 
It is wordij^iDeii---wort)iy of y«a*naild.y«.wiUfiQt.d»H3i^^ 
it! Ye will never ditapiieixit fi^Tbn^QUien bjr.dkffMmg 
joursdreal We know Ae cenflict i«.ar4iiouft^ t,Bttl,i vhsre 
tke public good is the en j^ and ibie loeantjire-lQgalfoeveqr'flep 
if safCy-Hiuccew 8ure» though ebw, end the reward kiqunuL 

TOWN MEETtNG> * ' 

, AT a general meeting of the inhabitants of BetfasC/ bin- 
Tcned bj publie adTertitementy at the Toim Keiise, ind for 
want 6f room, adjourned to Mr. Vaooi^s Meeting^ Hooi^ artt 
Wednesday, December f 6, 179^ 

CU:dRLSS MANKM^\ JX THE CBdiWi 

At a periad when the imblio mind ie sa roiichaytate d > > 
when the nation teems to he ^4 «i state of smotlier^d ^W i"^ 
we deem it the duty of e?ery man who ia a friend to bis!OT»i%r 
try, to peace and good order, to come forward and paUial^ 
j^vow his sentiments. ^ . ^ i 

We, therefore, dedare, that after all we. have heard, a^ 
read about our glorious iu»d b^pwycopsti^tj^tion, we are, so i^ 
norant as not to be able to find what it is : Wi^ canj:)Qt, how^ 
vcr, conceive, that if in any ni(^JQp..thre^*/bi;^rths of the inha- 
bitants are absolut^y excluded from aU ^hare in, the Iq^idf* 
.ture, and only a very imt^X part of the other fourth re[^ei^J^ 
.ed ; if the great majority, of what are called^^e repr^sef^ta^ 
tivcs, be appointed arbitrarily, I^ a Uv individual^, fof ai9>^9 
term of years, and not accountable to the, peopl^e;r7lf ^^^f^^ 
and pensions be multiplied for tbepft^po4ee,of co^iisyptioa^-Jj^ 
wo responsibility be annexed to the great offif:es.^ state.^^if 
taxes without end be levied oflf the people, an^ the ^nattq« 
involved in debt, (or the purpos^^^pf pi^rchasfng votes tgrij^ 
pose more taxes ; if the honprs of the p^mge be broi;^^ ^ 
sale to raise fun^s for the same purposes ;. if ^5 Jmrpjus^ the 
yeve^ue, instead of ^u)S.an^«d.|o ,)m^ |^^pj|tio{iiL<delj^ 



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he cjirriccl to ]inoth«r coontiyy whether to bribe the represen- 
tatives of the people there, or to pay German butchers for 
FnossAcreing the fnends of freeckmi in France ; if the subject 
be deprived of the trial by jury, whether by penal statutes, by 
revenue or game laws, by fiats or by attachments : — ^We say— 
if any nation labors under thoie and innumerable other griev- 
anceSy practised under color of law— we are yet to learn 
what is the glorious and happy constitution of that nation ; 
Wc do not hesitate to say— thct are a nation of slaves I 

We declare, that a government by King, Lords and Com* 
inons» the Commons being a real representation of all the peo« 
pie, is the government which, if attainabk without violence, 
we wish for and prefer ; that we do not wish for a revolution, 
deeming it the last measure of dire necessity— a measure to 
which no good or wise man would resort until every other 
means had been tried in vain-^and being convinced that our 
present form of government, however defective, possesses the 
power, if it had the will, of reforming all abuses and remedy- 
ing all defect^ without violence or commotion, and that such 
Ttform must take place whenever the united voice of the peo- 
,p1e shall call for it. 

And we further declare our opinion, that if any persons in 
this kingdom be endeavonng to promote a revolution, it can 
only be those, who determined, to preserve till the last moment 
their system of corruption, their borough influence, their 
places and their pensions, pertinaciously oppose every attempt 
towards a reform, thereby doing their utmost to produce pub- 
lic commotion and overthrow the government, by driving h.* 
nation to despair. — Infatuated roorUlsl— wilfully and wicked- 
ly blind to future consequences 1 — and of whom it m^y be 
jtistly uid, " Quern Deus 9uU ptrdere, prias demenlat," Whom 
God determines tft destroy, he first makes mad. 

We declare, that a radical reform in the representation of 
t^e people has bog been, and stitl is, the great object to which 

b3 



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S7i 

mil our withes, all our endeavors tenJ,^ (tit object which wV 
have pursued, and which we shail never cease to pursue untij 
it is attained ; that to attain it we shall £hink no sacrifice'too 
much, no risk too great ; and that no reform' can ever be ade<^ 
guate or useful, satisfactory or just, unless all Irishmen, ot e« 
very description, shall be equally and fairly represented. ' 

Resolved, That, with the utmost deference for our "coun- 
trymen in general, we would most respectfully suggest t&6 
propriety of county meetings and of provincial conventions, 
by delegations from parishes, cities and great iowns : — « me^'<^ 

iure by which the united voice of all the men ' of^ Ireland 
would be drawn to a focus, all wild ideas exploded,' a perroah'eVit 
chain of national communication formed, and the imporiiiTit 
business of the kingdom conducted with that dignity ^kiiA i^ 
nergy which become a great nation, peaceably', but firmly de- 
manding their rights. * 

Resolved, That a committee of twenty-one be now appoltjt- 
edj with full powers to correspond, in our name, with oui^ ft3-« 
Ibw-citizens in all parts of this country, in all parti'df 'tl& 
province; and in all parts of the other provinces; ana'^fn 
concert with theip to pursue such measures as shall' be 
deemed expedient for procuring such meetings and con* 
vcntions :— .That said committee have full power, ^#hen 
they shall deem the time proper) to call, in our name, ti^ge^ 
neral meeting of the inhabitants of this parish, to appoint 
Relegates to such meeting and convention, and also to call us 
together for the same purpose. 

Resolved, that 

C RanVen, Samuel Xeilson, 

Robert Thomson, Rev. S. Kelbumc, 

John Holmes. Rev. P. Vance, 

James Holmes, Hu. Montgomery, 

^ Docler- White, ' . . tHeitfy Haslett, 

Jm FtfgUsoB, l^obert Getty, 

Wai. Sinclaire, Stm. M*Tier, 



XVm. Terinent,"' 
Robert' SfenxM^,'-' ' 
!»;M»I>Muiktl|»i m 
George Joy, 
Hu. Crawfcnd. 
Sam. Brown, 
John BoyIe« 



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379, 
^a|i4 tl^J^k^^J fJ^t agpoint^ a coramittett^ for the abttve 

^ Reived, Th^t Qor warmest tbankf are justly due to the 
volunt^rs of Ireland — to the old associations and to the new 
c^rf^. formed aqd; forming :^>Soldiers of liberty! — we thank 
you 1-j:^^.. firm ! — incr€^i$e your numbers — perfect your dis- 
cipline— ^despi^e the fulpiinations of placed and pensioned 
<»urtjersj and of guzzling corporations. Great is your merit ! 
you preserved, internal peacer— you aided and supported the ci- 
Ti^Jl^a^strateir) the execution of the laws — unite and perse- 
yf^ ! Yoa saved your country froni foreign invasion, and res* 
C^ed h^^Orpo| forei^ legislation — and should a contest for Ii« 
^f^^i^W he^time necessary, (which God avert) we trust you 
]i^l|,res(;yf) her from internal oppression. 
. t^ 9^\v^df Tl>at a yoluntary contribution be received from 
the inhabitants of this town, who, from age, infirmity, or other 
c^fie^ ^Ibfi prevented from enrolling themselves among the vo« 
lgj9teers. for the purpose of creating a military fund, to supply 
;vi\lVjfkQB}^umuon and other necessaries, the volunteers already 
emf^pdied and embody ipg in Belfast — and that the committee 
thiSidjiy^ appointed, be requested to take the trouble of receiv- 
U\g the same. 

And with great deference to our countrymen, we beg leave 
to recommend the adoption of a similar measure. 

CHARLES RANKEN, cHAiRMAfC. 

Mr. Ranken having left the chair, Mr. William Sinclatrc 
was unanimously called to it ; and it was then Resolved, that 
the unanimous thanks of this meeting be given to the cha'ir- 
ipan fori^yre^iness in taking fhe chair, and for the strict 
propn^ •<>£ Jut 0Q9duct in it. 

WILLIAM SINCLAIftE, 
SAM. NEILSON> zzc 



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$90 9 

THC'tblKMifg 19 Ai aC)t»DUhtx>f theMBliiig«f tbeftrMiiliii(#t 

' of BeirAii, on the subjeeft of » IMbran in Ptdffamml^al 

which the foregoing rc86hld«»'W«re'agf«t#'t6.'T* i i. 

DEBATE.' .' /^ ^'.."r ^\' 

1*HE Meeting Was M10 at' the tnott ndmeivMi h)f;tH.ift* 
habitanCt iftf thU town that we e^tr mwll^ct C&ativs Mnkeir; 
Eiq. of RichmoAd Loflge, being caHect tv the dbm I itke. hm* 
nea was opened by Mr. Robert TfaomaoK. * • ;/ .;n' a:[ ,♦„ jjj 
' He observed, that we were called -^ tefpettih* iikeitf«tej«ft 
lenuments on the state of public affkirs at thi»jgr feh '^ tt fwii 
the most important and awful that had.'occtn^d'ki^iltil 
rounlry since the EcTolut!on 6f 1^9. Disecmteiit fxrvicM 
the khigdom ; the people felt grievances and wisfied tbemtffin 
dressed ; but many wild notions »had' be^H take^ up abent-^ 
node of t'edren; th«t inany' talked of k rettAtnAmn'^W^ - 
Udked of Hberty and ^ualftyi worids litfte untUrstpedrbyjsafttt 
and (o which strange ideis %iere annexed'; tbat-ifi M^ ttM 
this day lay a fooncBitlon fof iptolhth^ th# attention ^theTpob 
He mind to a proper object ivS io thttt atone/ the ^^tnmnti 
Belfast'* would do more -eenrise to the eouiitry,: an^'aoqaif 
Hiore hdnor to itsdf tha»>it>em had donet o^ ei^jui^k^ 
again ; that we had no oboastoO'fee a i^nilmiim^; all ^ijkMi»> 
«es Would be redres^setf ^by a'partemantaiy rMrm^ and|liat 
Alight be ebtetned without nidldiice^. without anar^j* .1 ^^ 
^ To follow him through aia exceUen^.tMhilirf jwgnrm| 
«which carried con^totion to tbe uodcivtandiiig of cfvoi;^ htaief, 
as much eiee'eds olir abSflty as it would 'be inconsistent* sfilh 
tbe limits of this 1>ook. With much* force of tbbpght,>te 
pointed out' the necessity that at present" eadsta >otf' AetMxffi 
'what were theeibjeot^ of the people.^ That thb'agl«ilioir«IPliie 
piibltb Tendered it ab^oluttly neoeisiiry; and^for thlt^pospeit, 
iifn pan of the collectite body, wewer^thatdi^iisseiakM. 
'Bs^drW a striking picture of the exlvtwie differanetubAetfo 
. tilt fiirmef atate of FVimoe/ under itaoUi giflR|smla<; #bfn 



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tbe rootf and o»#ilnoi' gu fgt mw a t > w re Wvt sot to •Mbv;ert» 
b«t to .reform. We h»^ h^'taU^' grievtncei, and enomiQM 
oMs^al d B W Mwied ^'h iTM d iMtB redroif. Hft dyl tr f atrtifirtiyr- 
l^fi* tilt 'irtoriiilib€i*]f «k1 e^«#lilf, mi term*: often- DiUui^^er-' 
•ImA p«nd iretrt •CiUHfeifite llie ittfr prkifiplM <»f gpre^l^ 
meat) pointing oiit the ttftlnithHn lluit lAefibM 
fttmf-tlMi^rtalft el?>tuit«rt'tailliat«f oi«il toriettp.' Ama»|ptlM 
niafrf ^wiM ' iM ie m tint hinw Imcb epohcot .oO nolbiiig^ imw 
Mele uriM' tSbmk •ibAir <whidk i w w fiiom tfit inpff»pei!ii#e of 
the two wo«d»aioadoiie^*««»aiili whidi bjt m dOMm Imi^I^ 
niOAniBgo ^iftoii' irffioM^ lo Aeoi. H«.dtfipod lilior^ m^ tbet 
^mjtmUcfy >IM«b* prottelioB ^dl 'olike bji oqvuijl kir^ fpr 
>l)iOfOT fini— u t .mmi good* of the whalo commaiut^ Wkk- 
rtgaed to mpMiff lebto im iie Uteial wmt$umg, itrWi«.dM«DdL 
te H did not sdet to «at«re. He tbiew^ tbf fUlj^if «o.fK]mil> 
iMig §yf^minto'tb9^f9^0mmgpm% iif^^^ 
therecietia lNdeAditll>OQQgOOO» seer three of whieb «oi» 
g f ue ie l ly deemed eifbei* bc^^ •f'^momiUin, ii90leei»fiH; tine 
|sr|ineee oNra^emlry ; Mid thoi»be b ita m e>qf tbeJMnfdopM^ 
^eMifXML Siippofto ^ other S«(KK)»OQp« divide^ tberje oro 
uoi^^eciioe^'eeeh lohebkeQi! Theooinof Ifeknd*;p«e# 
food Biany jrsarsraioce.^itiioftted at aboot three taBHooa j jofr 
poeoit BoW(*i0itetiv9, 'if'.cquadly divided it irould give SSe^ 
t9>eaoh'p*-4>aL that ie.xntp^eiible, for the nomeiit niewreatiooe 
Ji e go ti y ieTcry man .whorhad mooey wdiild oither toad it OAit 4ft 
^At I tio g d ot H or bory it in tho eeftb, whew |«robeMy mooh^ 
itiiaooUl never be fonad. Ae to ell Am other woeUh of .||^ 
i)irtlMr, it^ovld be in a great.mraeuro loot ; for no moo would 
llave U0e for it^r no man ^ii(d*bit7' it. ' Gooid • men-,irW-'tJ^o 
w i najof lan^- aod£^ •a.nRoni^, .bay-^cooeh^Mld oiif» or.^o 
4Nm^b(Meo«iid^itrfiimliire^ • €piiMibo ^r/4NNii|ooo6lltoi9e 
llmMepftd) oroooMrbfrAilyaihiiMiaod-^tiipoit^i 



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Aide ttdiMMttfiAQtorai-tftfertign nuNEkiU^ '.JP^QpuM mf dim 
by dich a parUtiMi acquire any^ , ibiog worth conta^cUng fiift oe 
l«r whifli be would wbh to ilmmbifcof^ilrjc^iixtac^ 
cMuge tt with Mood? Sarely no.. Bat.let uslook • littlji 
fthher>-*4l» spendthrift^ die dfiikikjtnf^ 'tfae.|(wiib)er, wo^^ 
ntA lunre %k«ir bad bablla enidieited by two jicres of 1ml mi 
tSk. in money; tbey would qutckly^be gone;, the carrful, 
aober»- partimoHioiia /dase of men would ac<yure ihmt bi^ 
utaii^ ia niequaiky, and a new . partition mutt.be ^mnin.hs * 
new oofDmodoDi and more bieedtbed, toTestere «quatlty agiui^ 
and this without end. Who ifould not fly to the rprgpMA^ 
ewtb t0 avoid « country where such confuaioi:^ reignfcl ?. >, 

Jn the interval of oeatention, ttadie and nianu&ctq^M, t)^ 
aotd of indfwiryrand the tpmg of wealthy woul^ be lott; foe 
the meane of carrying them on would no mor^ eiutt , .Fron 
Iheinatant of the estaUtahment of a state of equality, (wereijt 
« poHibb case) fhicn what we. are, we abould infallibly M 
ento a «Ufee of begfory, and become a nation of savages. .He 
deflared, that be preferred our goyernment to every otbot 
witbantioq^vodii^presentation; but without it, aeyi^ 
,^Mi« >pedi«ps aa good IiBpre^^ with such ideas, be bad 
(tmwnup a Declaration, which, he would submit .to ^be m- 
seaably, and which he hoped would produce an unaDimpQ|i 
vojie^* be accordiugly r^ th^ wbple, and afWrw^grda rooiifd it 
jifUi^prgpb by paragraph, seconded \tj Mr. Wm. Sfaclaire. 
, , . U waa moved by Mr. John Holmes, ou coming to the tl^rd- 
f^olution, that thc^ worrff '' if attainable without violeo^", 
«bould.bo.ezpm^d» which led to some debate, l^i|t was ft 
length negatived^ with thr^ or four voices for ezpungk^*^, 

, J^r-.J^beirt, Getty #aidj U^t a Refqqn ia Parli^ent,)!^ 
ihe.utn)oat bouufi of bis wishes, and if ai^ui^,^,he -should y 
ODe,r^t po ^ ten te d He confessed that. the fiqtisb^.jCoiis^V 
INM^ i».il*tbapi^, w»s. pecuUairly ^daififA, to )chf .peqpje,^,^ 
pei^Mpab^tte fittadr9r^t^i^,pr«ie&tt.f09ditu4i«^^^ 



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Hi 

dtitC "He wtet1[nto''th^ fittrt [JHritiplwof gbveifnmeftt; prating 
iliat it wa^ an institution intended to promote the^good of 90« 
rfety. That society liad a right to model or refbrm it as thej 
pleased, atid fouiid most ' conduct'^ to their interest.. Ht 
stated a ease, fhkttf a people fairly appointed a conttotionfsr 
exaniiriin^' abuses crept intd their goremroent, and that the 
plan for its refofmatTon had afterwards met the perfect sancf- 
t!ion (X* those whoaj^pdnted them to prepare it^-4ir saeh a 
feituatioh/ a 'goTfrnment that would preten^ to' oppose tfttt 
general wilT,' would be guilty of high treason against the static. 
If ever such a day 8h6uld arrive, he' would say as one that he 
should be fouhd at his'^ost, ready tb do'his duty to bis' odcm- 
try. ' He 'urged Wfth much abflify the wisdom of rallying 
round' one potnt^-^rbbrid the constitution-»-«a nothing conld 
fft-event the completioA Of our Wlshexcept a divided sen^mc4it 
among oure^lve^. ^ 'Let moderate men come forwartl-— Ifie pub- 
lic interest requires it : let us save the country from the mis- 
eries of convulsion by a r^ftJrm. Let gtNerT^6rs hewmt how 
liy folly they commit this cnuntry i for ifit ever Imppeilfec^ it 
^buld' perhaps be found that" the beautiful frame of our'goverh- 
weiit*might be lost, and that tieithervthe>xikence*ftfipHiM»> 
nor of srfpient hereditary douiisellors, Wtould bethbuglit estAi- 
*tial to the vital principles of fi^cdom.' '• 

Mr. Monfoad said, "there are four classes of people inthia 
assemfety td'whom I wish to address' myself ; the first are thono 
'who by reason of their advanced age, oi' want of health, are 
unable to serve ttieir cbuntry ift person ; they may do it mu&h 
'serVfce by contributing to the cause in a pecut^i^ way. -tM- 
Icss you appear to be in earnest, and able to carry into* cxecu- 
Nion what may be agreed 6n'at yotir'tdnve'ntfon, jrou will be 
*«purned at 'by those who at present enjoy the power of ruTiirg 
'iiilhis country. I therefore earnestly recommend,- to 'such- as 
*'^nu6t personalty dssiit in this business, by rmm^^ fm^ 
*Aha^iftiWn'ttiei; atitt are rich, that a subserfptimv be i«M«i«tr- 



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atdj «pnied to puvchase ami, anvtttnidoii, «&d «acmti«- 
anemtt. Th« •ecood cUu of people, are ibose urbo cmce took 
vp and carried anst iB the caoea ef their ^oimirjr^ bnl who Lave 
long laid them aaide. DifertDt caaaet maj bave. operattJ up- 
on tbe fldods of diflerent men to induce tbem to do to ; manj 
yens hanre they ttood idle» and left the task to otheriy who 
liave labored inceasaatly to omancipate their oonnlijr. To 
tboee who were enrdled jraionf their armed bredimv I re« 
fomBMod their immediately reaomlng their armi^ and helping 
to Hberato dieir country. The third data are those who are 
young enough* who enjiqr good health, and who are rich e« 
noogh to enable them to be yolunteelA^ but noTertbdefty hare 
not yet joined their brethren in arms, lo thoae I leoommend 
their losing no time-^the cause mqairea the exertions of all ; 
these have as much at stake as others, I tberefbre entreat Uiem 
to coaM forward and enrol themseWes amei^ thdr armed bre- 
thren. 

The fourth and last -class are Teiy different from those I 
bare mentioned these are the lower order of the people, b^t 
who are the strength of the natieoj by wboee labor the whole 
nre supported ; these ha?e their oountry's wdfiMv as mudi at 
keart m the others, because oa them faUe the weight of mauy 
useless and bnrthensome taxes, which are again laTished away 
upon placemen and pensionere. This description mi the peo- 
ple are willing to help to fVee their country, but are not able. 
Their assistance is absolutely necessary, for the cause reqaires 
Itbe unidfti and force of the whole people. By reason of their 
poverty they are not able to arm or dotbe tbemselres, nor to 
lose the necessary time requisite to obtain a proper degree of 
discipline. To enable them to do so should be appfied a pert 
of the subscriptions raised by the rieh ; hdp tfiamraiso with 
your advice ; they reqitire the advice and inatructioa of tbaie 
whose stat^ and situation of life have been snch as lo eoallle 
ihem te acquire knowledge, experience and wisdosUb Avoid 



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bot^f :deiljaii tlruhMinMft«* iol(^j[)re«Mttlf)e. measures ; )^ fSrm, 
bcsc bt'iiotodiilwfr.ibn on tho d^erifuiMs^ cool finnnessofthe 
whiles j^dplly^ldoea^tiif'Siif^ea^^ your measures depend. The 
tim0'fe«Mr«imkd*nrlttch 'required the exertions of every in« 
dUidualDC'tlM mwlhumity^' in the sevend stations imd Bitua- 

tiiMs itr WIttch: the|nare'aUe' to act. Yoa who are rich and not 
&ble«Vlffenw hi'^Qony contaribuit, and oootribute liberally to 

• tfieScajme^fUsy edabting your i^oocec brethren to act Ye who 

;«ni;^r)Aro|ae -Sutwt^td, and you may and will be eoable^l to 

^6 mwtx:jgmt\p'ib^^9 oontribittioDs of the rich being appli^ 
tdiu(^^T9oQj^.Afaidu you who are rich enough toann and 

3e)tHh«^^)Mf»tWM, anki wbotfe 9ge and.health are such a3 make 
y\Hi MgM^8tM£tr»Jiniheicattse of your country ; I hope you 
Wnildl CAil^lbmdrdcmt tbis^ruts. Perhapft such another 

•eoincfdnloff •f;*«carfiiinalatic0a may oev«r ^ome again. The 
omseiti tieiriis^JlsgiMrian'caase, the salvation of your ooun« 
try ; be united^ be firm, And in the end you must be sucoeasfvl. 
'* Comisellor Sijotpioii* fappertcd the amendment, on the 
|«VoQtki tlitt'it rtfndend th»cflsolutiOQ m«fe explicit. 

Rerl Mf, Kelbura opfMie47tbe ametidmaiit, beciuise: he 
WM otfnvinetditicouid-ainwar no yaluaUe end. He said that 

^ M an imlmAiai. he did not pc^er (he^.muck boasted coostitp- 
mb; he did not know wh^or /there was reaUy any such 

* filing: be had heard of a' government by King, Lords and 

«" d»il >a» jH y l«tf conU: never approve of hereditary legislators, 
r/lMcaase wtiedoiA. is net hereditary ; and he asked if security 

icbold-foc gsrm Ibr their inheriting hereditary wisdom, as well 
atfiiereditavytitfiss->-*afid granting that this could be done, and 

tbtt lordrdhfays inheni the wisdom of th«ir progcDitor;», yet 
he ooUd'Bpt tetany tigbt'to hereditary legislation ; fur it was 
auppekditDlle/aifundameuQiI ^principle of the British ConstiT 

' Jtutioiiy crit is* Called} ^hat tb^ i>e9ople cannot be t^^ed without 

X Mmg3ieptumut&A$ alnl ibat it was as bad.te be subject to other 
' laws, IswUiedting life without betng.repseict^ted^ i.a la\ys af« 



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S86 

fecting property, for life is more valuable tban property— all 
that a man bath will he give for his life. 

Besides, Crown and Lords are two to one against the peo- 
ple in this supposed Constitution, the Lords are created and 
creatable at pleasure by the Crown, and the Commons have 
been found at times very complaisant, so far sii, as to give up 
the rights of the people for something to patch their old coata^ 
The, mover of the amendment had said, that it would be time 
enough t« use the words proposed to be expunged, when a 
reform should be denied ; but as no security could be given 
that a reform would not be denied, it was but fair to speak our 
minds out at once ; we spoke but hj^pothetically, and oqfj 
said that we would prefer a government by King, Lords and 
Commons, wero. that Commons to be the true and real repre-. 
sentatives of the people, rather than have recourse to vio- 
lence, though we might esteem another form of government 
more perfect. 

AT a meeting of the Belfast Volunteer Battalion^ blMy 
fiOtb December, 1792i 

nOBT. GETTY, IN THE CHAIR, 

The following address to the society of United Irishmen 
in Dublin, was unanimously agreed to: 

rniENDS AND COUNTRYMBK, 

Accept of our sincere thanks for your animating addfeit 
to the Volunteers of Ireland ; — as a part of that body^ penait 
us to assure you, that we are ready to protect our * Country 
in that guarded quiet, which may secure it from external hoe-* 
tility, and to maintain that internal regimen throughout the. 
land, which superseding a notorious police, or a suspected 
militia, may preserve the blessings of peace by a vigilant pr^ 
paration for war.' 

Your country is much indebted to you, for your zealoua 
efforts to revive that latent spirit which baa so long slumbered 



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S87 

in the breasts of Irishmen ; on the eforts of the people^ iStt 
freedom of Ireland depends. 

Go on ! generous countrymen— continue jour efforts for 
the good of the whole community. Thqnghenvy may d&- 
tract^ though corruption may calumniate^ and though the 
hand of power maybe raised against you, yet success will 
crown your labors, for the people are with you, and will se« 
icond your patriotic exertions. 

R. GETTY, cifAiRitAN. 

JAS, M'CLEAN, sec. 

' AT a meeting of the Committee appointed by a late roee^ 
iRg of the inhabitants of Belfast, at the Donegail-Arms, oa 
Monday the si St of December, 179*, 

J. HOLMES, IN THE CHAIRt 
Resolved, That this committee do recommend it to the se- 
rer^l parishes, granges, and great towns in the county, to 
meet and elect each two persons, to represent them at a coun- 
ty meeting, to be held on the 14th day of January next, at 
Ballymena; for the purpose of promoting that great measure^ 
an equal representation of all the people in parliament, and to 
iiet^rmine on the propriety of calling a provincial meeting, to 
forward the same purpose. 

Resolved, That in consequence of the powers vested in us« 
we do hereby request a meeting of the inhabitants of thjB pa- 
rish' of Shankill, at the parish church, on Saturday next, the 
fifth ot January, to elect two delegates to attend the meeting 
of this county, proposed to be held on the 14th January^ at 
Ballymena : — And also, a meeting of the inhabitants of Belfast^ 
at the town house, on Tuesday, the 8th January. 

feesolved. That the mode of election on this occasion, be 
recommended to be by ballot; and in order to expedite the 
l>nsthess, it is requested that each person do come prepared 
with the names of two delegates^ written on a piece of paper. 



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388 

A committee will- attend with boxe« constrHeted for ^ 
purpode of taking the ballot^ from eleven o'clock until two on 
each of the days. 

Committee adjourned till tc»morrow at 12 o'clock, 

J- HOLMES, CHAIRMAN. 

BELFAST LIGHT DRAGOONS, 
J. BUHDEy, IN THE CHAIR: 

AN authentic declaration of the public opinion being now 
necessary, both for the direction of the legislature and the peo- 
pie; and as the country is not yet, we trust, so far degraded, 
that its unanimous and persevering demanda upon any point 
of government, can be finally unsuccessful : — We, the mem- 
bers of the Belfast Light Dragoons, have assembled, in order 
to declare our political sentiments, via. 

L We deem that a government by a King, Lords, i nd 
Commons, the Commons being fretly and frequently chosen 
by the people, is that best adapted to the genius of this 
country. 

II. That the object of the people is not to introduce, but 
to alralish novelties, such as venal boroughs^ octennial parlia- 
ments, and pensioned representatives ; — wh^t We reprobate is 
mw, what we venerate is ancjent. 

III. That we are determined to continue our exertions 
until we obtain an impartial ri^presentation of ai/L the people- 
ignorant of any principle by which a religious denomination 
should be excluded ; nor could it be tfie intention of our an- 
cestors to abridge a man ol civil, freedom^ because he exerci- 
sed religious liberty. 

IV. That the only trusty safeguard of a country is an a^. 
mod and dlscip]irc<l pec>p]e — We will therefore continue em- 
bodied, and in the use of arms, until we shall obtain the ob- 
jects of our wishes ; and then we will continue in arms that 
we may defend them. 

HU. M'lLWAIN, SKC. B. L. D. 



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H9 

BELFAST MEETING. 
VVp the sub3cnbera» beg leave respectively to saggeftt t* 
our townsmen, that we conceive it highly proper, ^t this tioie« 
for the inhabitants of Belfast to address our roost gracioua So-' 
vereign, and hamb\y to offer their wannest tlianks to his Ma- 
je^tj, for his paternal care of, and afieetion for, the people of 
Irdand, so strongly nianifefted by his Majesty's recommend- 
ing t» the serious oonsiUenition of his Irish Parliament, tb« 
situation ^ f his Majesty's Roman Cathob'c subjects of Ireland. 
And we earnestly request a general and full meeting of the 
inhabitants od Saturday next, at the town*house« at .twelve o'- 
clock, to consider of this business. 

Belfiul^ IQth jMwarfj, 1793. 
Hu. Cr&irfoxd, G. M*Ilreen, jofi. Hugh Manlfomeiy* 

John Cuming, Wm. Tennent, Robert Thomson, 

Will. Slnclaire, He»rjr Joj, William Bruce, 

SinckreKelburti, Henrj flaslett, Jt*bn Holmes, 

James Holmes, Tho*. Andrews,, <5co. Welb, 

Jn. Haslett, Thomas Brows, RobU Siinms, 

£.M*Cormick« 



The address to his Majesty froiifi the inhabitants of B«:Ifas^ 
was con6ped solely to expressions of gratitude andjthanks for 
his royal interference with parliament in behalf of the Rosiatt 
Catholics of Irelatid. 

DF.CLA RATION AND PRINCIPLES OF THB 

FRIKNDS OF A PARLIA3fENTARY KEFORM, tN BEL- 
FAST : 
AT THEIR SKCOND IfBETINOON TIIURSOAY^ lOtb JANUARY, 179^ 
WADDELL CUXNJXOflAM /.V THE CHAIR. 
SEVERAL years have elapsed since many of the wisest, and 
best men of England, Scotland, and Ireland, stimulated their 
eoantrymen to demand a Parliamentary Reform; under a conTfc- 
tion that it would conduce as much to the stability of govern* 



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ifl0 

ment^M to the liberty of the people. Uad^thdt fibmiMil be«tr 
onreasonable, or that reform unneccMpryi both wimkl lob^ 
since have been forgotten or remained, neglected. But that 
dechand has gained strength by age; ajid the people, inatead 
o^ being lulled into indolence, are in danger of being 
roused into fury. Had the advice and entreaties of modetatfti^ 
xnen been attended to, the constitution and the admim«trattoa , 
af this country would now be secure ; and continental revo* 
liitibns would be contemplated by this free and « peaceable 
island,^ as transactfons in which we had no other share, than 
Uiat which man should take in the sufferings or the welfare of 
man. 

Those honest patriota who first excited the people and o(- 
ferefl their best advice to government,' are now called upon to 
remind and forewarn administration of! the consequences of 
their former supineness, aiid their present obstinacy.—- 
They have also exerted themselves in keeping alive some res< 
pect for tbe eonatitution, and some regard to peace, together 
with hope of redress. But if their exhortations to goveromeofc 
be slighted, they feel that their influence with the people will 
be equally disregarded. They Will then be reduced to a 
dilemmo, winch cannot lol^gbold tbera m aospence. They 
mast take part with govennffent, or they must enlist under 
the banners of the public. They must ettlier co-operate in 
establishing a tyranny in their tonntry, or rush into the m* '' 
temperate moasvrea of *«n i^ignant multitvde. They vatti^ be ' 
obliged io renounce an kiiktuated court, or to meet their dear-^ ' 
est relations and friends in «rmt« Some may t^k a tiemote 
retreat ; and lament in mlence the miseriea end the crhttes bf 
which their native land shall b6 overwhelm^ ; but the more 
numerous and vigorous party will assuredly, after stroggKny • 
in vain against the torrent, plunge into the ffood-ofciVH con- 
test. < They may endeavor to regulate its course antf modMte 
its rage: but they will give it strength end' pelTftevei^iiice:— 



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Tfaif will noi be fouhd among th^ least formidable tnemies^ 
or Uae loait active patriots* 

We wish not to insinuate, that there exists at present any 
p^ttjr hostile to a peaceable settlement If there be, w^ know 
it not. But this we know, that the public mind is in a fer- 
ment ; that the public arm is strong ; and that the most des* 
. pehite projJMsals may speedily become the most grateful. 

We therefore who have always fought for reform, within 
the limits of the constitution, and studied to combine liberty 
with peace, ha^ve determined not to slacken our exertions for 
the attiunment of the one, and the preservation of the other. 
We have resolved that whatever may be the result of the 
present crisis, we shall be blameless ; and that neitlier our 
rulers nor our fellow-subjects, shall have cause to accuse tts 
either of intemperance or remissness. But we .must at the 
same time solemnly declare that if the just demands of the 
people be despised, those who refuse i|nd those who resist re« 
dress, will be answerable to posterity, to their cpuntry, and 
to God, for all the crimes and calamities that may follow. 

In order to avert these evils as much as in us lies, by pro- 
moting the objects recited above, we have associated under the 
title of the Friends of a rarliameotary Reform ; and have drawn 
up the following fundamental princ^les, in the hopes that all 
who approve of their spirit will follow our example, by form- 
ing societies of the sane kind ; io that the will of the public 
snay be so explicitly declared on a few clear indisputable 
points, that opposition to, such measures, may find no pretext 
in any shades of diffi^rence among the pedple^ Actuated by 
these motives we solicit a friendly rommiraication and corres- 
pondence with every sociejy in Ireland instituted whh similar 
views : from a desire to receive or give information on the 
subject, of, an improvement io the representation of the Com- 
ixKons io their, own House of Parliament; on 41 pian for ifs 



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5^ 

feforai; and on the most effectua] measures for carrying* it 
into execution. 

PRrNClPLES. 

I. A Constitution composed of the King, Lords, and People, 
the ktter fully 4ttid equally represented in a House of Com- 
mona, we prefer to every other, as admirably suited to the 
genius^ wishes and interests of Ireland. 

II. The present mode of representation is absurd^ unequal, 
and inadequate ; contrary to the spirit of our own and of every 
free government, 

III. We assert, that the basis of election should be ex« 
tended to the people. of every religious denomination. 

With a constitution so modelled, as to restore the just 
righ^ of the collective body, without infringing on the prero- 
gative of the Crown^. or on the dignities of the peerage, we 
think this nation, whose loyalty has ever kept pace with their 
love of freedom, will be satisfied and rest content. To obtain 
it therefore, it is the duty of every individual in the most re- 
mote part of the realm to come forward^ as the voice of the 
whole people cannot be raised without redress. It is the in- 
terest of all orders in the state, from the Sovereign through 
every gra*iatioa of tlie constituted powers, to submit to Uie 
demands of justice ; for that go%Tmment id uncertain, fluctu- 
ating, and liable to eternal convulsions which is founded on 
principles opposed to the public will. A government to which 
the consent of the community is wanting verges on despotism^ 
and will terminate in anarchy. 

AT the third meeting of the society, held January 19» 
1793 ;— 

NARCISSUS BATT IN TUB CUAIR: 

UESOLVED, That a correspondence be opened with the 
Friends of the Constitution, of Liberty and Peace in Dublin ; 



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wad that copiM of these and future public tranattctiona of this 
society be regularly trafi«initted to them. 
Signed by order, 

NARCISSUS BATX cHaiaMA^i. 

MILITARY RIOT IN BELFAST. 

ON SATURDAY, 9th OP MARCtT, 1795. 

THIS town, after having been for thne immemorial en 
the best footing with his Majesty's forces quartered here, on 
Saturday night present^ a scene subversive of the order, de« 
cency, and safety of the community. 

About three quarters of an hour after six o'clock ia the 
evening, a body of the 17th dragoons, intermixed with a few 
others of the military, rushed out from their quarters and 
drove furiously through most of the principal streets, with 
their sabres* drawn, cutting at anyone that came in their way^ 
and attacking houses. This lasted near an hour, when« 
through the interference of magistrates, and some militaiy 
officers, the party were dispersed. In the course of this busi** 
Bess, the windows of a number of the inhabitants were broken ; 
and seme signs torn down. A great number ef persons were 
slightly wounded, though none took any part in giving oppo« 
aition to the affray. Charles Eanken, Esq. a justice of the 
peace for the county of Antrim, in endeavouring to take an 
artillery man, and aHfer commanding his Majesty's peace by 
'Virtue of his^ office, was repeatedly stabbed at, and in a slight 
degree wounded. Mr. Campbell, surgeon, happening to be 
in a street through which the party were driving, one of them 
ran across it, and made several cuts at him, some of which 
penetrated through his clothes, and slightly wounded him. 
The windows of a milliner's shop were broken, in which cock- 
ades were bung up for sale. A man had his ear and his hand 
cut with a sword. Happily no lives were lost ; and to the 

D 3 



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prudence and quiet demetnor of the town'i people it.Wil 
•wing. 

- The houses which suflTered most were those of Mr, M'Cabei 
iratch-inaker ; Mr. Orr, chandler ; Mr. Watson on the quay ; 
Mr.{Johnion, and Mr. Sinclair, pablic*hou6e keepers in North* 
street ; and the shop of M'ss Wills> a milliner, in High-^reet 
Their oialice seeved principally leveled at the voluntrers* 
Two of the dragoons received ample punishment from the 
swords of their officers. The consternation of the town maj 
be easily supposed. 

Two causes have been assigned for this unprovoked dis« 
turbance : viz. that there was a sign of Dumourier at a small 
public-house in North, street ; and that a blind fidlcr who plays 
through the streets at night, happened' to be playing Ca Ira, 
a French air. With respect to the sign, it wa4 erected before 
there was any pros|)ect of a war with Frnnce ; and the cir- 
cumstance of its being there could not be countenanced by 
the people, for few had ever heard of it till the riot bioaght it 
into notice. As to aiune played by a blind mendicant, it is 
too trifling a cause to be seriously mentioned, though he de*i 
posed on oath that he never knew the tune in question. 

As soon as intelligence of the riut reached the officers df 
the troops, at the barrack-mess, they used much activity in 
suppressing it. Great praise is due to the exertions of the ' 
magistrates ; but the rapidity with which the party forced 
their Way through the town, made it impracticable to suppress 
it till the injury was done. The gentleman who commands 
the regiment now in barracks. Captain M'Donne), signsilized 
himself by the most active exertions ; and his regiment, the 
55th, behaved eitremely well. The circumstance of GeDeral 
Whyte*s absence on other necessary duty, was much regretted ; 
but ha returned to town instantly on hearing of the matter. 
4 gnard of 460 Volunteers sat up during the nighty and no 
farther barin ensued* 



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*95 

Oq Sonidjij^ the Sovereign, bj request, called a meeting 
of the town at three o'clock, to consider of the best means of 
preserving the peace, and bringing the offenders to punish* 
iQent. In the mean time Major General Wbyte had arrived 
from Carrickfergus, and ^ave assiurances of his earnest desire 
to co-operate with the civil power in bringing the offenders 
to paoiahment, and promoting the security and peace of the 
town. A committee was appointed by the town-meeting to 
ini|uire iuto the cause of the disturbances, and report to a 
future one, to be convened by them as soon as their report 
was ready. This committee consisted of 22, amongst whom 
were the Sovereign, High Constable, and all the oaagistrates 
^ident in town. This coamtttee, according to instruction, 
•at at a quarter post six on Sunday evening. General Whyto 
!was invited to attend as a member, which he seemed rather 
to decline, but desired an interview with the committee, to . 
:irhom he repeated his good wishes for the peace of the town, 
and expressed his'wish and hjs reasons for desiring that the 
volunteers who were assembled, to the number of 450, would 
Asperse ; as he had ordered a patrole of officers, and a strong 
guard of the 55\h regiment, who have always behaved with 
ord<r and regularity ; and at same time pledged himself to 
call upon the inhabitants and join them himself, if any neces* 
aity required it. A deputation was ioimediately sent from the ^ 
committee to the volunteers, with a paper stating these facts, 
and requesting them to separate, which they instantly com* 
-plied with. 

The horseman by yrhom principally this affair was con- 
ducted, were entire strangers, having only come in on the 
morning of the riot, though they seemed very well acquainted 
with the street^ and houses before night-falL 

On Monday morning the committee sat by adjournment, 

at ten o'clock, and proceeded to examine witnesses upon oath 

cspecting the rioters, for the purpose of bringing the aggre|« 



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$96 

tor8> whether soldiers or others, to justice ; but a fVesIt assault 
being made by a trooper, on a poor unoffending boy, with 
many expressions of menace which had been heard, shewed 
the necessity of removing them from a place which they had 
already so much insulted. Upon the committee representing 
this new fact to the General, he with a readiness that does 
him great honor, and deserves the warmest applause, ordered 
not only the four troops which came into town on Saturday, 
but also the remaining two of their regiment, which had 
marched 17 miles that morning, instantly to leave town. Two 
troops he had previously ordered to parade in the morning, 
that such persons as could identify any of the rioters, might 
have an opportunity of doing so, and three of them were ac- 
cordingly turned over to the civil power ;'but as the darkness 
of the hour, the similarity of their dress, and the rapidity with 
which they executed their purpose, made it difficult to hrhg 
conviction home to any who had been guilty of the most ag* 
gravated assaults, they were suff*ered to depart with their com- 
rades. 

MONDAY, MARCH 1 1 . -*S i>'CL0CK. 

THE Committee of the town of Belfast, appointed by the 
inhabitants at large, for the purpose of taking igto considera- 
tion the riotous proceedings of several troopers and others, on 
Saturday night last ; 

Think it proper to declare, that there is a perfect co-oper- 
ation between tbe very respectable character who commands 
his Majesty's forces in this part of the kingdom. Major Gene- 
ral Whyte, and this committee — and that such steps have, with 
the General's concurrence^ and with this committee's, been 
taken, as will, it is believed, completely preserve quiet and 
peace. 

The public may rest assured that every measure will ht 
adopted to bring the matter to a proper conclusion. 



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397 

The general condluct ef the 5ftli regiment ha» hitkeit» 
been such, as £kr at it falls within oar knowledge-«^tt to d^ 
serve the approbation of ttiM totm. 

For self and rest of the Committee^ 
WILLIAM BRISTOW, sovereiok, 

CHAIRMAN OP TUB COMMITTIK. 

IT has been matter of surprize to ereiy friend of Belfast, 
living at a distance from it^ that its inhabitants submitted with- 
out a munnur, and without the slightest exculpation on their 
party to the most erroneous and deceitful accounts of the riots 
between them and the military. To obviate that error, the 
foUowing report is now first given in print It was read in 
presence of the people, assembled fo( the purpose^ and became 
a public property. It is brought forward in confutatioii of 
those who represented the conduct of the town as indefensible, 
because it did not defend itself; as well as for information to 
4>ther8,^who respected the general conduct of the place, but 
were deprived of every argument in its favor, by its silent ac« 
quiescence. 

This report was framed by the Committee, with an altera- 
tton made by Major General Whyte> then in Belfast, command- 
ing his Majesty's forces in this part of the kingdom, and lately 
invested with the Commission of the Peace for the county of 
Antrim } who thus united the functions of a Civil Magis- 
trate with the eQcient powers of a military officer. Had it 
been adopted by the town at large, it was to have been pub- 
lished as the act of the inhabitants, with the concurrence of 
the General. The reader will in a moment perceive, by the 
manner in which the statement was drawn up, that no grounds 
whatever were laid to justify any attack. The privates of a 
military corps, just arrived in a town, the inhabitants of which 
they were necessarily unacquainted with, having only march- 
ed in that morning, avbw an intention of committing an out- 



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ng« ; and put it ia pnctioe in the doadt of that verf night, 
by attacking several houses, ani wounding and maioiing in* 
discriminately many inhabitants, peaceably walking about 
" their business. — The report wa^ rejected by the town, prioci* 
pally because it contained an implicatioi^ of disaffection, ths 
existence of which, in any degree whatever, would not be ad« 
mitted. The lives and properties of the people are pf ecarioui 
indeed, if held at the mercy of men armed by their profession. 
Were such instances of insubordination general, military di<* 
dpiine would be at an end, and the existence of the state itself 
endangered-:— -» July, 179^* 

KEPORT OF A COlfltnTTEE, 
Appointed at a town-mee^ng, held on Sunday, 10th Mardi, 
179^1 consisting of twenty-two gentlemen, including the 
aovereign, Bve magistrates, and the high constable of the 
barony of .Belfast, to inquire - into the causes and conse- 
quences of a dangerous riot, which happened the prece- 
ding evening. 

j*Rejected by the inhabitants at a town meeting, held oi^ 
the 18th March; inconsequence of which no authenticated 
account of this daring, premeditateJ, and unprovoked riot 
ever appeared.] 

IN discbarge of the trust reposed in us, we have heard the 
depositions of several witnesses, solemnly examined cm oath 
before the magistrates. 

It was proved, that between six and seven o'clock, on the 
evening of Saturday the 9th inst. an alarming riot began, in 
which aereral houses in the town were attacked and injuted 
jtfid some of the inhabitants wounded and maimed, by a 
number of dragoons of the 17th regt. who came into the town 
on the morning of that day, aided by two artillery mem 

That by the active exertions of the magistrates, of Capi. 
Bourne, Aid du Camp to Major General Whyte> ond of tb^ 



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6ticeliiof ttie 17th dragoons and 55th regt. of foot^ it wm 
•oon happily quelled. 

It was proved^ that lome of the troopen, in the interval 
between their arrival in town and the conmencement of the 
riot, had avowed their intention of comraiuing outrage a- 
gaintt certain individuals, who had beeq represented to them 
as disaffected. 

That seme of the rahble, consisting of ten or twelve boys 
and ragamuffins, as the witness expressed it, not one decent 
or reputable person having appeared amoiig them, had insist- 
ed that a Hdler in the street, who had been called on by some 
of the troopers to p^ay "God save the King," diould not play 
it ; and also used drsldya) expressions against his Majesty and 
an that took his part ; that a stone was thrown by some of the 
rabble, and that the troopers then proceeded to demolish the 
signs of Dumourier, Franklin, and Mirabeau. 

The public will judge, if these circumstances should be 
admitted as any palliation of the violent outrages committed 
afterwards by the troopers, on the persons and property of the 
unoffending inhabitants, whom the dragoons deemed disaffect- 
ed ; some of whom they could have no reason of thinking so^ 
and who" had not ofi^red them the shadow of provocation. 

From delicacy, and an earnest wish that peace and harmo« 
ny should be e6fectually restored to the town, we forbear giv- 
log a minute detail of the evidence, which appeared before us ; 
and we trust that in future a perfect good understanding and 
concord will subsist in 4his town amongst all his Majesty's 
aafa^jects, of every description, denomination and profession. 

We have seen with indignation several erroneous represen- 
tations of this riot ; tending more to. enflame than to concili- 
ate the parties, which this report will prove lo have been gross 
misrepresentations of it,^without authority— ^without evi- 
teice. 

We caimot'dose this report, without observmg that the 



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400 

^ «ODductorMa].deii.Wliyte,ooniB^tfidcrtecluerof&bMije^ 
forces in the province of Ulsteri has gired the highest satisfac* 
lion to the public^ and that his vig'ilanoe, the judicioas orders 
issued by him as oommander in chi^, and bis ready coopli* 
ftnce with the withes ci the inhi^itants, evince that he is a 
•teady friend to the peace of the cooimuiiityj and reflect e^oal 
honor on his prudence and hutnanity. 

Btlfi9t^ l$ih Manh^ 1793. 

THE two fdhming articlee are not arranged according 
to thar dates, but are inserted in the order they stand, fer the 
purpose of connectioa with what precedes them. 

On Monday evening, the 15th of April, about S o'clock, a 
party of the artillery and S8th regiment, who had arrived in 
tiiis town on Friday last, attacked a, sign of the late Doctor 
Franklin, which being made of copper and bung with iron, 
had withstood the sabres of the 17th dragoons; but on Uiis 
occasion was laid prostrate by the assistance of a rope. They 
then attacked luid pulled down the sign over the newsp^i«« 
office of the Northern Star. What their bext enterprise 
would have been we know not ; but at this period, the arrival 
of the sovereign, and a number of their officers, pot a stop to 
the evening's amusement The signs, which had bern remo« 
ved to some distance, were abandoned to their proper owners^ 
and immediately replaced. None of the inhabitants wcve 
hurt on the occasion. 

SATURDAY niglit, S5th May, 179^, eihibited another 
of those military affirajs to which this town has been subject- 
ed for some time past We do not wish to enter into a detail 
of the violences committed ; suffice it to say, that some of the 
inhabitants were dangerously wounded, none mortally.-— Mr. 
Biraie, who received a stab in his back, and was otherwise 
much hurt, is in a fair way of recovery. The young gentle- 



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401 

man who, at the comnencement of thii disagreeable busineai;, 
pursued a young man of Mr. Bimie's with his sword^ bat, iB 
a very honorable manner, made an ample apology, in conse* 
quencti of which, no law proceedings will take place. Capt 
Barber, of the artillery, has on this, as indeed on erery other 
occasion, since he has been quartered in this town, behaved 
with the utmost propriety, displaying at once the spirit of a 
good officer, and the humanity of a good man. 

It is generally believed Mr. Bimie would have been killed, 
had it not been for thespirited exertions of Capt Barber axki, 
Lieut. George, in aid of the Sovereign. 

Abont the firet of March, 1795, the eommittee of the Bel« 
fast Regiment framed the following memorial, and they re- 
quesierJ the concurrence of the Belfast Battalion. The com« 
mittee of the battalion had acceded to the principle, and it on« 
Ij waite(i the vote of the respective bodies, at large, in order 
to be transmitted to the Lord Lieutenant It was also intend- 
ed to he proposed to the volunteers, by some members of the 
committees, that, in case the Lord Lieutenant should give a 
favorable answer, they should inform Gen. Whyte, that if a 
foreign enemy should land in this country, the vplunteeri 
nvould place themselves under his command.-^-* 

TO HIS RXCBLLENCY 

JOnX EAHL OF WESTMORELAND, 

LORD LICUTCNANT OENBMAL AND OENERAL OOVEBNOR OP 

IRELAND. 

The Memorial of the Volunteers of the Town of Belfast. 

MAY IT PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

We, your memorialists, associated together in the year 
1778, to learn the use of arms, for the purpose of aiding in the 
protection of this kingdom, fVx>n foreign as well as domestic 
enemies : — Since that period we never ceased to be embodied, 
mnd we always held aRDual reviews. 



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402 

We of late observe, vrith rouch regret^ that we lu^ charged 
with disaffection to the king, and to the form of govern ineiit 
of this kingdom, in as much at we have, as armed men, ex* 
pressed our sentiments respecting the necessity of a reform in 
the representation of the people, in the Coniniona House of 
Parliameut We do hereby declare in the most solemn man- 
ner, that the charge is a vile and infamous calumny. It it 
our warm attachment to the form of our govt mmert that in« 
duces us to be so ardent in the pursuit of the only measure 
which we think can perpetuate it. 

We have been charged with adopting French principles — 
it is true we have frequently testified our joy at the success of 
France, when an liost of foes had penetrated into that coun* 
try for the pur()ose of restoring the old despotism. But thia 
exultation at the triumphs of the French arose not from a wish 
to see all their practises (several of which we detest) intro- 
duced into this kingdom ; but becas^e that people were thua 
enabled to choose their own government—which we presume, 
is the natural and unalienable right of every people. ApcI 
this principle leads us to abhor the idea of any foreign inter* 
ference with the people or government of our own country >— 
We have said and do most certainly think that abuses exist in 
the administration of the government of Ireland— i)ut we wish 
to see these abuses corrected by the good sense of the Irish 
nation, not by interference fron abroad. 

In the year I7S1, when we were involved in a war, the 
principles of which we disliked at much as we do the present ; 
when the fleets of the enemy rode triumphant on our seat, we 
stood forward and set an example to our brother volunteer*, 
by oSering our services to government against invasion of any . 
kind. We presume our conduct had its eScct, and are con- 
vinced the idea of invasion was then abandoned, from « know- 
ledge of the strength and disposition of the volunteer armj. 
And let us ask, should an invasion be now nieditated> k it bj 



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tHc» fo%f Sdlitnry rpf^Imfnts scattered otef this kingdom, that 
our encsnie^ would be deterred ? No ;-*We Are bold to say 
with oar countrymen, who spoke a few days before from Diin- 
jf iiinon — that the volunteers are the oaly sure and natural 
defence of Ireland. 

We hold it an incontrovertible fact, that citizens, by learS" 
ing the use of arms, and employing them in defence of their 
country, do not lose or ^ive up any of their, rights : were it 
otherwise, why did we receive the unanimous thanks of both 
Houses of Parliament after our interference, as armed iDen,lin 
the recovery of our trade in 1779, the recovery of an Irith 
legislature in 1782, and the calling f«ra reform in 1783 ? 

Ever since our original formation we have given energy to 
the law, and maintained the most profound tranquillity ia this 
town and neighbourhood, and this has of late been attended 
with some difficulty, owing to the recent introduction and wide 
extension of the cotton and other manufactures, which have 
brought with them a number of artizans from Manchester, 
Dublin, and elsewhere, strangers to the place, a few of whom 
introduced tkose dispositions of combination and outrage, to 
which this town was heretofore a stranger : and the vigilance 
of our Magistracy has had real cause on several occasions to 
recur to our bodies for assistance, and we are proud to say, 
they never called on us in vain, nor were our joint exertions 
ever unsuccessful in restoring onler. 

Three times have we marched to the distance of twenty 
miles to enforce the law and apprehend offenders^n all cases 
we succeeded, and in two of them, the reduction of forcible 
possessions, we could not have done so without our artillery. 
The last instance evinced a regard for the law, bordering on 
adoration. 

An absentee landlord (Earl Hertford) had brought an 
ejectment ap^ainst some of his poor tenantry, ' who lived in a 
wild uncivilized part of the country, whose ancestors had lived 



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404 

tn the place for upwards of a centuiy, who were willing to 
pay the full rent, and whose principal crime was said to lie 
election oppoution. Notwithstanding the peculiar circum- ' 
stances of the case— notwithstanding that the proprietor of 
the soil stood directly opposed to this town in election matters 
»-yet on the application of the Sheriff, who had been twice 
repulsed from the place, and who had applied to the militarj 
in Yain, we instantly accompanied him to the spot^ where after 
an obstinate resistance of two hours, during which time we 
expended upwards of forty rounds of cannon shot, besides i 
smart discharge of musquetry, we obtained and delivered to 
the Sheriff the possession, and afterwards apprehended the 
offenders, who have been since convicted, and transported to 
Botany Bay. 

A few months only have elapsed, since we received the 
thanks of Lord Hertford, of the Sheriff, and of the Magistrates 
of the county, assembled at the Quarter Sessions, for this 
exertion in support of the law. 

For a long series of years we have been in the habit of 
mounting guard, by rotation, in this town nightly, when 
there was occasion, under the direction of the chief magistrate ; 
whereby our townsmen have slept in quiet, without fear of 
the nocturnal depredator; and the consequence of this, to- 
gether with the unwearied vigilance of the chief magistrate, 
has been, that robbery is at present unknown in Belfast. 

We have lately increased our numbers, and renovated our 
discipline; and this, it has been said, with a view to intimi- 
date the legislature : nothing more false ; our objects are the 
same they ever were, the defence of our country and the sap« 
port of the law ; let it not be said, however, that we are by 
any means heedless of reform : no ! it is the first desire of our 
hearts ; but this reform we only wish to proceed from the 
general will of our colmtrymen ; and we Qnly hope it may be 
granted by parliament. But we are at all times ready ibA 



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4QS 

wDlin^ to co-operjite with government in opposing any party 
or aet of men whatever, who should presume to impose an j 
plan or wild ideas of reform upbn the Irish nation, whether 
they come from abroad or originate at home. 

Your memorialists having thus stated their conduct and 
their sentiments, beg leave to call your Excellency's attention 
to an act of Parliament, which lately became law in this king- 
dom, entitled " An act to prevent the importation of arms, gun- 
powder &c," and which act, as explained in passing through 
the House of Commons, was intended not to affect our " laud- 
able institutions^" but to operate against certain disturbers of 
the public peace, who have kept several counties of this king- • 
dom in a ftrment for some years past, and who still continue 
their depredations ; but to the very great surprise and astonish- 
ment of your memorialists, an attemptjhas been made to extend 
it to us. 

Your memorialists therefore request, thf^t your Excellency 
would give such directions, conformable to the spirit of that 
act, and to the manner in which it was explained, when pass- 
ing into a law, so as it may no^ be extended in any manner 
to affect us. Or if that shall not seem expedient to your Ex- 
cellency, that your Excellency would be pleased to grant such 
licence as may enable us to keep our usual stock of ammuni- 
tion, and to possess and use our cannon as heretofore, in sup- 
port of the law, and in the defence of our country. 

AS Belfast and the county of Antrim are deeply concerned in 
the report of the Lords' Committees, dated 1793, we give 
a verbatim copy of it, as far as those places are alluded to. 

"An unusual ferment has for some months past disturbed 
•cveral parts of the NorWi, particularly the town of Belfast, 
and the county of Antrim ; it is kept up and ertcourap^ed by 
seditious papers and parophlett, of the most dangerous ten- 



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4M 

iencj, printed at rery cheap rates in Dublin and Belfast, 
which issue almost dailj from certain societies of men or dubs 
in both those places, caUing themselves committees under ya- 
rious descriptions, and carrying on a constant correspondence 
with each other. These publications are circulated amongst 
the people with the utmost industry, and appear to be calcu- 
lated to defame the government apd parliament, and to render 
the people dissatisfied with their condition and with the law.^. 
The conduct of the French is shamefully extolled, and recom- 
mended to the public view, as an example for imitation ; hopes 
and expectations have been held up of their assistance by a 
descent upon this kingdom, and prayers have been offered up 
at Belfast, from the pulpit, for the success of their arras, in the 
presence of military associations, which have been newly le- 
vied and arrayed in that town. A body of men associated 
themselves in Dublin, under the title of the First National 
Battalion ; their uniform is copied from the French, green 
turned up with white, white waistcoat, and striped trowsert, 
gilt buttons, impressed with a harp, and letters importing, 
" First National Battalion ;* no crown, but a device over the 
harp of a cap of liberty upon a pike ; — ^two pattern coats were 
left at two shops in Dublin. Several bodies of men have been 
collected in diferent parts of the North, armed and disd« 
plined under officers chosen by themselves, and composed 
mostly of the lowest classes «if the people. These bodies are 
daily increasing in numbers and force ;— -they have exerted 
their best endeavors to procure military men of experience to 
act as their officers ;-*8ome of them having expressly stated that 
there were men enough to be bad, but^that officers were what 
they wanted. Stands of arms and gunpowder, to a very large 
amount, much above the common consumption, have been 
sent, witliin these few months past, to Bel&st and Newry, and 
orders given for a much greater quantity, which it appears 
could be wanted only for military operations. At Belfast, 



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407 

bodiet of men in yrms are drilled and exercised for eeveral 
hourn, almoiit every night, by candle-light; and atteroptt 
ba?e been maJe to geduce the soldiery, which, much to the 
honor of the King's forces, have proved incfifectual. The de- 
clared object of theie military bodies is to procure a reform of 
parliament, but the obvious intention of most of them appears 
to b« to overawe the parliament and the government, and to 
dictate to both. The committee forbear mentioning the names 
of several person:^ lest it should in any manner affect any cri« 
roinal prrisecution, or involve (he pergonal safety of any man 
who has come forward to givf them information. The result 
of their inquiries is. That, in their opinion, it is incompati- 
ble with the public eafety and tranquillity of this kingdom, 
to pennit borlies of men in arms to assemble when they please, 
without any legal authority; and that the existence of a self- 
created representative body, of any description of the King's 
subjects, taking upon itself the goverhnent of them, and le- 
vying taxes or subscriptions to be applied at the discretion of 
such reprei»cntative body, or of persons deputed by them^ is 
also incompatible with the public safety and tranquillity." 

AT A MEITIN0 OF THE 

DISSENTING MINISTERS OF BELFAST, 

UCLDONTHB 11 TH DAY OF MARCH, 179*^: 

IT was agreed, that the following declaratmn be publish- 
ed, and a copy of it transmitted to the Lord Chancellor. 

Having seen in the report of the Lord's Committees, dated 
7th March, 179^. the following words, vis. " Prayers have 
Ue«o oflered up at Belfast, from the pulpit, for the success of 
their arms," meaning the arms of the French » " in the pre- 
tence of military associations which have been newly levied 
and arrayed in that tows,** 

We, whose names are hereunto annexed, stated ministers 
of distinct Protestant Dissenting Congregations i^ the town of 



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409 

Belfast; do h^bt soTemriTy dcc'at^/Weh'Df urlbr iitmttMi' 
that the fnlWrnation given to their Lordships of th« iConniit^ 
tees, apon this subject is, as far as tonceims as, totally gnivid- • 

ItSS. . . * 1.1 

JAMES BRYSON, 
P. VANCE, 

WILL. BRUCE, D. IX 
Principal of the Belfast Acid^toy. 
Since the French declaration of war against Great * Britau^ 
and Ireland was known here, I did not pray for the ** SaciXiSc 
of their arms ;" I do not recollect that I eter ufted the VHttda f 
I am certain that I neter prayed for success to the Frendr 
arms before any military association. 

SINCLARE KELBURN.A 
Certain circumstances having prei^ented vne from attendi* • 
ing the meeting of the Dissenting Ministers of Beltet, on the 
11th instant ; at which they agreed to exculpate themtshet 
from certain charges Contained in the repbrt of the Lords^ 
Committees, rekitive to them, by a solemn dedaralion^ that 
the information given to their lordships^ on which thawd 
charges are founded^ is totallyT^oundless : — In this declara- 
tion, as subscnbed by the Rfv. Messrs^ Bryson, Vaoc^^.and 
Bruce, I for myself, fully and perfectly concur. 

W. CARMICHAEL. 

J?^//a*l, 13//* March, 1793. 

Extract of a public letter, dated 1 1 th March, from the *RIgbt 
Hon, Secretary R Hohert, to the Sovereign of Belfast. 
" YOU will be pleased to apprize the leading pers6ns coA^' 
cerned in the armed association» of Belfast, that it is deecrted 
to be the indispensable dirty of government to torbf^l all iltf-* 
lawful meetings, under wbatever.pretence they may Assettible,' 
•wbiph, spreads terror among his Majesty^s liege subjects — end 
it will be right to acquaint ihtniA that if aftei^th^irafDiJ^^ held* 



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«9 

6«t to them by the proclamation, they •hall persist in their il- 
legal aaseiablies, the magistrates ^rill think themselves bonnd 
to disperse the saoae, arfd bring the persons concerned therein 
to thejust punishment of the law. 

'* It is hoped that the proclamation will of Itself have full 
effect, and that no persoa whatever, will attempt to violate 
the law in that behalft' especially as ignorance thereof can, 
after such warning, be no longer pleade^L If, hqwever, any 
body of men shall, in dsfmatt'C/Csmd proclamation, appear in 
arms, it will then be the duty of the magistrates to direct them 
to disperse ; and if they shall £iil to disperse upon the order of 
the magistrate, such magistrate will arrest the leaders of the 
said body, and if he shall be resisted in the execution of his 
duty, he Ts to apply to General Whyte, who will afford him 
such assistance as shall be necessary to enable him to carry the 
laws into execution. And, if any body shall «gain assemble 
ID anns in Belfast, and the neighbourhood, the magistrate 
will exert himself to prevent the same, for -which purpose. 
General Whyte has directions t9 give every assistance in his 
fjower." 

BY THE l/)IU> UEUTEXANT AND COUNCIL OF 

lEELAND. 

A PROCLAMATWX. 

ITESTIIORXAND. 

WHEREAS it appears by the report ftom the Lords' Com* 
miitees, appointed to inquire into the causes of the disorders 
aod disturbances which prevail in several parts of this king- 
dom, that certain seditious and ill affected persons in-several 
parU of the north of this kingdom, particularly In the town of 
Belfast, have endeavored to foment and encourage discon* . 
tent, and by seditious publications circulated amongf;t the peo- 
ple, and calculated to defame the government and tlie parlia- 



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ment, haTfrendetvinied to fender people dntatitfied with their 
copdition^ and with the laws. 

And whereas it appears to ui», by the said report, that se- 
Teral bodies of men have been collected into armed associa* 
ttons, and have been levied and arrayed in tlie said town of 
Belfast, and that arms and gunpowder, to a very large a- 
mount, have been sent thither ; that bodies of men in arms 
are drilled and exercised by day and by night, and that the de- 
clared object of the said armed bodies is redress of aUeged 
grievances, but that the obvious intention of most of them 
appears to be to overawe the parliament and the government 
and to dicute to both. 

And whereas these dangerous and seditious proceedinga 
tend to the disturbance of the public peace, the dbstruetion of 
good order and government, to the great injury of public cre- 
dit, and the subversion of the constitution, and have raised 
great alarms in the mipds of his M^esty'a loyal suljecta. 

Now we the Lord Lieutenant and Council, being deter* 
mined to maintain the public peace against all attempts todisn 
turb the same, and being desirou^ to forewarn all such persons 
as miglit unadvisedly incur the penalties of the law in this be«^ 
half, by concurring in practices of a tendency so dangerous 
and alarming, do hereby strictly charge all persona whomso- 
ever, on their allegiance to his Majesty, to abstain fiom.com« 
mitting such offences respectively. 

And we do charge and command the magistrates, sheriff^ 
bailiffs, and other peace-oflicers, having jurisdiction witbhi 
the said town of Belfast, and the several districts adjacent 
thereto, to be careful in "preserving the peace within the same, 
and to disperse all seditious and unlawful assemblies; and ^ 
they shall be resisted, to apprehend the offenders, that they 
may be dealt with according to la wr: ' ' ' '. 



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411 * 

Glv^a atibe Council Cbambcr in Dublin, Cfae luK day of 

March, 179^ 

Titz-Gibbon. C. R. Dublin, Charles Cashel, Watcrford, WesU 
xneath, Shannon, Bellamont, Charles Fitx-Gerald, GJan^ 
dore, Dillon, Vdcntia, Pery, Gosford, Clonroell, Loflus, 
M u&keriy, ^ountjoy, C;ir1eton, J. Beresford, J. H. Hut* 
chinson, Lucius O'Brien, J. Blaquiere, H, Langrishe, T. 
Conolly, Thep. Jones, Henry King, H. T. ClcmenU, R. 
Cunningharoe, James Cuff, R. Hobart, D. Latouebe, J.. 
Monk Mason, J. FItz-Gerald, R. Longfield, W. Forward. 
GOD SAVE THE KING. 

In comjltiance with the proclamation, the Tolunteers cea« 
aed to parade, or any longer to appear in military array. 



STRICTURES 

OV TBE-TEST TAI^CH BT CBBTMV OF 

THE SOCiKTIES OF UNITED IRISHMEN, 
* 

WITH ANSWERS TO THB SAMB. 

' Origuially published in the Belfast News-ktUr. 

• STRICTURE — NO. I. 

'' I, A B, in the presence of God do pledge myself to my 
cotiiitry/ that 1 will iise all my ahilities and influence in th« 
attainment of an impartial and adequate representation of the 
Irisb nation in parliament; and as a meant of absoluta and 
immediate necessity, in the establishment of this chief good 
of Ireland, I will endeavor, as ijauch as lies in my ability, to 
Arward a brotherhood of affection, an ideoti^. of interest, m\ 
coiamunion of rights and an union of power among Irishmen ; 
of all religious persuasions, without ^hich every refimn of 
parliament must be pirtiaL not national»\badequat€ to the .. 



I 



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^. wiinU, delusive to the wi»he9» and m^afficitot Tor ib^^frMliOBi 

'^ and happincsa of this conntry." ' ' ' ." 

This test, originally taken by the ^ieticsof Umttd Imb- 
nien in Dublin, has since been adopted by a )re«p»etabl«teRi« 

' rounity of the same denomination in Belfust— ^M«op in t ri » tio 
doubt» with the best views and fbr the nobleM pdrpol^* ttat 
actuated by a zeal more ardent in the pursuit^ their object 
than discreet in the meant of obtaining it. It. bar lately been 
rejected by other societies and individaald migaged in the 
same cause. The follofving exposition of its principles k flbw 
made, in or Jc r to justify those who have dedii>ed entef^ng 
inlp this enga;5ementi to relieve those who have formed it'fhmi 
the consequence of their imprudence, and to prerent dthert 
f¥om precipitating tliemsclves into buch an emlNmraaikig ti- 

' tuatiof). ^ - 

1 . This test professes to bind every man who takea 1^ to 
use all his abtlilies and itiduence, and to endeavor as much at 
lies in his abUHy, to attain^ certain objects.— -If thk be a mere 
rh^oricai (lourish, it is improper In so solemn an engageHient,. 

*' bciVig ealcukitetl to deceive, * instead of inspirfng'anjf Jlitrioii- 
fiS^ie ;' that fs, if "air signifies onTy some^ every ^me may 
use as tittle as he pleases^ and the persons to whom be is |ied« 
ged know not what to depend on. If these words Weoi»- 
stnied in their strict sense, they imply that every duty and 
business, domestic, cominereial^ political, and religioD^ must 
be relinquished till these objects be attained, unless he cUl de- 
' tote all his abilities and infiuence taone object^ andresenrt 
the rest of them for another ! 

2. One object to which the society is bound exclusively of 
every other pursuit is, an impartial representittfon of thelrish 
Nation. Ttie word <' impartial,'* in ks brigkial sense» ifhicb at 

'* the same time agrees best with the purpose and Spirit «f tba 
tJnit^ Irishiuen, imports that every man, adult > on a^rsincr, 
nay, every jroman, in short every ra^nal bei;i|^,i sbiH hivt 



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- MS 

signification whicH can be admitted^ jt mean^i .tbat pvpjry n^^m 
of "^matUHQi ^ ^hfiXl hax^ arVote /or members «(, parliament 
^Uboot r«9«rd :f » pt^P^ttJ fiw: J^ F^ld be ipcQDasteni ipfith 
" lampaniaUty" to require, a -pecuniarj qualification to enable 
)lic(^ to eMFcise. the ekctlve francbise ; to make liberty a ve^« 
4(Ue covmodi^ J,, to make a scruple of taxing a roan^ but 
none of liaogiog him, l^ a law to vbicb he .bad wt co^^nt* 

, ed« This embraces a great variety of the most difficult ques- 
iioAs iu poUMx^s, upop which & w^q mim.would h^sitatf tp 
>B^ftmii( bjimmlf* It inplud^ in particular the subject of .uni« 
,verp^ s^^age^ rqspyeqting which the grei^test men of our own 
jtimQ hAVA.diff?red, It goes^. £|f heyond tbp An^erican« and 

I even ih&Frcncb cpRStituMoQvi which. u reckon^ rn^er a ha- 
zardous experiment ; not to mention the British, which is a 
sub|^jt .of hjstpry and ejcperienqe. 

. a. The lest pretends to pledge ^ose who. tal^e it, to en- 
deavor aa much as lies in theirability to forward a communion 
of^jghts and an union of power among Irishmen of allneligi- 
ons.persuaaions; that h, that all men shall bavecommoii 
righte »nd equal power; that the m.£|jori^ shall bave.pow^r in 
proportion to thfir numbo^, and oopsequently if tlve ^man 
jCath^Iics be ten |iiQ!&s as nii^ifierpif^ u ttie fresby^erifips, ^ey 
sl^U hhye ten tJMfuea .a3 much po.wer.; of course* being, so great 
a 9U0prity of .^he peqplc;^ they may take into (heir hands the 
f^rqis^of^Terp^eipt^ tb^ enactii^g. jand repealing of )aws» 

. the admimftration.of. jl^tice^, ^e estahlishment of a religion, 
and the new^modelliog of the Xion^titution. Ti^is, and the 
pv^cefypg sections, involYe matitcr> with respect to which the 
' wise, the learned and the pa^iotic, for many generations Jiave 
disputed ;. but on mkigb «ome p^ the- United Irishmen pledge 
them»elv<s«/n9l only.thiit they now f^gf^ff but that ih^y will 
^continue to agree^ ,tiU the purpose bo obtained; ^i^iv till it 

*. bl^^^ y^ tfii ^liangethw mi»d««, And. ft^Q^Kbtheyj^ouU 



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4U 

change their minds before thej hare obtained it, they are stiH 
to be bound hy these mental chains to prosecute their plan, 
eVen in contradiction to conviction and conscience. 

Against this ensnaring oath, il! is becoming in every man 
to cauti«n his fellow-citizens/ and it Is the duty of a minister 
to warn his people. This b more especially true, when they 
are convened to discuss a great question, under an ideA, that 
they are pledged to resist conviction and to persist in error. 

4. As this test is calculated to oblige men always Jto retaia 
the same opinion, his unphilosophical and inconsistent with. 
the dignity and primary right of man,~freedom of Uiought. 
As it engages them to per^vere, though they should chans^ 
their opinions, it la sinful. As it prejudjres the most difficult 
and important principles, at the Very tinle wbep tjhey are a* 
bout' to be cfisciissed, it isjpresumptuous and uncai^id.. And 
as it is either impraclicai>le or immoral, it cannot b^ binding, 
and ought to be openly* Enounced, 1^ any one should be de« 
ceived. 

The oath '' never to separate until' the cohstitution should 
be established," which was taken by the National Assembly of 
France afler they had been excluded (hnn their house by the 
troops, was a declaration, that they would persist in the dis« 
tharge of the trust oommitted to them by their constituents ; 
and therefore strictly moral and obligatory, ft implies no ex« 
ception, nor reservation, except in case of irresistible forced 
sickness, or death, which are always understood to be excepted. 
It is creditable to this town abd country, that some indivi- 
duals, and whole societies of United Irishmen, have dedined 
this oath, though, no doubt, as zealous as. any of their bre* 
thren. 

5. The style is not that of a test, pledge, ur oath. It does 
not carry with it the deliberation, precision, or perspicuity of 
such an engagement. It is declamatory, Aill of point and an- 
tithesis. It is the compositiot) of a Jesuitical, a rhetorical, er 



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4IS 

Ml entbnsmitic mind : for •tther through crtft, vault j, or |)ve«' 
eipitatidi, k is cnloulated to deceive. Thus, lett the force of 
the word *' iropartial" diottld be discerned, it ie yoked with 
*'«dequste ;" as if tlvey meant the same thing ; and lest anion 
of power should shock the minority of the kingdom^ it is ao 
' smothered by a crowd of plausible expressions, that many of 
those who have taken the oath, seem never lo have obterved 
the phrase. In like manner^ '* partial" is involved io the blaaa 
of a splendid^ or the fumes of a -smoky phraseology. Tha 
Fffanch and Afoevican constitutions are partial ; that is>. fran* 
chiae is restricted to property : the British^ in its bM day^ 
was partial ; for it excluded some civil and some religions d€«^ 
nominations of the people froas any share in the government. . 
Tliie tJnited Irishmen therefore swear, that these are not na- 
tional, bat de].usive; inadequate to the wants, delusive to the 
wishes^ and inaufficient for the freedom and happiness of a 
people. 

6. As the teftt does not speak of any period of time in 
which these changes are to take place, it mu9t be understood 
of the present instant : for if it leave every one to defer these 
exertions as long as he shall think proper, %hp societies cUnnot 
act together ; the Roman Catholics can have no si^curity that 
they will ever act; and their emancipation roust be gradual 
and progressive. While therefore the llnitetl IrisLmen cbn- 
oeive themselves tubject to the obligation pf this oath, they 
cannot vote for any thing short of immediate and universal 
enfranchisement. 

7. Oaths concerning future opinion or belief, entrap and 
imprison the mind. A freeman loves and thanks even the 
enemy who would lead him to the truth, or convince him that 
he is in an error ; because he can avail himself of his kindness* 
But he who has sworn thinks he cannot change^ and there- 
fbre hates even his friend that would disturb his. ignorant pijd 
bigote repote« He accordingly eiaocialtei only with his fel* 



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J*w-jiifon« who foster Ua prcjudieet, bflueite^ hii )>4toio2% 
and throw dust in hie eyei ; to th^t, when he issues Aoin tli 
^lub*rpom, and meets the old, staunch and etfectual friends if 
fiyil and religious liberty, he mistalLea them for dotardi^ coiiA 
licr^ and s/cophants. ^ '• m t 

It is curious to observe, bow generally and rapidly creeds 
and confessions, even on political subjects, lead to intijehibdf 
and sptritoal pride; which naturally engender petulance' an3 
nge, low intrigue, and disingenooiit artifice. But even^ t!ie 
rustic, when he heard two logicians disputing in Lathi,' cJidd 
^11, that he who seemed to lose &is temper, had certainly lo^ 
hiso^use/ Feb. JO, 1792. '^ 

ANSWJEE. ^ . ■ '. "* 

/ ' 1*0. I. , , . * ' ^ . . 

TO THE STRICTUttfiS ON, TEfE TEST OF TH£ 

UNITED IRISHMEN. [ 

••I, A B, in the presence of God, do pledge myself to niy 
^ontry, that I will use all )my abilities and influence in'the^ 
attainment of an impartial and adequate representation o^ tne 
Irish nation in parliament ; and as a means of ab. olote'and 
immediate necessity in the establishment of this chief good ct 
Ireland, I wi{l endeavor, as much as lies in my ability, to b«r« 
ward a brotherhood of affection, an identity of tntereat, a eotai* 
mnnionof rights, and an union of power, among Irishmen cf 
ffl) religious persuasions, witliout wl^^oh every reform 'in par* 
liament must be partial, not national, inadequate io t1^ waxft^ 
^Igfttvejo the wishes, and insufficient tor the free^oln'iUta 
happiness of this country." . - i -- , 

An Irishman, the dearest wish of whose heart is, Aiai liii 
fouBtrymen should love one another, unite, and he iVee^ fcaa 
read,, ^ith extreme copcerp^ some ingenious, tlhougb fretfiit, 
j]fl|iQt^relp.on the test UlV/su by the United Societies o^ sSS&ik 
and bttbiin. The paper Afipearf to be* written tcna much'^ittl 



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*»7 

t^,^«{|jjtjt ^^ «' ,|{$r^Ban, wbo .makes^or ex^perates Bostilitf^ 
rjklti^ ,ihan jvitl) tha^ of apatriot^ a11Xlo^s, at this time, to 
ftti^uish the fimt f park of civil discord ; or of a pbiUmthro^ 
pjst^ aii;[Lious,at all times, t,o maintain peace on earth and good 
will among inen.«->The argtitaient seems celd casuistry ; the 
flyle beUajrs pfqne and irritation— ^The one mast be refuted ; 
I|p4 iv^I^respect to a little (peevishness of epithet in the other^ 
^hipfj^er notices it least/ will answer it best, and best maintain 
1^ owjijupe^ontj. 

;^ .I/.The ol^^j^ioQ against the ose of the tefiiis '' all my abili« 
tietan^ ij^flnonce," and ''as much as lies in my itbility," is 
founded on a sc^hism that rttns like a flaw through Ihe whole 
eomposition. Two senses of a phrase are taken^ the most op- 
posite that can be attributed to it i^-^arie the most loose, and 
another the most limited ; one the most strict and philosophi- 
cal, another die most vague and indefinite ; and then the 
author hoMs them out^ saying, of these t#o ]ro^ most take cme^ 
H* keeps swinging between the ettremes of signification, and 
always shoots past tbe plain and accepted meaning which lies 
before him in common use and daily life. His dilemma It 
^ways fallacious from its partial enumeration. These 
l^irases in the test are not addre»Md to rhetoricians who bask 
in moonshine, or to philosophers who strain at gnats of 
objections, but to the cemmon sense of common men. They 
are tak^ as they are understood, only in a popular accepttf- 
^on, at what may be Called their exchangeable value in ^e 
market of the worlds The societies neither promise, like the 
|>isciples, to fersake all other pursuiU, to suspend all other 
duties, to make a personal abandonment which must of itself 
prove public ruin, and destroy that credit and intf uence which 
we wish tQ possess for the purposes of the test : nor, on the 
otl^ ei^reme, do they make any rhetorical fiounsh. Tbejr 
aimpbr i^d sincerely promise, that by their own exertions, and 
by any influence they may have on others, ^ey will cd^^ieiraU 



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41f 

in atUming a pulicoUn* end, According to tl^ir diffinent 
Ulents and opporivnitiet, and as far as is compatible wkfa other 
necessary duties^ a condition so plainly implied that it is need4 
less to express it If hereafter there should be no exertion oii 
their part^ or if their actions do not correspond with their 
words, thej>iiblic, whom they have attested to the consistency 
of their conduct, must be their judge ; and the condeninatioa 
of that public is the penalty they roust suffer. The test is a 
standard of measurement which they give to the public, ixt 
order to facilitate this judgment. Without such a test> *'trtry 
one may indeed use as little exertion as he pleases/' beeaasd 
there is none to whom he stands pledged, not even to himself;' 
whereas this te^t forms not only a public record which obligeir 
him to exertion, if he has any regard to public opinion, but it 
is a record on the soul, an external conscience which stimn* 
lates to duty, send fixes and embodies fugitive resolution.— 
<^ All our abilities" is a phrase neither taken in its loosest 
nor in its strictest sense, and there is room enough to rest salb« 
ly between the horos of this dilemma. It is taken by the 
people in a popular sense, and they refer the derivative sense, 
and the philosophic sense, to the college or the cloister. 

2. Iti the same manner, the author of this bilious poUica-' 
tion extracts every sense out of the word *' impartial," except 
the obvious one. This term is evidently suggested by, and is' 
solely refeirable to, that religious persuitsion whidi is at pre« 
sent most partially excluded from civil rights, as the word 
*' adequate" relates to a representation in Parliament, justly 
proportioned to the end in view— 4he happiness of the wb<^e 
people. " Impartial" is a plain word, expressive of a practical 
truth, that no government can satisfy our wishes which is not' 
equitable, free from regard to party or persuasion, eqnal in its ' 
distributions, riike to idl ; and he who interprets the terot In 
any fiur-fetched sense, or involves a»y speculative qodttdns 
in ila meaning, is only oatching at a star and stumbHng over 



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'419 

atraWi. Tbe test tarna ks attention^ merely, in the term made 
uae of, to that monatrou? partiality which excommimicates and 
estka a whole pe<yp1e, without one overt act on their part to 
joatify such oppreaaion ; and were thia prominent partiality 
«kme away, other specuktive queationa, like those alluded to, 
might eome under political discussion, which need not now 
be answered, a« they are not now in contemplation. Even on 
the auppoakion of their being agitated at present, I cannot 
think the term " impartj;il* could ever he found inapplicable ; 
*biil il ia enough to repeat, that the word is here plainly applied 
to the Roman Catholics, who have found in government no- 
thing but grievance, and in law, nothing but penalty. He 
4ay8 " that we are bound to one object exclusively of every 
other pursuit" — amostpalpaUe mis-statement, aa I have prov- 
ed before. . 

. S. The teat pledges those who take it to endeavor as mudi 
Ja in them Hea, ^< to forward a brotherhood of affection, an 
^entity of interests, a communion of rights, and an union of 
power among Irishmen of xdl religious persuasions." The verb, 
to forward, which is connected with all this portioiv of the 
te3t, has been wholly overlooked by this gentleman, and if 
attended to must comprehend and conciliate all parties. The 
«nd IB view is a reform impartial and adequate. The fburarticles 
coromoo afiection, common interests, common rights and com- 
mon exertion, (the true meaning of " union of power/' not 
tiiat which the author strains from it,) are the means immedi- 
jKely to be put in train for attaining thia ^nd, the four wheels 
whidi are to carry us progressively td the goal, to perfect 
equality of righta, interests, franchises and privileges ; resist- 
ing any ascendancy of party in the cocntaon-weal, is declared 
to be a measure necessary to and implied* in an adequate repre- 
aentation. - If that object be desh^le to-morrow, the means 
tnoat be, put in fbrwardneas to-day ; but many things prove, 
and amqng the rest the atile and sentimenta of thia paper, that 



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4<0 
miBmt nM §tt from htffAngk^ h i^dsisiHt i ^ vt uWmikfriUkht 

,.wid tbtft a |MiitiB< firths od^dMti&h,'»'^»f^a(«yV');Mlte^'tb*n 
i4h«>w|uil^. Under this 4ni|(i««iMHop^^(i)dtrtftfiy^Ai^ 
' • gttftli Iftit lli^ whtelft brolceH) #« ftid^itt; Hiitr llflf iMi driBfil 
and constitationar equality MAE ^Idttietit 1tt^Mtjkbl^^4h«t 
1 eome ptmi of penurioiiBt p<4ie)r wiR Uiktf it! {Alic^V^jM^^fi's teft 
'^ pUfRg^ Vt never to lo«e* night of the eomplelie ^^deti^aH'i^f 

• tber^atton^ and as we Valoethe end^'tD^brwarthdM^^MMtis 
omibrniremictingaethnty. Did coroptetejei^caiicimeMeiitadqr 

*i|ilace this imlaot; there i^omI^ pot huppettfiir « long M«>ioaii|eq[K»- 
} «#]i(y of politkid power, tlie a^auidon of whith imnt^^h^r tp«« 
. inra^dependoiftthegradadaeqaisltionoffvoptrtyy'Aiidtbireibre 

he gradual ilselfl As the Catholic huKllprd ]D0ueMtahitf^|iVQ- 
i testant tenantry, the Protestant landknda must^liihaMriQ« 
: ^uenoe over theiici, praportione^ i9 i}m o veipk srf pr openy 
. ja theivhsfidt at present ; and durii^^thUintei*«iA,^ti|eciDe9« 

tal subjection complained of|tho' by na mcem |iiftlj» nnsrtrdi^ 

• appear. But it is laughable to haiur this geotl^maa farming 
^ his ratios between the p<4Hieal powecof the €Bthp)iea an4 

iPresbyteriaBs, as if the latter had a abaiv in Ifoa -^cenama^ 

..-lagive away; as it theic okrgyhad. coMived tiF>«i^ ^^ 

: word Peotestant^ andput.PresbyterianasQeBdsMyiin^itaflace; 

V us if they were not themselves fed by royal te«Dt|F^Mi(thera 

vea natienal govccmnents as if tha4>ee)dl0.ihfMi aoy^watrol 

. efverjNtablished legisktars, estaUiahed jadgt8^iandeeta)b)||[lie4 
: ,e1ergy. Whatever the Presbyterjaii cbi^aiagr.ai^lipi^Jba 
->i)y are p^tty unanimous in wiriiifig i^r^fjia itiv^ftfgppl^or 
■J U)e peoplei, not of any party ; the ascendaoayio^r^driilawlily, 

. pot of any ch^irdi^ biit vhist thoiiM ba. cumd^pind^ilk Hut 

. ^utaar which this gentleiaaa and others, ataaiae im ^podiisig 
,;/iC^e Catholics^ ^hen thelitis litdeiliflEQreMa^twfefttilheai, 
fwJIiea tl^a nation is iinfeproieiite^ and-rwhefi taeqifjawiif 



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Ml 

ailitutioiHMd if, Wir«r«.|o giiQ ■dmisfion %o the Hgbti.of tnffv 
* nby ikflHiU KM9t <tbc^ ^^We bftiw no con«Ulu(wn to gtve or 
:«^^ fbolemUBt Urivi^ to get «new By ourselves irt slroTe jn 
:.viiuv»iUHl we must oov striTe all together. . 

u-.^ ^^;T)¥Wigh tbey should chuoge their ninds befere4h#j 
t hftve^blsined it ;" ihese words must mean, that though be&ro 
:trtbe«ttaipoieB% of a tel€rm> we should perceiTe the danger of a 
^ /MODiamMi of rigfau, yet by the test we should still be bound 
J» piocisro it< Not «t a)l.-^The test binds to two thSngsy «c|e« 
A^uaite reSsmi,; and companion of rights ; and should it appear 
' 4hat the latter woidd i>e>diBStnicltve ef the fyrwt, aa it wodd 
■iri that case b« iropoMible to prooute them oonjwntly, one 
Auot neeeasarily benelinquished; which should give wmy, tho 
i /sndor the Mtasa, is plain, aad indiis caie the soeiety is oot 
.. only JBStifiaUe but bound to change its mind^ aa well aathe 
. prosecniioft of their plan in some of iu parts. < 

^. 4. Thetsst,- it is said, obligts men always to retaiuthe 
b same opinion. I deny the assertion. It ia merely tv make 
< OQSMhiot Qimlbmable to Ihia profeasion' of principles. I volan- 
^ tarifyteok thatest, becauus the trudis ccmtained in it appear 
; to use to indubitable that the whole frame ef my mind most 
.' be^<Aauged belhre I change my opinien; Thirchange is1>y 
Mveaiis iuipossiUe, but it is so highly improbable, that act- 
i Hm aa^every man must do on high pvebabili^* I do not hen* 
. late to pledge myself te my country, that my conduct shall 
^.^ UtMSNle* with my dedarations t and If so improbtiMe a thing 
.^theuldhappeaaa a change of opinion^ I should not hesitate 
' ie deckle openly that aHeralioiv/ and Arow myself ito ^he^^m 
Sdiot^ my oeonlry> whom I heve attested- as wHtiestf, 'and 
.whom l^ippeAto tit Jud^. * I should 'in 11k& manner engage 
tveeiftiBiie a^feisUan, theiigb> it Is pos4ibl« my Ibtbre4>elief 
in thiit^doictrxne may be shaken. When the National As 



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Wj ci Fraice ertii swear that A^ wiU rapport tbe aqptUtiu 
4m» as «ksUistied in 90 And 91^ are they obliged for ever to 
^relttnihe sene i^ioion of tliat constitution as they do at pre* 
* «ent The test is solely meant to bind a man from altering 
Us conduct when he does not change his opinion, to prevent 
him paltering with his conscience, and prevent his tergiver*. 
frftioD. If a man really, and bona fide changes his opinion, 
liaiest, nor oath could be binding; and if his conduct he 
ihe same when his principles are changed, he must sin to his 
jCOMdence, and is perjured in that ease, not for breaking his 
oath, but lor keeping it. No oath could be taken without an 
^weeption of this kind* for he. who swears that he will always 
Ibftef lt>f samt opinion, swears to an impossibility. If our 
dsvdaraUon continues without disavowal on our part, and our 
.f^diict ^ntradicts it, we stand falsified to the psd>lic : if 
icwr pijnciples change, and our actions dp not dumge along 
with d^em, we are condemned by our conscience. 

5. The stile of this test is said to be d^amatcny, full of 
point aiid antithesis. I cannot discover through the whole 
pile eentenoe that is Dot substantial ; one figure of rhetoric, 
one pointed stroke, or one contrast of words and sentiments 
which creates an antithesis. To assert indeed that two nume- 
rous soeie&ies " with the best views and the noblest purposes," 
would vokiBtarily and deliberately form, take, tender, and 
adhere to an ' ensnaring^ oath, ^< the composition of a jesuiti* 
cid, riietorical, or enthusiastic mind, leading to intolerance 
and ispiritiud pride, and naturally engendering petulance and ^ 
fvige, low intrigue, and disingenuous artifice/ is not merely 
a verbid anti^>esis. It is an antithesis of the heart It is— 
but let me restrain myself. He is my countryman— ^rbsps 
my- friend. How can I make use of the weepons of invective, 
when in^ie opposite ranks I think I see a brother ?— The teit . 
is swCoiently definite and precise for the common acceptance , 
of many eenfirible and ingenuous men ; and the niunbezs thi^ 



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have taken and are dailj taking it, sofBcienily prore that ia to. 
It it not in the power of words to satisfy a hivyer oar a Ic^eian. 
One mnltfplies words, and the other splits meaning, until a 
plain head is bewildered, and a candid heart is disgusted. 
The style of thef test is a trifle.— Are the sentiments jast?-— > 
Is its spirit honest ? 

6. The United Irishmen would certainly rote for imme- 
diate aid universal enfranchisement to the Catholics; but if 
prejudices be still so strong as to make total emancipation iooh 
practicable, and that all the people of Ireland cannot as yti 
enjoy by law, what they are entitled to by nature, by merits 
attd by sufferings; the societies will still congratulate theii^ 
Catholic brethren diat their load has been lightened, that their 
deliferance is only protracted, and they wiU felicitate them« 
self es, in having been, as they #in be, in the misfortunes sff 
their countrymen, faithful allies; in their prosperity, if it 
should arrive, rejoicing friends. They, indeed, would make 
no terms with such a system of proscription ; nor enter inter 
any composition with an evil principle, abhorring as they do, 
that manichean policy which gives equal sway to the divine* 
genius of the constitution and to the demon of destruction. 

Far from temporizing expedients, or from allowing penal 
lair to debauch the spirit of that constitution, they would e- 
ject the incongruous and contradictory phrase from its very 
language. Far from huckstering the rights of roan, or fore* 
stalliog the bounties of God, they would like that divine 
word which said, let there be light, and chaos became order ; 
proclaim, let there be liberty throughout the land, and the 
present confusion would be peace. No. Not a perchance of 
persecution should remain, not a suggestion to intolerance, 
not a torpid statute which might find in the breast of any bi- 
got heat and venom. If this people really be as they are de« 
scribed, let op^h war be made on them : raze their habita* 
tiensand so^ salt around them'; but if they be misrepresent* 



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kd^, tft Qo awkwjurd and bungling oonpromiselie nutU n^itli 
inch ininou^ error^ nor let the public ibind and capacity be 
kept a sterile swamp, as long as foreign influence and interail 
maj think proper to retard its coltiTation. Had this brother- 
hood of affection, sameness of interest, union of righti and of 
exertion been proposed and prosiecuted 50 jeara ago, ikti^r^ 
sent would be a prouder day for Irakod ; bat ftitt its adoptin 
now may anticipate half a century the consummation of ctTfl 
and political religious freedoms— Our tjtM may still see oar 
country thrice blest before they close for ever. Mudi pro- 
gress in the conTersion of the Protestant mmd to soand po» 
Ikical justice, and pablic nlorBlity# has been made in a rery 
short time, and the objectiona pfered lo comprehending the 
Catholics in the constiiutipn, are such as atr&e most . at. first 
sight, but the effect of 4dl reasoning and c^fisideratioa on the 
subject, has been to lessen th^ first impression, 

7. The testis not an oath, nor are the ^nns convertible* 
It is not an oath, because neither .they who take it, nor the 
jMiblic, te whom it is addressedt understand it as an oath; 
Ko man can be ' entrapped' by giving a simple exposition of 
the principles which he maintained before his entrance into 
the society, and which if he does not maintain, he is unfit to 
be a member. There is always a medium between the ex- 
tmmei of ^is gentleman, and he would push us through the 
fiver while the bridge is just beside us» Thia iM is a serious, 
'fuanly manifestation to our teuntry and to the werid, of our 
political principles and our intended practica 

It is the essence of an oath to refor immediately to the di- 
vinity. In Ihe one, we invocate the vengeance of God as tiia 
penalty. In the other, we resign ourselves to the judgnaent 
Of the public. Tlie breach of the one is perjury. That . of 
the other, notorious political inconsistenpy. The one has the 
*ireaT of ^ religion impressed on.it The other is a j^ermancnt 
symbol, a civil bond of attachment to each other, and to • 



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m 

9ilfjpiP)ffC^Pf^%.^f^pne m a •olemrt manner, and with a neaM^ 
¥iSiWAS^^JSF¥^^ ^^ P^^'f^^'P^ of a^'inere pro&ilMf. 'YhcAr 

t^jii^^^lpk^^pd ycouid punish more aeyerely the breadi'Vif te^ 
i^t^^^^jthqt-^a premise. '^Tbere may iHi a promise— «^|Jkt^'< 
.*^^at^f^-:;V§rbid^^riUen — a test — and an oath the strictett 

, It 18 8aid> that the test witl bind an upriffht man as strict^i^* 

i^»J', \\ lit: r* . vv^ " -^ ■ VT ► "^ 

ly as hisoatb. and so will His bare promise; bat it is notthd 

'/TO 5M r.ii «"* • . , ^ . ^ 

lets true., that in seneral opinion, a test of this kind is at mwdk 
a simenor obhgation to a proodise, as it u inferior to an oath ; 
and in fuming socieiiesi we mait take the world generally^, 
tiot itidi vidualty. X telt ' WjUiobt haying ^ther the sanctiobi. 
or mcamng tne penalties of an oath, * takes a much stronger 
' lid of the mind ancf litienfory^ thari mere nominal subscript 



\ion^^oiteii'toigotten/0dnh^tiihM^<^^ It belts in a 

•qpety better, and gfverh (^tki ehergy. liistead of a mind 
uiiaMamifi^/ tLggriightt, ' ttoli^ i)Qt to a large surface. With** 
oat fliirehgth'o/eiAiesitfn/ iV ^lApresses mtia ate^d] 



i^tiipat'it; Aere w'aj, ad'fhifrrwibuYd be, volition without . 

1md('zeai-witi;cM]t,'afitn^^ ' 1 am ^f;^ sensible that alroag 

attractions gen^raie^ itiron^'kntipathi^ ; bonnay vol too flMrtb 

nicety and fastl^tioii^e^k ^^tdtidiM, mt of criticism, hart 

worse eJI'ec'ts, by ckttf^ th^ mi¥id dF fWm» the actire, Imng 

inasitj wrapping tt^tTp lB a lort bf sulfeti insulation, aactchad* 

'^ ginff to a pHIar of ialr,' wttsf Ira^a pillar of society. ^ > 

' '''" th^' getitfifmai^ cDhdciOiM, «hd pins the web of aophistlOr 

by confounding the- felVects of teligiout creeda and coafeaiio^ 

'mpos^byh'^M*a6thorily^ usiiapiag the f igbte of God, 

^ widi an engdg^^Mift*ptit«ly dfil, Tolantarily entered intab|»- 

* tweea man and Ara^ ; and by aobeming the principlc%af Pro- 

' tesUnt Dissetiti^s to giya «yuleiie» against, their pr^cv^ m^ 

honora^fe conduct as tiltfti and citieens. . , i 

' T ^include by- 'inyfn^, that ^ iher author of Aia pfpet de* 



ninifijfid hv ^ 



.GooqIc 



486 

mmn mwdx gri^ter craUt for fab eoonig^ than hia predcBet; 
Mdl thinkmudithesaineofhuBMof ItadaSy to whom Um 
Sphori dacseed a cnMm m hoior of the valor he had dupUj« 
«d, but tmpottd on htoi a hmerf fin^ far hanring fiiui^ widi» 
4fttt6itharahtridorhMkkr. vcunsAairSl, 1791. 

StRICTURE, 

NO. II. 

ON THE TEST OF THE UNITED IRISHMEN. 

Orkon ptimitenu, ei men oion te, cis t paa ; ei de me, fdL t« 
enonto^ sncTct. sitchib. Mb 

Aroid to otth, if pewible, altogether ; if not, at fiur u jou cas. 

THIS teat if an inttnunenl^ calcalated to affect the sentu 
mania and conduct of the nation on a -wrg impoitant ({uei* 
tion. Its ttmcture and tendency should therefore be freely 
and niinutaly es^aminad; and thoofh U way be impossible to 
critiinse it without some reference to the mind whidi OBOoel- 
Tad it, and the hands which pat it in motion^ it must oerav* 
thelass be discyssad. ' Truth mast never be sacrificed out of 
tandameai to error, ttbas accordingly been taken to pieoea. 
It has been demoostn^ed, that if undarstoad in a Utesal aena^ 
it is absurd^ iaunoral, and ineffective. This sense is th er efa w 
not only given op by its advoeates^ bat eagerly *^!«^itf^^ 
Nay^ an attempt to give it thia oonstruction has been styled 
aaptious and absurd. This is what the writer of the atrictnres 
azpeeted and waited for. He wished to know whether this 
interpretation would be abandoned, before he pr oesa J e d 10 
complete his plan. He has now asoertaiued, that the mast 
aealous IHetids of this eogag^unent, lelinquish the grammati- 
cal «igoi%aatton ; and that he may, without interraplion, at* 
taaapttoshow, that in its rhetorical aense, itisnagatoyand 
folladousi 

The 'r&Marical senaa of an aadi si such a Indicroos idta^ 



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4«T 

that be would nat use the expreMion could he find another tB 
describe the construction new i^ven to the test ; but when he 
considers the capricious significations which its interpreters 
have imposed on the plainest words, he must think that ^ey 
have been swearing by trope and figure. 

We are now taught— 

1st. That a test taken in the presence of God is not as strict 
a de, oor consequently as obligatory as an oath. 

2d. That by this engagement.a.man is bound to use only'at 
laach of his abilities and iniuenoi ai he pin ^>are. 

Sd. That an impi^rtial reform is synonymous with a partial 
one« and ouy exclude a great majority of the free agents of 
the Irish nation (even leaseholders for 999 7^^ provided it 
include Roman Catholic freeholders. . 

4tlL That an union of power among jfrishmen of all re* 
li^ous persuasions signifies only common exertion, and that 
tiiough this is a means of immediate necessity, it is only to be 
forwarded progressively on four wheels; or, as it was lately 
expressed, from time to time, as speedily as the circumstances 
of the country and the w^fare of the whole kingdom will per- 
mit. 

5th. That the test does not oblige men alwayii to i^tain 
the same opinion ; that they are, consequently, bound only 
while they are taking it : because they nay change their 
cpinions the next moment, in which case, no test, no o^th pai) 
bind them ; that many, perhaps all, may have changed their 
minds and consequently at this day neither their associates 
nor their country can depend upon their engagement 

And 6th. That if before the atUinment of a reform, ife 
should perceive the danger of a communion of rights, the Ca« 
tholics may be left in the lurch, consistently with this test 

With the help of these data, let us now paraphrase this 
HSghgate oath, agreeably to the mental reservations ^ one of 
the tJoAed Itiahmen and its ^filest defender. 



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4U 

If A B, .do not swear, hut merely id the presence ^f Ood^ 

pledge myself to my counUy, that« tiU I think better of ,^, J 

^iiirill use as moch of my abilities and idflnence as I can spare 

in the attaipment of a partial, which I deem ^an adequate 

representation of the Irish nation in Plirliament $ and 'as si 

.means of absolute and immediate'nec^ssity, m $he establisli* 

,:raent of this chief good of Ireland, I will, unless I change my 

' mind» endea'vor as much as lies in my inclinatron, to forwani 

„ pfogressively a brotherhood of affection, an identity isf niter- 

est, & communion of rights, and a common exertion -aoKini^ 

Irishmen of all religious peisroasionf -) mitheiit which every 

reform in Parliament must be . partial— ^^nd, any thing herein 

ixmtained to the contrary notwithstanding, I pledge Myself ia 

fhe presence of God,^ thi^t no partial reform -can. be itAibnal^ 

bqt must be inadequate to the wants, delusrre^r the wishes, 

jgid insufficient for the happiness and freedom o^this oountiy. 

This seems to be the spirit of the oath ; but be it censtrvied 

QS it will, it cannot answer any valuable purpose. .There are 

l^ut three ends, that such an engagement can be intended 4o 

imawer — security to one's self— to his associates-^-or to bis 

.country. -."■ 

1. With regard to the person himself, I adroit that the 
phraseology of an oath is of little importance. It is asi^ afl^ 
. between him and his Maker, who are both acquainted with 
t^e real intention. But at the same time, it is altogetbv un- 
necessary to express his sentiments by words» to .him «sho 
searcheth the heart. Though the style, however, b^ a oen- 
aideration of no moment, the purposes to ^ich we bii|d our- 
, selves should be carefully scrutinised ; and their obaracter |^aa 
been well expressed in these wordfr-i-4he truths contained in 
; ih€ oath or vow should appear to bC'Sie indubitebk» thst the 
whole frame of my mind must be changed before Icanohasige 
spy opinion. Now men who have had. mudi commerce with 
irist men^ f^ viththemtelveiu %ill^drait that.fiiic^^tbs ar» 



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m:.^. 



4129 

not ierf 'titftoefGtot ; tnt^ ttm nf ^ £6w ^f them hehmg to the 
dmM of politicti at to any dther branch of knowledge. As '« 
j'cmarkable instance of thb truths I ahall refer the reader to a 
composition*, which I esteem the roost exquisite morsel of ge- 
. nius and eloquence that this island can boast ; as I esteem the re- 
puted author to be the roost eminent ornament and ablest 
adrocatc, decutt St tutamen, of the Catholic cause. If such a 
person has clianged^ as, 1 am well informed, he has, which of 
the United Irishioen will pretend to be iramatable ? Such a 
TOW is therefore altogether unuecessarj and precipitate. If 
«there be any danger of a change of opinion, it is rash ; if 
there be none, it is plainly superfluous. 

S. It is equally vain to imagine, that a rhetorical, vague, 
. and declamatory form of words requiring so much ingenious 
explanation, and liable to be understood in such a variety of 
aenses, can give any assurance even to associates. It can ne- 
ver prevent a man from altering his conduct when he doee 
not change his opinion — for if he be capable ef acting contra- 
ry to his principles, he will make no Scruple of belying hia 
I wpmion, or pretending to change it : espedally as he has been 
taught that his declaration does not refer immediately to th% 
' Deity, who is the sole witness of his dissimulation, but tQ his 
country, from whom be can conceal it ; that he does not invo- 
( cate the vengeance of God, but simply resigns himself to the 
judgment of the public, who know iH>thing of the matter j 
end that hia crime is not perjury, but secret political incdn- 
tfatency. 

3. Now, if a man may slip out of this noose without the 

^ knowledge of his associates, how can an engagement (\t6m 

which he ia at liberty to swerVe upon every change of' opi- 

Aion,' reapeeting very nice and difficult qaestions» give any 

■rity or assurance to his country f 

•• Bar Mb kttei' df OuiLLAjri^ ^ IfiW, 6f tfca wSrk.*^^ *" *'**' 



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TUkmdtp ibea, kmotctfcolctBdtdrtiiiwcrairf onej^odd 
pnpme; hut, Vke alt other cii§(ig6tti^t» of tiifs klntt, ft tttlT 
mhanentMe etcsLCf m fomenting UgoXry, 9ndbkni9hing\U 
Iftni &mt enlightened men fh« everj society id which it is 
iflopoHed. It seems to inspire thos^ who hare taken it with a 
notioB that they are the chosen fisw, frodi whom alone their 
<Auntry am hope for redemption^ and that pcditical orthodozj 
y confined within the pale of their society. They shoi:dd am- 
aider, that whatever may be thought of their intentions, these 
alsodations are condemned and shunned by those who fohoAw 
)y gave iaeontestable proof of wisdom and patriulism ; that 
laany of the most enlightened and liberal men in the natioii 
think they hare greatly injured the CathoCc cause ; and that; 
bf the precipitate and unqualified manner iu which they ha^e 
titcid the qitestion, they have awakened antipathies and pre- 
JQ^Kces ^hfch had slept Ibr 50 years. To eotne nearer home, 
tiMiy have exposed the Protestant Dissenters of tJlfter to gtoaa 
misrepresentation and groundless calumny— they have nearfy 
annihilated the honorable lUid useful influence which the towh 
df Belfast itiaintained in the aG^acent country ; and if the jMw 
1]^ popular candidate fbr the representation of the ceun^ i^ 
AiHrim^ shall meet with any serious oppositidn«-H3)r if the u« 
irtoii and independettce of the county shall be endang^red^ it 
lirill be owing to the violence and imprudence of those who 
Irttempted to connect the independent interest with the Somas 
CatfaoKc question. 

^Notwithstanding their monthly of philanthr^y, the wri- 
ter of these strictures must say« that no man wishes more ar« 
<lently tor the time, when the good of ^e whole kingdom wilf 
adAiit of a complete coalition among its inhabitants. No man 
idofe zealously exclaims—- 

«<Quis finis erit discordiarum ?-»Ecquando communem 
bane esse patriam licebit ?" 



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4tl 

ANSWSR. 
• no. n* 

VO T«K CONTINIf ATtOlf OV 

VBE-tTUCTUKES. QW THE TS8T49f T9IB 

UNITED IBIMiiEy. 

«<ll«'OMit If wMwat fttUt wwFWi #wi #ie top VikHn ghM l U 

THE eontianatioii of strieturet on ibt tett» adds m neW 
edar, %ai ihi now liglit to the tiAJeet After liaving deriten- 
«d plabi meaniDg by Terbel crklcisiiiy it is now mtde to «S» 
•aoM the fUi% of theloric ; and the dexterous hand only Aif^ 
the prism whieh spliU the beam of truth. All that is said 
here has heen better said before, and it is only necessary to 
j^aoe^ne paraphrase opposite to ano^er in order to corred 
piUpable misrepresentation. 

Mf, A B, do not swear, bat merely in the presente of 
God, pledge myself to my country, and take it to witness^ 
that, milil I Aall rsally and truly think diflerently on the sub* 
jealy Iwill use as much of my abilities and infhience, as lean 
apaffolirom my other neoessary and important concerns, in the 
aUaamcot of a representation of the Irish nation in parlia- 
ment, iaspartial, with respect to all religious distinctions, and 
adeqoate, wMi respect to the body of the people at large ; 
and as A means of absolute and immediate necessity, in dio 
establishment of this chief good of Ireland, I will, unless I 






* Issdts was 1 Sparttn,— whs, though he fcu^^ht nuked, •* with- 
•ut shield orhuckler,** sgainft an enemy smied at all points, retnrn* 
ed Tktorknis, and without m wound, after exerting himself tQ «Mra 
•hk country frsm bsiog n^osd in sue daj bj a host of Boeotisni. 



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really and in truth cbarige my conrc(ft>h htiXtti mAijeep^ 
deavor, as much as li«» in my ability, to formal ^ t p^ HsUti^ 
ly» a brotherhood of affection, aii Mentity of hlterevt.'^Aaeffu 
munion of rights, and a joint exeriion among IHshmen #f itt 
religious persuasions; without wl^ich, any reform In piHi»* 
ment must be partial ; and nothing herehi contiined being ib 
the contrary, I pledge myself in the same presence, that it Is 
Bsy opinioo, that no pertial nsform can be national, %ttt meit 
. be inadequate to the wants, delusive to the widies, andfal« 
•ufl^ent for the fbedom and hi4>piness of this cwtntrfJ*^*^ 
The term 'immediaite' is plainly applied to difSt ifeoei^ 
which it certainly- absolute and urgent, though the Ivoth^^ 
bood of aflfection can net be immediately accompIUied, bbt 
only progressively forwarded. 

This continuation seems written to pay a complTmen^' niidl 
to6xan imputation, ''Commendatio ek injurii!.'^ ' Toliat 
imputation of inconsistency, it seetns only necessaiy to reply^— 

^. The circumstances of the times, lis weH at persoiUf, Jiiv» 
changed, in the very manner wished for, and the midcl oMmI 
change along with tfaem. To cemmerdal ifittrtilt, a tMBe 
and mediating rank hat rapidly grown- op in th6*<>ctbolic 
Conununity, and produced that enlargement tff Mind^^tfiat 
energy of character, and that self-dependente^bioWaesjao- 
quire whose interests do not hang at the mercy oil thia-erAai 
individual, but on general contumption* WiH janypepoa 
assert that such men are not at Well quaUied ta eiWErise ^wSk 
franchise as the most of our 40s, Protestant fret hey trt» wjio— 
corruption is in reality oocsistotted by the nnyul par^ligp of 
political power, and ^ho are tempted to convert t^ieymfno* 
poly into moniey, because its partial distribution ha% gifffn it 
an aitificial value much beyond what nature andiiaatw^oir 
it The unjast cfetention of^ Hbevty fnomolbei^,, operatfM* * 
curse and a blast upon those who havo boarded the p^o^^osoa 
good. It rots in then^posseiibiQOt^ Jt'MiTi^[>t»iriKB>:.QOt.pa»» 



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CooQie 



MS 

taken*; aod*b» mho hs9 more than his ex*ct shnre of freedom^ 
becofoei ifl one sitimtio i of life a tyrant, and m annther, dege- 
nenitet and putrtfies into a sbre. It is the jud<rmerit of God 
on all nations and all wen who presume to appropriate Kis 
gifU, and to make of ri|jbt a privilege or n prerogative. The " 
Catholic mind has ca«^t off its feudality, and that person would* 
in truth be inconsistent who kept prejudice as it were at ntirse^ \ 
when by nearer approach and closer acquaintnnc**, he finds in 
that body a^ationatity of sentiment, and a fidelity in engage- 
menty demanding respect and admiratioii ; while he knows it 
«taha his- general duty as it Is his dear delight, to fosftr the 
sqMTtt of freedom wherever it may be found, especially in the 
breaata of his countrymen. 

2. It is in reality the civil incapacity which has made and 
: nnut continue the mural incapacity. It is the will to^ be free, 
which makes the capability ; ami the first sigh that the heart 
tends forth for liberty is a sufficient indication of potency ta 
) . eagoy it« To affect a wish for their abilitj to possess freedom, 
f jwhik you continue the peoal code which makes them iacapa« 
' ble^ it cniel mockery^ A capacity for freedom is as natural to 
vma as a capacity to eat or to drink ; it is an instinct of na* 
fun, nol A come^nence of education. Man is often indeecf tbe 
■cpesinre o£ habit, and he. may learn to be a slav^ aft be may 
k«rn to'drink alcohol, and to eat asa-fioetida, bnt you will^ ne- 
ver break him of these bad customs by degrees; it is only by 
giving a complete wrench of the mind to an opposite direction. 
ThrdeoUrineof natur4d rights is plain, simple, commonsensi- 
ca> ; and the prvbtical enjoyment of them requires no tuition, 
mr any course of adoption. Rights most unjustly have been 
eonvertetl into favors derived from the gratuitous lenity of go* 
vemment, and are now to be purchased as a licence ; when it 
' was solely for their, plenary enjoyment t^at men entered into 
mil society. — Magna Charta need not be taught like the^ 
' pnncipbi of Newton, and tliC: iightt of personji sccnrityj" 

1« 



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A 



414 

perponal fratdom, private propert/^ the right of d^fcud- ^ ^ 

t«}BaH^frM|.4i9ddbeil^l^rtVit«|e'Vf%i^^ 

n^p4 ^ tsetCHi^ tlnii with judjba^oi iind pnideu^ la, 
ft alJIt^ of imtare wm sfaottld kfiow ifaem wetl^ and Govcnunent . 
hM'toaoflenbeeD enly a loeans add an art to render and. 
fccipp^u»-i|peianl of fondaaamitid rightd and of out pninai/ .^ 

What hat Isadaa done ? He hat cbnftninded the test with 
thttnalitotion.«*iIe hat daaaped at far at in him lay« toe first 
hai^ efforttto' Slake an1ini<^ ofheadt and hearts in tni^ dis- 
tracted cottotrj^ He has held bat tlietOwn of Belfast jm a spojLf^ 
•f tobittn 4Qd dhc^d, wh^ In ieaiity, there'^is an evident cor- „ 
Mmdence of opinion, and he has concluded with iui emptr 



rctj 



wistvand an helpless eicTamation. , 

It. 3dfttt Ih a ttate t>F'%ivit disCford If Does every maa 

•msAU^ck anda nkask ? Or ik it only ttich papers at the^ - 

., i * '^'^ *•<* ^ ^^'* 

wbiohiJ^iaiBod&ifiliobi and have created that division which, 

. , •' -.^ ,''*'• ►^''^* 
they did not 6nd ? Doet neighboor viitt defghbouir at ,l>^^ 

or do tbe& (iMr«bou£at ratidom injurious epithets': and hat 

the unfoB otpartlet in every othelr place heeti, there, convert* ^ 

ed into a brand of contention } 1 JTe^l for the nonor o/a towm t r 

whiqk i^tfayt $Wf$ forwaitl fVo£ki'U>e ranks of their country- .^ 

nen^ ijik tho ardor of a ^ood caake and in the coura^ouf^tpjrit ;^ 

of tnmim^J^ ^ I ied fW the soda! character of a place w^ioh. ^ 

* |£ Uie.pef^ tf JSaUtit ttto to be denominated Bootiaiis^ I . 
fhcmld resemble tbf^ ta 0^ sacred batodlbn of tht( petif\e\ Miucb:^" ' 
waysled the way in tl^e battles of Gre^ce^ a Jbaad ctMkaii^Vi^^ ^'''^ 
rablj united, end pledged to o^b o);bec»—PUllip destroyed ^bimti^. ^'^^ 
bort rsnd'ieeing tfoni stretched on the field of battle, ,cove^ fliln .t * 
koooxabk WoujMs, iBfl Tying side bjr side on tbe C; $;ugd,i^^(^^bf iy , 
had baao stationedj be wept* and the lears .af tbe iy^^ bore ^ tMtj:^ j 
ai«ry.^i*lftiiti«tttea«l-ttlk''^fn- "^^''' ''';^ ^*"' '^"^ ' 



."d 



i»ov. :^ I*-'. ' 



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"t^'slyK^no been like a 1f^r£fnftWfibjr# pewft.towlrvWiil^'ifi^'^^ 

iioa/ aud rmainVm, tWIiJidnottbe tQHH goM «■ fitralli it"^ 
9 there wpulcl not have bf^fojomtlv oompamtiiV'dMmtaeit ' 
but positive disupiopj qot ^ ($#i»f)f 00 between cfait^ far an^ ' 
9tin faHher : but the oppofitjptijielveesi adviuioiM'«!l g\f, aiif "^ 
Standing stilL There ar^ now but shades of distinction, mt ' 
all hasten to the same ^Q4;^f^i .different degrees of teiwiij ; 
but t'here niig^t have been i^ djrUipn of the'town into4bit^ 
reu not^Wo nominal .pfirt^Qi, ,an^ one^^eaie |»Tliif adtii^ety 
inianicaf to the verj cause, wUc^j'sno^^^de^* cqpliiMm one i 
Bimiist IS thcirafVire ^united #3.^ev^« msid- vece any ii^diumi* ^ 
gentleman to sar the contrarj,^ f^^^.^^* >^dd, thai it is lostsjpits^- 
iui]^rtan'ce In tile prorinoe by aj^serti^ Ih^cattse of thtf fta« 
tion. or that its care fpr the happiness of Iroland wiU ba^afA 
ita inflaence at a county election, no inbubitflnt of BAiUt ' * 
sboc^d on this account ipse bis tesaperf butiAduM only bovr; " 
and say. Sir, you are a stranger, 

tlie iLJmted Societies lure ^ discoTi^ im national poficy^ " 
Miosi auspicioos to radical reform, .and thc^ horror with which ' 
mdnlnistrat^on ^iews themj. Is the best proof of their Talne to 
Ireland.' Vhat the. CatWblics haTe obtained from the English ' 
Minister, has, I assert^ been owing to their formation i and " 
what the Catholics have to obtiiin, will be accelerated hy Shth*^ ^ 
continuance. To reject and condemn the whole on account 
of the* restrictions which some of them have adopted, is to fea« 
son inp|;ica]ly ; and to throw cold water npon this pure and' 
patriot}^. flaas^. will only 6erve» I tmst, to make it bum morie ^ 
atronglj^ aiMl m^rs clearty. Meh will not hang loosely on , . 
society;- bilt unite together ; and what is now jn^rely anmgr .« * 
ber, wffl'b^cbtne' i nition. \ ' ^ ^, ,. .p. ^ ,^ .,; .n o.-' b.j 
I haVSdfonewrtii this altercation. , jnniJsnisDlestMMBti "''* 
periculum ^uam propulsantL I shall only repeat, that accord* 



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45« 

idg to the doctrine of Isadas, none dmld' tii1^^''A"tAt? '<)«Hl 

could make an oath, but that beft^ who'sWeahl "B^lilttM^ 

and w!iose counsel is immutable. With res{ie^ Uf%iWi m^ 

tency in the pamphleteer of' \184, the iffegttlaflKljr 0f miAiati 

18 apparent, rather than i*ea1. ti if not hi th^ hoty miffeA, 

but m the eye that perceives it ^o a pettoti |>lateA'1tt1lto 

frigid and unsocial Saturn, the planets appear how' itittonity, 

now progressive, and 'now retrograde. Yet the ipottbti of tlfe' 

most insignificant among them is simple, regular, oAifoitik, 

progressive. He sails calm and serene through tfte paoifte 

ocean of ether, and keeps close to the sua of truth, frotn whiib 

he derives his light and which guides his rotation. ^ 

A QdcoiiAii. 
JWkfdltfO, itW.' . . . v - 

• % 

* ^ ' COKCLI^SION or THE , . 

STRICTURBSON THE TJQST OF THKU|J|TED IBISHMEK. 

TFTE original meaning of the test has been a^ndonecl ; 
and its new tense is not worth an attack or a defence. In the 
course of repeated distiDations its spirit has evaporated. It was 
at first poisonoi?s— 'tis now rapid. TTiis portentout weteor 
has^roved to be nothing tnm'e than a WHI-witb^a^wiapv-tan 
Innocent display of electrical light ; followiog and abrmin^ 
those who fly ; shrinking from him that would grasp it ; and 
ansiteHng no other purpose than to lead men into ibe mire. 
The test, then, I leave to its fiite ; and let the Irtah Banfe^ fa 
their expected meeting at Belfhst, ting its re^piia% 
■ et magna supremutn voce eiere. 



lie o sic 'posit nm- 



— — — — Rtema psce quieseat. i^ 

With regard to the concluding paragraphs 4Sf tlia ^per 
figned a Boeotian, let two or three obwrvations saffice.* ^ 
Previous to 1778, uome progress bad betn made Ui^ficv 



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JWtiw Wf flB grapt^, Fromtfeajt ijeriod till 1784, tbey.w^re 
ill^Q^fKVratefl wi^ lhp/Bfote$fantyplttnt«er8* Yet they coit- 
$iM»i, iOJtfe«.qpimQ?i./?f Orellai\a, who wr^tc in iW y^, 
^ibO^pnl)!^ p£ \i\^rXy, ., But 4trange to tj^ll ! ftiDce Parliament 
jdif^nff^ itf good4ifBpQ9^'Sinc^ the Volunteera in the fioman 
<^o}i9,pr9vipcf;8ji|iU.d^jrp thii^ir arpii, they havc^aa it w^ft 
JPU ffagip*."^C9yirc4 anfi^ig^meDt of miDc)^ .and^n enf^r^ 
4^ charact^r^ , apd are. ai w^ll q;i^ified t* exerci9e the ^ethie 
Irapchii9^jias>n>0^t.of the F^ofestant forty^-sbillii^g free-boldjers.'* 
Xb<i,%;t I am not jriaw cJUpating. I )>€V«r thot^t it tht 
liinge of the cop^rovetsy. I c^ly note the inoonaklency. 
^ ^ Agaip-Kthough the Catholics oontiiitted incapable in 17B4, 
ir{t M/n assured, that '^ it h the will to be free that «iakea tho 
capability ; the first sigh tha^ the heart sends forth for libertf 
is A sufficient indicati6iv of potency to enjoy it. The cooclu* 
Stan \9, that till 1784, Uie Catbdica had never £bmed a wisb» 
or sent forth a ^gh for liberty. But enoagh of Uus. The lion 
io the net became an object of pity /$v^ to the mouse. 

Lastly— *I am blamed for having iqsiuiiated, that a divert 

r ' asty. of opinion l^voik in.Belfasty and blabbed a secret known 

* ifo. 20,900 people. Two bUBdred and fif\y persons, including, 

irilb vary few exceptions, aU the inhabitants, who had ever 

distn^uisbed themselves by al>ilitie8, and patriotk eaertipn, 

signed ft CDuater-^eehratioo rtoa petition, subscribed by six 

- bondred, Tiia first dob ^f United iri^roea, we are now told, 

^'"dWbrad 'firam both; from 'the minority, because they voted 
i^nst Uwioa ;^ firam the petHion for immediate and universal 
anfrandiisement, because they are sworn to furward the 
ijaeans of reform progressively ; and if the roeins be piu»<:p-cs» 
aive, the end cannot be immetliate. Among i!)Ose, who-sign- 
.-•4 dlD patiMV, -«9a>e^ subscribed it for tf}e sake of unanimity, 

, others <m.*he.prij»oipJe, of a sturdy beggar, asking too rruch 
iA^rd9r.^i>blMn^n»atbio^^ Lastly, there ^re man^. indivi- 



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dada who do Dttt approve o^ aV)^ ^fth^f 09||^iwj^aij(HNfr 
pflffitl^: ' NAwiUutaricIing ari this^^ I^^»)oy^^tyj|f ma^oHw** 
tfam^ the public, thai thr town i^jif,jiig;ai)fp)|^(^g^ilaiMfaii I 
btt« riot cfotj^rf, rojr fiflgenmus Cprr^^^f^q^»^jt«jMklTi;!i»4(3 
▼itt^cateii ttil> unanitnit J of Belfast on the C|\|^v>lJ^^*^^>^^<^^^'' 

I despito the quackery of a political empiric^ ^ A 4Mg«1ar 
atate phjaician woakt lifd Siigildk the niitvve of the|;oiB« 
plaint; bot woiild "vrmlch'^tl-'iytniJi^s '^ana investlpCe it« 
proximate came. Tbiaheironld find to b^W^O^S^- 
tion, of an inflammatory nature, occaaioninjg^ an abscess, and 
threatening a raortifica^onV 'He Would discorer, that all die 
pns and Tiriie oC'tiif^bady< (KflRio;^ lnl»^(K^^^ hf 

the milder juices^ and circalatii)g inHe»ceiw^y*'^^ip Ai gfr Yhk 
fraWte, We been collected into ^ one pa»t^ aod^ iMpf ittfflf^^ 
indufe ferer, and indicate dissolution^ . Inr«ti»«'W(cft^^e^^' 
a part of the community have been fltoludfii^ thpiMelV%«^fi4Ui^^^ 
the Vise and temperate, am1« lest, they «beiikl«be*»ilf8taf4i^^''' 
by such intruders, hare established i^ ^H* to eaMltflAeTlV^'''^'* 
man that would be disposed to enl^lten ihA^A9^i^e^/4[^*' ' 
modci^te their Tiolence. r- * l^*^ '-'"^^ iubi^^ 

I must still insist, that with regard to lh«!fimatf«ii))rifilil? ^^' 
of tlfc Ho'man CaUiolics, ,|](^ seprtinientti are-.nnt ItWfelJifckf^^*' 
than those of the United Irishmen. The diff rcQ^st'^iCvittiaC^ 
in our modes ^f operation. I unnlil jiiMl(i.ni|iu jjujiifiiifii k i 
and amtipatkied by«ap; they would cany th|ap;^^by 9toW*l^j^ ^ 
With les^^ to their societies, too, I ba^e,ne,ffir wjrtiniltvru:^^ 
impeach their intentions : I haYe onl^ ^ueftioned;^iiirir «ii«l^-^'> 
dom. -^^ I nerer attempted td £x a stain on th^^f^ipl^roisdO'Sft 
any oflilefr members : some of them I, Md^^if^ 4^iMKb^ y>^^* 
estimation^ knd "hi^^ been liappy in callinp inxiftj^^q J|tnoUs| 
comnaeneiitg tMi'tontroveray, I sacrificed. iyf^^ft5|5jOT%fl> «i a^oi 
•ensf of d«ity ; but i^hen^once en^faged^, J ^^ifrmjff^^Mi M<>dlfi3 
stint my ciMs^. ' In this Tine t have p0rsefef^|j|yM|^ ieiir»vfJa 
sibli tBat the Cspfi): de Corps lias an mi^i^^^f^p^ ^i^Nfv^Haq 



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lgt^lll#>'^tti»f liihiabU taindt, cloucW !;hei\beti'i»dfh»t 

itinding/'Md'hirit^l^rdtentinf: the niost innocept i?sBii9Mi4)im t 

1 Aibc>'4Mfivt^')ieMl{ 4^lt]!'t&t Mlt^^ I hope ntitlM^r p»r?(( 

t)f>i«ilU' hMd'kiif^'k^^kii Worii. Aud ' I eonelttdt vUb t^ 

"^>* or But iiie kisses of ap <memf> ar# je«eitfuK" 



' ^ ^ffU^ SOQIBTY OF UNITED I RISHMEK. 

4^ t^.CpQtoer'|MMt«f tf)is irolame, we have gtTen all thoat 
doqiftifii^ !is^A«anti^Hiatesd by tKe strength of their reasoa- . . 
iag^f^jtiifhW^fft^^t}^ <^ their eloquence, to dtaaemiiutf ^ 
tbroi^t^'^^'iri^^^^'^^^ the principlea of civil and religioua ^ .^ 
ft^cf^WP^ * ^We have aee^ ^be most dii$tingu!shed men |of Bel- 
fast fifiifig^m thft pind^let so strongly recommended byjj^heir^ 
heat jipj:|iAW##t i WfHara. We ftee the fruiti of this action in tli« 
cordial union and harmony of all denominations of Irisbmeu-— 
the E^i^f^^l^mt tiilbr^6ing the CatholTc— assisting him by hia 
eoonfi^ ^0 encouraging him by his spirit. 

Bat:lbe'PV(Meitant of Ireland if as not merely anxious te 
promnt»||Nr"^d£Daikdpation of his Catholic countiymen ; he as** 
[urcd.ciD a(^ Ugher and more important object— he labored to 
aecQjmi(i>ttt€t ^tie liberty of all in the reform of the |ri#li 
l9gialaMe^>imd to effect thb great object so interesting an4 fo 
nee^Atf^'W^h&aoid the dreation of a society called Jtbe iS^-. 
€i€iy ^i^:&dtdl ^hisAmen, t>ound together bj naolenm <iblt<* 
g^tMoa^ pitte^^by all constitutional and leg$l pi^AM^ a r^ . 
fiirm tmfft^Gi^fdrdoSs House of Parliam^ . 

CatboM Jflfid^tfte' Trdtettant Would ,be M^tlo mora t^um .t^« 
•UveatlfH l^ffl^^^'fl'li^'tf^^^ T^e pbMpfi^^^Qim toii > 

parlu mw» ^ <JAFhi|>ttd^° was 'noi%;rious. The submiaaioa of 



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source of perpetoalcoraplaBt and iiitokl^)^^j^:|[|ai|pc^^ No» 
thing, therefore^ said tb^ ptttnols of the Njoi^tb^ 4K0tili^^id 
union cyf all paitiefi» hy whicb tha ] 
quivockUy conveyed to the gorerni 
will protect the nation against the 
despotism of three hundred tyrants 
• mote their own aggtandiaenient on t 
' The greatest enemy which the S 
eYer had,* had thp candor to admit, 
the suppression of ajl the worst pass 
the progeny of a long tntervai of reli 
tky^— of a cruel penal codei whieh-b 
people ^hnse^ nati? e disposition wai 

siieial charaoter;— The United Irisli Society brought men oT 
all descriptiotis together; ittoreoflT the mask with wluchr^i* 
gioui bigotry had so long concealed each man's face from his 
neighbour — it exposed the real enemy, and directed the public 
nftind to the radical cause of all the evils which visited- the 
imticm — it united the North and the South, the East and the 
West in one common bond of affection, and like the principHe 
of Freemasonry, made every IHshVnaii a. brother/ no matter 
wliat his religion or his station* So^grealand farmidab)^ a unioa 
commanded a hearing ; the government had therefore t wo alter* • 
natives— to choose either to put down this society by foroe, er 
ta.' yield to its wishes by the reformatton of ^le' Irisiliegriala* 
tare. DespeTAte as the former alternative waiy Mr. Ptlt» who 
wimnot to be intimidated by the appr^ehensism (0f^«d ttUk re 
beilion, embraced it in the sanguine hope,- thaTfltfoli a «tnii^ 
g)e nright lead not only tothe'ettrftctfon^dfitlN^VnMI Uhh^' 
men, but to the extinction of the Irhh^ Legg s kttt i ti mtA^be- 
am^ihilalion of Irish Independence. Having' takaMtMrtte^-^ 

• iord Claffc - 



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441 

.Woti> ha ciMd not how uma^ ivifgnAlmi% k^ tbrew into Uie 
<up to «ece1eait* the iMamtl Smf^^-^tt ac^ tbt Catholic %- 
^aiAit die Protestant, Jtnd Ibe Protestaot agaioat the (^h^ 
^ic He held out hopei to the latter, merely to blast theqp^ 
4ind promisefl'unliioited asxrendancy to the ProtetUnt. in osder 
to exasperate the Catholic. In this desperate crisisji the So- 
ciety of United Irishmen departed litim then* ori/^inal pur* 
pose, and merged into the iriews of the cammon enemy. It 
became, in the bands of the amhitioas, a powerful engine of 
annoyance, and, were it not for the occurrence of those roia- 
{fortunes which no human ferestght can effectually guard «- 
gainst, the Minister of England might have had to re^i^it 
of his determination to drive Ireland into rd>ellion, Fortuoe, 
liowever, favored Mr. Pitt in the struggle, and the result has 
been the ' annihilation of Ireland's national independence. 
The following are some of the ablest appeals made by the So« 
'^ty of United Irishmen to their fellow-countrymen.— ^ 

September Uth, tTM. 
SOaETY OF UNITED IRISHMEN OF DUBLIN. 
THE HON. SIMON BUTLER IN THE CHAIR, 

TUT FOLLOWIVe AD9BZS8 WAS UVA^riMOUtLT AOaCEO TO FAOH THIS 

SOCIETY 

TO THE NATIO:^, 

WE observe with concern and indignation the insidious 
means employed to stiHe the X^alholic^oiccin its humble re- 
presentation of the grievances ipithic^h afflict the people, and of 
the remedy specified to redress them. ^ We lament that men 
of any pretensions to common sense and public spirit should 
liave been blindly seduced into the publication of the most 
flagrant absurdities, calumnies, and libels, against the most 
oppressed, patient, and numerous description of our feHow- 
citizens. That such publications should have issued from the 



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M2 

grftnd«}upy»room cannof be matter of stirprii^. Since the 
nomination of Sheriffs nas been transferred from the People 
to the Crown^ grand juries, which are returnable by tliese 
officers, have lost their onginal character of independence, and 
are now notoriously subordinate to aristocratic intrigue and 
ministerial corruption. As therefore these ancient bodies, 
which should be the sacred organs of truth as weil as die gaar^ 
dians of the constitution, have in this instance degenerated 
into^ inatruments of prejudice and civil dtsseiition, we (eel it 
a duty which we owe to public justice as well as to our couii* 
try, to appeid from the unjust sentence of a few inAnenced 
men to the tribunal of a rational nation. 

It appears that a small dispersed number of rndividuala 
of the Catholic persuasion, without authority from the body at 
large, were, in the course of last s^ ssion, cajoled into the mea- 
sure of presenting an eleemosynary address to government, 
and this was craftily made the vehicle of some obscure and 
ill-founded censure upon the constitutional conduct of the 
Catholic -Committee. Tfie embarra<isment occasioned by this 
stale arti^ce determined the committee to obtain an unequivo- 
cal expression of the Catholic sentiment ; and with this view 
they printed, published, and circulated throughout Ireland 
several thousand copies of a letter submitting to the Catholic 
people a plan for electing delegates to the general committee : 
a plan at once the most simple, orderly, and the best calco- 
kted for framing an unquestionable organ of public opinion. 
The letter solicits the attendance of delegates appointed for 
the express purpose and with the express instruction of im- 
ploring and supplicating from the legislature and the Sove- 
reign a participation in the elective franchise and the benefit 
of the trial by jury. It is worthy of remark, that this letter 
is utterly silent upon the ground o^ constitutional right, and 
never states this application as intended to be made upon kny 
other principle than as i^ necessary means of secUnng to the 



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4M 

C^itliolicf ai^ eqinr) necefes to leMefadd property and a fah'*di¥h 
tributionof jostk'tf; Upon^this proceedings so simple, and so 
obirioasly oonformsble to the fundamental principks of Isfif 
and consHkutkm, pettifogging chkane, sitting in council with 
bigotiy and nonaense, haring * ingeniously' discorered that the 
letter waarcirealated with great secrecy, pronovnces.the pub* 
licatioa to be of a most dangerous, seditious, and inflaroma« 
tory tendeDcy«-4he phantom of a Popish congress is raised— 
the staiopccow image of a Freoch national assembly is oonjurtd 
ii|»-^tlie vision of a guB> powder plot appears— -^ind the 8«p« 
pliant committee of an enslaved people is identified witb sove* 
reign legislative bodies. 

We say 'enslaved/ for it will not be denied that a people 
ate enslaved, who being excluded from all share in the liC* 
gtsUture of their country, are nevertheless subject to laws and 
taxes imposed on them without their consent ^ Law to bind 
all must be assented to by all." It is not in a system of ex« 
tirpation by penal laws, it is in the free agency ef the people 
that we are to seek for the true and permanent principle of a 
firee and prosperous government The man who^ys that a 
political constitution can be upheld by penal laws, may say 
that the human constitution can be nourished hj the use ef 
•low poison. 

Where so small a portion of so large a mass exercises the 
etedive franchise^ and a decided majority of that small portion 
^Hrma the notorious property of a venal aristocracy, we consL*' 
der tht*efective body of the people as nothing more than the* 
semblance of a U^ger species of corporation. Hence, that po« 
litical ignorance, that selfish spirit of monopoly, that jealuui • 
hostility to the general happiness, which must ever character 
ri«e these avaricious retailers of fVeedom, have also infected 
a great number of the elective body of the nation. 

Hirelings, whom we have at all prices, cry out, that the^ 
Catholics prefer their coBiplaint$ in a style of demaad^ Such 



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Ungnage could not have been uttered in n fteejan^r itiittfar 
Imdent* dictation ' of despotUm ; iu authott niij wiA % fid*^ 
lo^slavesi but we wish for fellow-oitizens.^ Jl^e CfitMics^ 
have ever addressed the .Legislati^re with do^ |ri9^pfp|^ t .t^ci'^ 
submissive conduct is unquestionable;^ but in our i}9NvL,|d^ 
My shew themselves worthy of their n2^t%..^wl)e%tlm f^ 
dalm them. . -. , - . i,.,^ 

' Is- it meant to deny them the right of petit|<^i;}igi<^']Fpt 
^|«est]W their right of meeting peaceably ^i^ that puqM>^,%» 
ifaonnts to fiuch a denial This would be a fa\9e as .^eUi^f!> 
tiiost raischiewius dk>ctrine ; for it would necessarily, t^rcjiv the 
«ubje(:t upon the alternative of violence^ He roust either «i|i^ 
ftrr or' resist'; and of course he must silently sink yndeif^fi^ 
)K>tism, or break out into anarchy. When the innocent wff. 
|)toished by law, the severity of negro* servitude 4bnf 9^d 
preclude them from the right of petitioning^ ..t , 

* If tl>e diarges made against the CatboKc Cominittet w^lA^ 
Ibtitided in tfuth, grand juries, under the ol>ligations'bf . |b^ 
•ath and public station, should havepresentedthero— if £dt^ 
then have grand juries been guilty of defamatory libels. 

Whait seeurity do we require of our Catholic brethren ?&— ^ 
Political mietrust' has not 3Met devised attest, whifib tkey have 
not cheerfully taken. They disclaim all tho^e |i^qminab]* 
principles inconsistent with good government whiob hgfe'^eeQ 
fSlsely imputed to them by those whose moi>opo]y,V9^l|il|^ 
tafned by the divisions of their country. 'Fhty^ ¥>yst^ ^ ^"^^^^^ 
support of the church establishment They are, ftvi^. ;i|f ill^f 
ing to worship that new4x>m chimera, — " The Protmti^tf'i^t^ 
scendancy," provided thejealous idol may be appei|9e^iiniyK^ 
•ut the sacrifice of the elective franchise' anc) the tri^ i^ jurf^^ 
Popery is no longer to be met with but in the st^tu^^jxiolf^ 
The Catholics^ stand before us as political Pro^st^nfs^ fc^jtbfiu 
protest against the errors of the state, aqd.€^4^^prl9if9l^j 
Ktukthe reformation of the constitution* ^ ^ ,. ^ « 



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* '^^Ai^tnifn who futiora this opstaH 

~ ly of tke Coti^ution, suhmit iheir labors for its p^r^ervaltHiD 
ildH'ng Wme years past to a candid and critical examtnation? 
Short ia the catalogue of their services— what baa. pigoatixed 

^eir political career ? What, b^t an uniform exertion, to ^ 
Hi all efforts for the establishment of Irish freedom ^ Ind^ 
nant at the odioas reriew, and the treacherous oonaialeBey of 
thatr present conduct^ we gladly trnir awfy to acknowledge 
"#1^ prkfey that the Tirtuous founder ef the BeycdoUou of 
\it2 Is also the leader in the gr«at patriotic work of this da^f:. 
' As for our part, associated for the attainment of universal 
emancipation and representative leg^latare^ we cannot separatf- 
bat duty to our country from our duty to our countrymen* Th^ 
girievances they suffer are the grievances of the natioir; thr 
reKief they solicit is the relief of the nation^; and as the ooljp 
tfoe policy of states as well as of individuals is Justice^ we 
Shfensh the grateful hope, that the rising spirit, of union in m 
Hbeml age is the harbinger of its triumph. 
***• Signed by order, 

THOMAS WRIGHT, lie 

' tTNITED IRISHMEN OF DUBLIN. 

* *• Tsrs Aon. siawn butler in the chair. 

' ^ THE Society of United Irishmen in Dubh'n, addres9r 
die Fri^rids of the People at London. Impressecl with the re» 
aemblait'ce'Ih the title, nature and destination of their respec^. 
th^fh^ltlitions; and acting under that fraternity of feelings 
WKtch such a coincidence naturally inspires— the title wbidr^ 

^iniBear fs a. glorious one, and we too are Friends of the Peo--^ 
pla. ^It We be asked, ** who are the people ^" we turn no^ 
oof eyes here and there, to this party, or to that persuasioitr^ 
aifd'cry, '^Lof the people;" but we look around n« uithout^ 
ptHMity or predilection, and we answer^ the multitude, of 
iMunan beings,, the living mass^ of humanity associated to exii»r» 



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us 

toaubtist^ and to be happy. la them, ami them only, we iSnd 
the original of social authority, \he measure of polkfeal ra-' 
lue, and the pedestal of legitianatepower* 

As fViends of the^people, upholding their rights, andde* 
ploring their safferings, the great object of this society is a 
f^ representation of the Irish nation in an. Irish pariiaiinenti 
and as fViends of the whole people, we svpport the lieoestflif 
of Catholic emanoipation as a mcons of- mftlcing repreaentation 
what it oBgfat to be, free, equal, and entire.. If the people of- 
one country be not obliged tt\ obey the kws of another^ on 
tbraame principle when the people resident in a country, 
have no sort ef inHuence ever the legislature,, tbat.legislalure) 
will receive rather a discretional acquiescence than legitioiatei 
obedience ; and as this discretional state is diiQgereii% be«. 
cause precarious, a change becomes neoessai^ for the peace 
and happioess of the natkxi, violence being the last measure; 
to which rational beings will resort 

The present state of Ireland with regard to populetion it. 
upwards of four millions, three of which are of the Catholic 
religion ; and with regard to political freedom, — 

1 . The state of Protestant representation is as follows : 
17 boroughs have bo resident elector; 1^ have but one ; l6 
have from 2 to 5 ; 90 have 13 electors each ; 9lO persons re» 
turn for 106 venal boroughs, that is 212 n^embers oubof 300» 
the whole number. 54 members are retmmed b^y fiive noble* 
men and four bishops, and borough influence l^is gii^ien land-t 
lords 8UcK power in tlie counties as maizes them beryougbs also 
— >5S peers nominate 12^ members^ and influence 10, ao that 
223 are returned by 106 imKviduals, living only 7^ out of 
SOO to the free election of the people. One lord who nomi- 
nates 4 members, is not a peer of Irelan^l, and eleven lords wha 
are Irish peers, are absentees, and spend their fortunes out of 
the realm ; to the representation of which they send thetr 
commands and are obeyed, notwilhstanding two soknn votes 



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t>f the Comtrfohs ia-jr^^nst ihishf^h infritlgetnent of their liber- 
tfes anti pf^ivilcgcs. In short, representation, which in its na- 
ture is only a depbsh, has b'een converted ihto a properly, 
and that oonstltirtion vhich is founded 6n equal liberty, and 
vhich declares that no tax shall be levied without the 'good 
^IH' of the people, is totally perverted in its principles, and 
corrupted in its practice ; yet the majesty of the people is still 
quoted with effected veneration ; and if the crown be osten- 
sibly placed on a part of the ' Pi^otestant portion, it is placed in 
mockery, for it is encircled with thorns. 

2. With regard to tlie Catholics, the following is the sim- 
ple and sorrowful fact :— Three millions, every one of whom 
has an interest in the state, and collectively give it its value^ 
iare taxed without being represented, and bound by laws t6 
which they have not given consent. They now require •* 
share of political liberty, in the participation of the electfve 
franchise, and of civil liberty in the privilege of serving on 
grand juries. There can be no civil without political liberty, 
and in requiring the right of suffrage they in reality demand 
only a 8af<?guard for their religion, their property and thefr 
live*. 

'"The code of penal laws a^a'lnst the Catholics reduced op- 
Ji%^e8sion into a system. iThe action and pressure of this sys- 
tem contihually accutnulating without any re-action on the 
part of th6 sufferers, sunk in the ktliargy of servitude, have 
confirmed the governing portion of the people in a habit of do- 
mination. This habit, mixing with theantipatJiies of past times, 
ahd the irritations of the moment, has impressed a strange 
persuasion that tiie rights of the plurality are Protestant pro- 
perty, and that the birth-right of millions, born and to be born, 
continue the spoils of war and booty of conquest. The per- 
vasion of the understanding perverts the heart, and this Pro- 
testant ascendancy, as it calk itself, uniting power with pas- 
sion, and hating the Catholics because it has injured thWj' 



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448 

mt a b«re ic^isttorid m^MCtM, intnSdailta 
individaal* would erase a whole people £rooi \be rfU .of citi- 
zenship, and for the sins (if thejr wene sLns) of remote anest* 
tors would attaint their remoteet -posterity. We Iw^p, rcpd* 
and read with horror, that Louis XI. wiered the children to 
be placed under the scaffold where the £ither was bebeadc<^ 
that they might be sprinkled with his blood. 

Is it, we think, by this unequal -disUribulMn of popular 
privilege, that its very nature has, in this kingdooi, b^e^ 
corrupted, and from the moment that equality of rights waf 
overturned, and general liberty became partipular power^ the 
public mind has been split into a conflict of factions. Genend 
distribution of the elective franchise would make corr|ip|ioii 
impracticable, but when common right becomes the pnoprrty of 
person, party, or persuasion, it acquires a value equally anas^ 
tural and unconstitutional ; is boqght and sold ; rises and falls 
like any marketable commodity. The deprivation of the eleCf 
tive franchise, on the one hand, robs a great majority of the 
nation of an Invaluable blessing ; and its accumulatioo 4a tbt 
hands of the Protestant portion, operates on that very portioo 
as a curse. The right of all, heaped up and hoarded by the 
few, becomes a public pest, and the nutriment of tlie constitv^ 
tlon is changed into its poison. The-iniquitous monopoly ra|s 
io boroughs ; spreads its contagion thrqugh counties ; taints 
enorals and manners ; makes elections mere fairs for the traiie 
of franchise and the sale of men ; in place of that nationality 
of mind which sprees its parental embrace around a whola 
people, substitutes the envious, excluding spirit of selfish 
corporations ; and swelling, at length, into monstrous wad 
Ipgantic ascendancy, holds forth a hundred thousand handa 
to bribe and betray, and tramples with a hundred thousand 
feet on those miserable millions who Iiave lost their only | 
4mtee against injustice and oppression. 



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449 
Instructed by the genius of the constitution, and thegeiui- 
ine spirit ot'ihe laws ; instructed, of late, by all that has been 
spoken, or written, or dieted, or suffered in the cause of free- 
dom ; iastnicted by the late revolution in America, by the 
late revolution in Ireland, by the late revolution in France ; 
hearing of all that has been done over the face of the glob« 
for Liberty, and feeh'ng all that can be suffered from the want 
of it ; reading the charter of independence,to Ireland^ and lis« 
te^tng to the spirit-stirring voice of her great deliverer; actu- 
ated, in line, by that imperishable spark in the boaom of man 
wTiich the servitude of a century may smother, but cannot eif 
tmguish, the Catholics of this country have been lessoned in« 
to liberty, have learned to know their rights, to be sensible' of 
dieir wrongs, and to detail by peaceable delegation, their 
grievances, rather than endure without obedience. You !— in 
either kingdoms, who reproach tke Catholics of Ireland for aa- 
aertingdie rights of r<ature, bum your books, tear your char- 
ters; break down your free press, and crumble to pieces those 
#ftalds which have cast liberty in so fair a foms, as to make 
Catholics feel what Protestants have felt, and join their ad-, 
'tttotion and love with those of a worshipping world. 

' Thik society and many other societies have associated to 
create that union of power, and that brotherhood of affection 
attong all the inhabitants of this island, which is the interest 
as well as duty of all. We are all Irishmen, and our object is 
tb unite the different descriptions of religion in the cause of 
onr eemroon country. From the most opposite points in the 
wide circumference of religion we tend with increasing velo- 
city to the same centre of political union. A reform in parlia- 
awnt preceding Catholic enfranchisement would be in its na- 
tare partial and exclusive, and unless a reform immediately 
filUows that emancipation (which it will certainly do) the ex- 
.4asuion of elective franchise, would only add to the mass of 
corruption. The centre of onr union is fixed and immoveable. 



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450 

• * 

The Presbyterian wishes for national fre^om.r— The Catholic * 
Asplres to nothing more ; nor can either of them be brought ^^ 
believe that those varieties of reh'gious fiiith^ which maj be 
deemed the pleasures of the Creator, should be made the mi- 
ginef of political torture ta any of his creatures. Too long 
have our people been set in array of battle against each other ; 
too long have the rancor and revenge of our ancestors been 
left'itt a legacy of blood to their posterity; top long has ^(»le 
limb of the social body been tied down, until it had nearly loet 
all feeling* life and energy. It is our wish, it is our hope, to 
give Ireland the full and. free pUBsessioB of both her arms, her 
Catholic arm as well as her Protestant arm, that she may the 
better embrace her friends or grapple with her foes. , 

Such are the principles and practice of our institutioB, 
which having neither power nor patronage, but mefjely the e- 
nergy of honesty, has not only been distinguished l)^.^ the ca« 
Inmnies of those who are bom only to bite the heel^ 9sad be 
crushed under foot, but has been honored by the obloquy .pf, 
men who fill the first offices In the state. From them we ,9p».; 
pe^l to natural right, and eternal justice, which ought aripr to. . 
be established without compromise or reservation. From tbw, * 
weappeal to those who call themselves friends of the people^ , 
Look not upon Ireland with an eye of indifference. The jp^ 
riod of Irish insignificance is passing fast away. If the natioft 
eveiP appeared contemptible, it was because the pation di^ noli 
act ; bttt no soisner in the late war was it abandoned by Cjo* 
vermnenf, than it rose to distinction as a people, ilgi to ax^y 
unieo between the islands, believe us when wo assert, that our 
xm\tm rests upon our mutual independence. We fhall ^Ipyi^ . 
each cnher, if we be left to ourselves. It is the union of minda 
that'OUght to bind these nations together^ Rectprocal jnto^^ 
and^ntual wants will ever secure mutual 9^e9tion ; but ware,, 
any, other union to be forced, and force onty ^could.eficctit, yoa 
wouM endanger your liberties, and we'sl)opI^ Icmj'our rights; 



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451 

jknX would feel the influence of the crown increftse beyond . aU*, 
Mifterance, and we should lose the nameand energies of a p^o*. ' 
pU, With every hope of raising to its merited ttation in .tha^ 
nap of mankind* this noble and neglected island *' for which , 
Odd has done so tnuck and Man ao little," 

Signed by Order, 

THOMAS WRIGHT, aM. 

ADDRKSt PlteiC TUB 
* SOCIETY OF UNITED IRISHMEN IN DUBUN. 

TO TOS 

DELEGATES FOR PROMOTING A REFORM 

IN SCOTUkNO. 
WtLUAM DBBNNAN^ CHAIRMAN. 
' ABCHJBALO HAMILTON ROWAN, SEC. 

WE take the liberty of addressing you^ ia the spirit of cl* 
yQ unioti, io the fellowship lof a just and a coxttncm cause. 
We greatly rejoice that the spirit of freedom moves over th« 
fii&oF Scotland; that light seems to break from the diaoaof 
her internal government ; and that a country so respectable 
for her attainments in science, in arts, and in arms ; for mea 
of literary eininence ; for the intelligence and morality <lf her 
pedple, now acts from a eonriction of the iinion between vii^ 
tue, letters and liberty ; and, now rises to.distinetkHiy not by 
a calm, contented, secret wish lor a reform in parllanent^ 
bat by openTy, actfvely, and urgently wilh'ng it, with the u- 
filty ani energy of an embodied nation. We rejoice that yoa 
do not consider yourseives as merged and melted down into 
another country, but that in this great national question, you 
Mte^ stiB^ — Scotland— the land where Buchanan wrote, and 
Fletcher spoke, and Wallace fought 

Away from us and from our children those puenle^antipi^ 
thies 6o1mw6rthy oi the manhood of nations, which insttlate 



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45t 

indifiduak as well as cotmtnrs, and drive the citifcen tiiM^ U 
the savage. We esteem and we respect jou. We pay me- 
rited honor to a nation in general well educated/ iod well in* 
formed* because we know that the ignorance of the people is 
the cause and effect of all civil and religious despotism* We 
honor a nation regnlar in their lives, and stn'ct in their man- 
ners, because we conceive private morality to be the only 
secure foundation of public policy. We honor a nation Emi- 
nent for men of genius, and we trust, that they will now ex- 
ert themselves not so much in perusing and penning the his- 
tories of other countries, as in making their own a subject for 
the historian. May we venture to observe to them that man- 
kind have been too retrospective — canoniied antiquity, and 
undervalued themselves. Man has reposed on ruins, and rest- 
ed his head on some rra?«enta of the temple of liberty, br at 
most amused himself in pacing the measurement of the edi« 
fee, and nicely limiting its proportions ; not reflecting that 
this temple is truly Catholic, the ample earth its area» and the 
arch of heaven, its dome. 

We will lay open to ydii our hearts. Our cau^ ta your 
cavise— 'If there is to be a etruggle between us, let it be whidi 
nation shall be foremost in the race of mind : let this bf the 
noble animosity kindled between us, who shall first attaiD that 
free constitution from which both are equidistant ; whogshall 
first be the saviour of the empire. 

The sense of both countries with respect teethe intolera* 
ble abuses of the constitution has heen^ clearly manifested, 
and proves that our political situations ar^ not diasiaikr^ that 
our rights and wrongs are the same. Out of St counties in 
Ireland, 29 petitioned for a reform in parliament ; aod out of 
56 of the royal burghs in Scotland, 50 petitioned lor a ttform 
in thehr internal structure and government If we be rigbdy 
informed, there is no such thing as popular election iB6oeU 
bB4. The people who m^ to poiHM thai wei^ ia the 



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|iditicia«09U» ivh^b imy)t Jl>i94 tWoi U>,<^ soM, mid nu^e 
thcin< clkfg ta the c<Mf)8titiUiQ«« pre cow as. ()ait m the balance^ 
blewn abroad. b^ the leaat knpulse, and scattered through o- 
tber countries^ merely because they hang so loosely to their 
own» They have no shaxe in the ni^onal Firm, and are ag- 
grieved not only by irregular and illegal exaction of taxei ; 
by misrule and mismanagement of corporations ; by miscoo* 
duct of self-elected and irrevponstble magistrates ; by waste of 
pubUc property ; and by want of competent judicatures; but, 
in our opinion, mofiit of all, by an inadequate parliamentary 
rtpresentiition-^f^ we assert, thut 45 commoners and 16 peers 
are a pitiful representation for two millions and a half of peo- 
ple; particularly as your commoners consider thrmseWes not 
«s the r^Nrcsentatives of that people, but of the councils af 
the borougha by whom they are elected 

Eidttsive charters in favor of boroughs, sonopoUse the 
general nghts of the people^ and that act must be abanrd 
vbich prechidea all other towns from the power of being re* 
itored to their ancient freedom. 

We remember that heretabie jurisdictions and fWndal pri« 
TilegeSy though expressly reserved by the act of union (20tli 
«rt) were set aside by Act of Parliament in 1746, and we 
think that there is much atroi^r ground at present, for re- 
etoring to the mass of the pe^le their alienated rights^ and 
to the cenatittttion its spirit and its integrity. 

L«ok now, we pray you, upon Ireland. Long was thk 

^ wnfortnnate island the prey of .prejudiced factions and feropiooe 
partica. The rights or rather duties of conquest were d^read" 

' folly abused, and the Catholic religion was made the perpetu* 
m\ pntext for subjtctiBg the atate by anmbilating the citizen^ 
mA destreytng sMt the reltgioas persuaaioi^ but the man ; not 
po|iery.but th^ people^ Jt was not ti|l yevy lately that the 
d|Nirt: of 4he • naj^kui ^which is truly colonial, reflected that 

r Ifcoanl^tlheiri.mwiMr* had bie»,iicMMfki^, ^they tlyyaelveg 



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were ptm include^ in the |;eiienl .ratjection; •obdnnijl^iicily 
16 he sabduedy and trampled upon by Britatvi m a aervile de- 
pi'ndency. When, therefore, the Protestants began to sbi^^ 
what die Catholics had suffered and were suffei:iftg ; when 
from serving as the instruments^ they were made thcm^dfes 
the objects of foreign domhiation, then they became, e^nsmpus 
they had a country ; and then they felt-^an Ireland. Th^ . 
lerfsted British dominian, renounced colonial aubeervi^moy;^ 
anid following the example of a Catholic parliament just a iMr ' 
tnry before^ they asserted the exclusire jurisdiction andieK*^*^ 
lative competency of this island. A sudden ligbl fremAme* . 
rica shone through our prison. Our Tolunteers aroae^ .T3ie 1 
chains fell from aur hands. We fpllowed Grattan> ik» an^sl 
of our delireranoe, and in 1782 Ireland ceased to t>esa^pio« . 
▼ince and became a nation. But, jrjtb wason, sbsnU weid^" 
apise and renounce this RcTolution as merely a transie«t^«tBt 
through a bad habit ; the sudden grasp of neeessity jn 4aspair, 
from tyranny in distress, did wa not believe tkat thexevokN 
tioii is still in train ; tliat it is less the single and shining act 
of 82, than a series of national improveraents whidi dial act 
nshers in and announces ; that it is en\y the herald of liberty 
and glory, of Catholic emancipation, as. wdl U IVetesUMt in* > « 
dependence; that in short this revolution indicatca new piiis* ■■ : 
ciples, foreruns new practice, andlays afoundatioii ftradr- 
vancing the whole people higher in the scale of being^i tad* 
diffusing equal and permanent hsf^nes . . . -r^'it 

British supremacy changed its aspect,, but its essfnteiimij «« 
mained the same. First it was forc^. and on tba e«enliQf;lha^iM 
late retolutioD, it became influence^ . direct hfstility.abMbedbi* > 
into lystematic corruption, silently drawing off th^-wtoH'Mk' * 
vigor of the island, without shock or explosion* Cownption^ m « 
that glides int^ every ]^ace, tempts every per^dn, UinUimo^ 
ry prhicipie; infects the political mind thvough «ttit8^I)slatidnt> '\ 
and dependencies; so regardless jaf^po|)U^:^hM»itef anlo^ikr ' ' 



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4it 

tbf -Ufbett honori to Me, ^anS to'pufc^iase boroaglu widrCfie 
pike of tucb prottitatSoD; so i^gardless of private inor&litj«^, 
as to legalize the licentibastiess of the lowest and most pen>i- 
ckws gambling, and tb extract a calamitous reyenue from the , 
infittiuitkm' and intoxication of the people. 

The Prot^tants of Ireland were now sensible that nothing 
aopld counteract t^s plan of debilitating policy, but a radio 
calteform in the house of the people^ and that without such 
relbrmy the revolution itself was nominal and delusiTe. The 
whe^ ^rdj turned round, but it did not moTe forward, and 
tbey-wei^as dfttant as ever from the goal. Thej resolved.^— 
Thciy^ coDvened.-*-^Thejr taet with arms. — ^Thej met without 
thtt|i;«^Tkey petitioned.— -But all in vain ; (or they were but 
a portioD of the people. Then they looked around, and be« 
held their CadioKc countrymen. Three millions-^we repeat 
it-^-tbree millions taxed widioot being represented, bound by 
laws to whidi they had not given consent, and politically dead 
m tboir aattve knd. The apathy of the Catholic mind chan« 
gedriinto 9ym^aAyg and that begot an energy of sentiment 
and jurtion. They had eyes, and fhey read. They had ears^, 
and tbtyi listened. They had hearts, and they felt. They 
taid^-^'Oire^ us our rights as. you value your own. Give ua 
a abfliv ^' civil and political liberty, the elective franchiso, 
atid'tiie' trial by Jury. Treat us as men, and we shall treat 
yoiicj»i>rotherS. Is taxation without representation a griev- 
ance to three millions across the Atlantic, and no grievance 
to tbvte aFiUlons it your doors ? Throw down that pale of 
peraMtatioin which still keeps up civil war in Ireland, and 
make.-ws one' people. We shall then stand, supporting aod 
aopportedk in the assertion of that liberty which is due to alL 
and which all diould unite to attain." ^ 

It was just — and ivmediately a principle of adhesion to<^h 
place '.fi^r the first time, ai^ong the inhabitants of l^reland^ 
All reiigiooa pe«sMsi<ms fooi^d !n a political unioa their i 



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456 



up distruftt and iintipathj among paities, 'ain6in|^*tJMi/ii^dlJI» 
among ramilies, nay, (o ihak^' the pasi^dnrof 'tA)i iHlM^itwk 
struggle, like Cain and Ab^l, \ti the "teijr h6^ 6f the buM, 

' and to conTert every Irttlii pahty net^sihy tfaat ataeidmft, in« 
dolence, or extravagance, hring^i^n-ikhian/mtty'a {iMirfvr for 

' the purchase of his honesty and the'tnltl^ef ^ hti repMHtiaat 

We will not be the di3rp« df such IgtiMt ^rlMcte' '^We 

see this scheme of strengthening political p^sec^lftiMii «ld 

state inquisition, by a fresh inAtilMi of VeffSgiolirianitMistt^ 

but we will unite, and we wi)1 be free. C/aitersn/ ewwnmfg* 

iion mth repreittitiilht iegtiHtfure is the^ polar |ilini»p)e.Wiiieli 

guides our ^octtcfty, and iball guidt Irtiirmtgfi alt timtiMolt 

of factions and fiuc^atkms of partite;. U*it.ii^1lpto'«^po«- 

" lition iif oppo9hion witb ititnnftry that^ws^ depend^ .b«t irpon a 

coiAiti6!l ^f 'Irti^inen with IrisbneB; aad in tbM^^ig)^^ 

laMne' W>e fltidan object w^Mbyfofarrftira^^/imd «t.,(heia^e 

- firte'lhiilrength Mid^inin? 'bdtbti>att||^,i^ umh^hut,^^ 



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457 

i« Tint upon external circunMUmces, upoo the p1ed2;e of man or 
Yninisier we depend, but upon the internal energy of the Irbh 
Kati^oii. We will not buy or borrow liberty from America or 
fmm France/ but manufacture it ourtelvet, and work it up 
vith those materials which the hearts of Irishmen furnish 
them with at home. We do not worship the British^ far less 
the Irish Constitution, as sent down from heaven, but we con- 
sider it as human workmanship, wHich nan has made, and 
ni;m can mend. An unalterable constitution^ whatever be its 
name, must l>e despotism. It is not the coastituUoDy but the 
people, which ought to tie inviolable, and it is time to recog^ 
nize and renovate the rights of the English, the Scotch, and 
the Irisli nations.— Rights, which can neither be bought nor 
sold, granted by charter, or forestalled by aponopoly, but 
which nature dictates as the birthright of all, and which it is 
the business of a constitution to define, to enforce, and to es* 
tabjish. If government has a sincere regard for the safirt^ of 
the constitution, let them coincide with the people in the spee- 
dy reform of its abuses, and not by an obstinate adherence to 
them, drive that people into republicanism. 

We ha?e told you what. our lituation was, what it is, what 
k ought to be : our end, a national legislature; our meant, 
«n union of the, whole people. Let this union extend 
throughout the empire. Let all unite for all, or each man suf- 
fer for alL In ea6h country Ui the people assemble in peace- 
fill and constitutional convention. Let delegates from eacli 
coontry digest a plan of reform, best adapted' to the ^ituaUon 
* and circiimstaDoes of their respective nations, and let the If- 
gisktures be pedtiooed at once by the urgent and unanimous 
voice of England, Scotland, and.Irelsxui. 

Yon have our ideas. Answer us, and that quickly. This 
' Is not a time to procrastinate. Your illustrious. Fletcher has 
•did, that the Mberties of a people are not to be secuved,. with- 
out pateing^ tliTOugb great diffieoltiet, and no Xoii frhibon 

Ml 



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458 

eught to b« declined to presctrt )k nat^otif fVoM tlttverf . ' H4 
Bpoke well ; imd we add, tbat it u incumbent oir every nation 
mrho tdventtfres into a conflict forfhiedotn, to rotneoftber it n 
km the. events hojertr' ibtrurdiy, depende ^ito eathnation of 
pubtfe opinion ^ honor and imndortiflhj, iffiHrtmiati; if •- 
thei^ise, infawy and oblivion. Let thia check the raabaeaa 
that rushes unadvisedhr into the contoiittal of national ofaarao- 
\ter, or if that be already made, lot the same cansideratiiiD im« 
pel ms all to advance with ictive not passive persevierance, 
with manly Confidence and calm determination, smiKngwith 
equal scorn at the bluster of oftcial arrogance, and the whis- 
per of private malevolenee, until we have planted the flag of 
Freedom on the summit, and are at once victoriout and secure. 



THIS BOCtlTV o^ 
UNITED UilSUMBN OF BUBUN» 

70 TMM, iniSH XATJON. 

WILUAM BJtENlfAlf, CfUiMMAN. 
4MCHJMJLD MJiMiiLTaV ROWAN^ SEC. 

IT is our right and out duty, at this time and at idl timet> 
fo communicate our opinion to the public, whatever may be 
its Bttccess ; and under the protection ifit a fic ew p i-e as , itadf 
protect^ by a jury, judges of law as well as foct, we wfll ne- 
ver be af nod to speak freely what we fVeely think, iqipeaKug 
for the purity of our intentions to God, and as far as these in- 
tentions are manifested by word, writing, or action, appealing * 
to the jostice of our cause, and the judgment of our country. 

On the 9th of November, I79i, was this society founded. 
"We and oar beloved brethren ffi Belfast, iS^st b^ah thsft civic 
union, which, ifa nation be a society united foir miK^I ad- 
vantage, lias made Ireland a nation ; and at a time 'when ail 
willed, tnany wilted, bittftw spoke, andtfew^ Mded, l(i^> 



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gather I i«uAk every di^tAiictlve appelhUea in the name. JtiJ^ 
tnmni Mnd in-ibe presenoe of God, devoted ourseWee to W¥ 
tseraAlenfrenclKbeineAt, and a reaL representnti^en o( all the 
people .IB purUament On- t]m, rod& of right our little vJf. 
ibwML a f OBtin^place ; gradually, though pot slowly, tbroogli* 
oyii^be ofliiQ«Ey,i#th/er /aalUopi .of safetj appear^d'^ and what 
hflfope woe agitated aea, beoanie firm and fertile land^ Frofa 
that ^me^heve the. I^odj aad spirit of our SpQie^s. jpofascdly 
until selfish CorporatioDSv sunk in consctoes in^igoificanc^ 
hatee gireu way to a grapd. aocorporatieo of the Irish, Peo- 

-' Webavc^Jnen? digest. ef the penal lawsj, addressed our- 
selves successfuUy, to the good sense, humanity, and generous 

' indignation of all Ireland, convincing public reason, alarming 
pubf ki conscience, and holding up this collection of bloody 
fragments as a terrible' roemonid of government without jus- 
tice, and of legality without constitution.' It has been eur 
rule and our practice never io enter into cooipromise er com- 
position with a noxious prinoifde* and .we have therefore set 
our lace, and lifted- our voice, against this persecuting andl 
pusUlanittoua code, as against the murderer of our brother, 
eagcK toeraoe the whole of it fkom tho statute-book, as it erased 
cur countrymen from tbe.^tate, and wishing to proscribe such 
an Sncongi»HMis and monstrous conjunction 6( terms aa 

;P^oa},^ws not- only .from a digest of the Uws hot |rom the 
uictionsry of tins language. 

It, iias appeared our duty> in times such as these, when the 
hfadii/s nqthing without the heart, and with men such as wo 
oppo4e> not only to write and speak, hut Xo act and sufier ; to 
reokon nothing hai^rdcius, pnqvjdsd it was necessary ; to come 
forward wich the intrepidity which a good cause inspire!, and 
a baqk wacd people rehired ; by going £ir ourselves, to make 
othem follow faster^, though, all the im% oonjuring u^ tojs^ 



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460 

tuaat ; in short, ,Jto make the retrogrm^e ,8Wtif)nf^]^r«9^ t!ie 
stktionary progreftive ; to c[uicken the des^4^fo4^i5)ii^ so#l 
*lo the living. ^ ,. ,-.f('i:^. ..;>.: 

• ' Knowing that what the tongue jis to, J;heij(j^p,, ^)^:riTA»i« 
to the' people, though nearly blasted i6 oi^, ctjui)^ Jtyr ^e^^ 
^ry of* solicitors of law, and general «Uovp^f|<^,tW^,^&P^}?^.t 
sUted with courageoMS perseverance to ral)y fpv^ tj^^.^!^^^ 
Jiope of freedbro, and to maintatn this citadel of t^e,; ^if^^ 
tlon, at the^ risque of personal security^ propertj^, and pXi ihtk^ 
wa^ dear to us. They have come to U9^ ,with.a. writ. iu\^ a. 
warrant, and an ex officio information^ but wf have ca|mf^ tfl( 
tihem in the name of the genius pf the British opnstJtfUiofi^ 
and thef majesty of the people of Ireland. Is sedition agAii^ 
the officers of administration, to exercise the crknioal jurisdiAr; 
tion of the country, and is sedition against the people,, to walk 
fjy with arrogamt impunitj' ? 

We have defended the violated liberty of the anhjact 
ajf^amst the undefined and voracious privilege of the -Houseof; 
^Commons, treating with merited scorn the insolent raen^jcef 
<n^men inflated with office^ and not only have wje maintained | 
tl^e rights of the people at the bar of this branqh of tl^e 1egi»« 
kture, but we have, at the bench of judicature, vindicated th^. 
nghtoftbe nation^ its real independence - and supremacy 4 
flfemonstrating that general inviolability was madc^p:i^m?»l9« , 
sit>le to one or many deputies, to the utter extiQCtion ,of xfSf 
ponsibility, the evasion of criminality ; /apd thi^ ihe ei^^^p^tiv^ 
power of ioiperial and indc^ndent Ir^land^ iras mprf^^yfk^, 
jingling appendage to the jr^t ,$eal of Great BritftiQ^ 'Njpt^f 
man so tow, tbat, if oppressed by an i^somptioti o( pcj^e^ • • 
civil or military, has not met with pur counsel, 01^ pursue, 
aftd onr prbtection : not a man so high, that if ,ac^ii)£,cp9ptmy 
to^ popular right or public independency, we hay^ not ,dfh* * 
nminced at the judgment seat of justice^^an^ 9.\ fbe^ffujti^ 
tri]^ut:al' of public opinioDb *\ < ,/.• « . 



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' ' ^trtiai^^iltltibtiTitei'ea tteucb calumny. We have, anong a . 
tfiMfAiki C(kithi<ffetbf>y ipitheU b^ called republicans and 
levellers, as if bj artfully making the terras appear 8ynoiij« 
Hidn^y^h^i^ nktiire Cdulcl be made the same ; as if a rejpubb'can 
yim&'M teVinW, df 'a'lcveUcr a republican; as if the only 
l^Vbll^r WaiT mft the despot Mrho crushes with an iron sceptre 
4Nii^f'^iit(k artid (irgri^e of society into 6ne ; as if republican or 
d^ii^Mdie enMgy was rfot, as well as aristocratical privilege, 
dh'i'eg^ ^pr^ogdtHHe/ ^netiqned by the f\indamenta] principles 
dfthecon^itution/ by all those memorable precedents which 
ftVm 'Its ftr^t Watttres, and by wliich the just and virtaooa 
stVrtjafgles bf' out ante stist's, recognised by successive geneni» 
tJotis/jio^nt out to their posterfly when they ought to inter* 
pd^; iiid hM Tc^hg they ought to suffer. In his words, whos* 
natfi^ t^st^ «^tIc^owii; but Vhose fame is immorul^ (Junius)^ 
we desire ** that the constitution may preserve its monarcjliical 
f&hn,**but we wo61d* have the manners of the people pnrely 
ahd strictly rcpubKcfen/* Arc you not sensible that this cry 
of republican hnii, as the clamour against Catholic deleMtioi^ 
has 1>^n raised and prolonged by the mischievous malignity 
of' the T<ywer gos^i^s of government, merely to drpwn the 
generaT voice foi' reform, like the state manoeuvre which orw 
defed a ff^tiVish of trumpets, and alarum of drums, at the side 
of strfl&ring pntrfot**, irhen they wished to rdtlress themselves 
to the reason and justice of thfe people.^ — But we will speak 
a^ yoti "wilf tear.-— Yes, countrymen, we do desire that 
eiftetoVfed liberty which may allow you, as citizens, to do what 
you-'W^l, pi'dvidtfd you do not injure another, or rather to do all 
the {food y<ki'diti to others, without doing injustice to your- 
selves. Tife, iioiirttrymcn, we do wish for an equality of 
rfj(Wwlfi«H''iS^ constitutional, not ah ce|uality of properfy^ 
whith U im{)0Ssib1e. Yes, countrymen, we do lon^ for ano- 
ther CquiiKty, aWa W hope yet to see it realized ; an equality ^ 
eonsisting in the power of everj^ father of a family to* acquire 



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4ft» 
\\f IJj^ p\ibfijf of mj|>4 «c Iwiy, soiiielbio^ilM^midfaaHcli* 

S0ul, t halJow>ed baard that nay )iCt l^m atovff pio hftnd^ff^ 
ori^fiy. wli^k stru^glft WWr^M^ tQn«rioiK» And «a«rii|9il{on ; 
^^M^ «^y k^ep. bit bfirt iih(»lA luidbis spirh-«iMi; wiale.hu 
Mj(,b(»i((9 W^fi^jih iui lilird«»; 3Pi^e Mm ting^Miay.tbf 
^«gin.<»f venality, •nd proudly return to an bwolik homa^ 
i|^r^.#.^(Xi$tit«ti<^n Uiat looka alil^e on Iht. palM^ ^aod ^ibe 
l^*fi«. may «Und at bU bfart^ » Uitalac divioityj «i»d.^f»d 
^ 5;?^ 'f equal, law to, gi^afdJIft^ |ronx tb« i^rcsqgi? ^f tboiit 
w/io pfiVrad„^he bribe and QfVred it i,a wo. , Y«8, lia»hiB»n» 
we cip. proc^im it onr 4c4r««^ ^Ufc^ ta sf^ a fiaoie frqual cIm^ 
ti^b^lipa p( tb/e b^efitf ^n^U^^^]gt qC llfit ibros^ tbf l»P« 
e^ V'lass^f ot the cop>9^uj;iityi U19 ^mioa of •oeielyi; and wo 
fst^l ij^ a«^9ur ^pga V#IioCi 4^t 4iQ e%ool <^atribiAiqD4]f tho 
elfcUe^ franchise must contribute to tbii endj &r.iii^oiitl 
l^pj)ine€8 d^pcndA m^pi^ »inpV>>^i9eot, vbicb ouiM UaftfnSfRing 
fr<?n^. in^W^T * ,^^ ^^^ ^^"^ clape^ds ^a liberty, aecmaity «C 
}^rton,H>')i1 property, aqvial l^w. speedy and iin|Mirtial jattisc^ 
s^}(}^ in short, on that tenure i}>t2>o ital^ wWobacmigr ramlbt 
cWimunity in relative va]ic^ aa in^ ^ftestinMition^ nqbl^tbo 
agency of tlie people iu^trazoeDt^^l too. good fioyenuA^nU «a4 
the rc-a^ency of good gov^roment oaeliorato tb^ iv^aHf^and 
nanr^ers of the people ; bimi together the dlatii^^ ai^jii^ih 
to contcnilirg classes pf society, by ihfi cemeut of; yacjffcyin 
ar*d iHe intcrcliange of oblfgAUons^ and-^ftl^ tho-bi§^^ri|^l^ 
balustra'les that adorn Uio-arcb, feel tbei,r. dependfOoe aii>tk<» 
geoplr, 'who are the pi^e^ tliat fHpport k, Ou tbe m^viu "^9 
m-e so far republican*, a» to desire a ui|)ticiM .HoHir of, ^^^ono^ 
nons, in its orif;!!!^ ite fornv its featu^es^ ai»d, it^ 8|V7t i ^*Y>S 
cncing the pe9plp, not conspiring; with, jgrery .o|J(ipr,,;:fQl8, 
againi>t ihem, against their privilei^s^ tb|^,ple^()f|^;,jy^ 
homely ha)>pinea9^ their fireside onjoymeQl^ |)fit,f|()^,^,i^pi 



Digitized b^VjOOQlC 



468 

Ming the efe«lif« IVinchree, the pdot mnn's e^e hvHb, and 
gtigniitifcinf tte lAiidl(>nt, wha ^OUtd despoil him of It, as i 
tritiCDPt* the cdnfttitottdn, n robber of- national riglit, and a 
faorSer^ of |)ubHc ha^^piriMs. 

WetuiTe liddretsed tht Pri«nd« of the l^cople h\ England, 
and baw receired their coMCQrren^i*, thei)- thanki, and their 
gMtslatidii; We have addre^iBed the ' voltintet^^ — deliverers 
of this injarcd lAhd'I^^Hb^e We done Wron^ ? If We liav^, 
tetfr yoor eolors from the staff— rei^erse youranti^— muBle your 
drutn8-«H>«at a Atneral tnitrch ^t> ItieUnd — and (lien ikbandon 
the torpse 16 feneibles, to mititia, to invalids, and dismounted 
drag^nsr. ffwc have not done wrong, and we swear by -the 
revohation of 8S that we have not, — go on with the zeal of 
^terprizingf vh-tirtf, and a s^nse of your own importance, to 
exercise that right of self-defence. Which belongs to the nation, 
tndto infuii constltiitionikl energy itito the public will, fat 
the public good. ' 

We now addfess Ireland.— We address you as a moral per- 
son^ having a conscience, a will, and an understanding ; bound 
not only to preserve, but to perfect your nature ; the nations 
around you to wititess your conduct, and a God above you to 
reward your virtues, or to punish yonr crimes. We speak to 
you as man to man, — reading your couhtenancc*, remarking 
the various passions that now shift across it, and strfviitg to 
recollect a character long obliterated by foreign influence, or, 
after short and fierce d^velopeitients, becoming the same dull 
' blank as before. Severed as you have always been into coun- 
teracting interests; an English interest, an aristocratic interest, 
alVotestant interest, and a Catholic interest,— sll contra Jlbtiri-' 
^iiished fVom commonweal; and all, like the four eTcnients, 
b^fbre v^isd6m moved on the surface of the deep, exertit^g 
threir>espective influences to retain a chaps rather than create 
ft constitutiofi ; actuated, as you have mos^ generally teen, hy 
eirciitnstancis hierely fJ:/e?'«W/,-^coinprcabcJ at die tut: e into 



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ttarvcd Mtodi* comnoir e>uM ^ *t^flpMd^g|iiipktr^pfcqra 

preBeafc ftiiiie^ ptrfaap* ilnf^dlei «hie%uli|^4fe «xf«MidiMry 
lAventA tluift iiave takiir plaet on tka Cmntirm^ h iHriMr-Mir- 
pftiicg that your real oharacttrtaatiU, 'm mgmtt mmume, 
fMakaowD to Ewtipe, to Btsiaiiv md «vtftt ^yommit^ Us^Im 
4Mt>ttMrpricuig, that recoUectHig:4h» pMt^ we«hoal4bMMM|U 
icma about tha fiitiire ;^tkat w«;will wit entirelj.)caolU#iit:ilie 
fuguiTe splendor of the moment, the pataing 9fmim§iknfib» 
^pli9, oreven lfa«:miniettloa»aaflverfioii of parltaoMUt ^M^erer, 
nev«r aatiafied or aecure, until tre afe a i*eal refMvaeaiaiioiMDf 
that people in that pariiamaut ;«-^iHitil we a«i tee 9fiti£»ir|Ad 
Ireland connected by comtftutloni not by €orruftfao^H*4ijrf<^ 
^oal, not by strong govarnoiffiit hi**^ntit we se#^'pahlie*^|^ 
nion, «r the will of thetiation, not as now^ aeting^aidi.aiMU 
and Intt^riMtteat ^bncks^ but theaettled aiidoeKtraljMilaiice 
4f the pohtital grder, araund which, wkhout appamst taaiiaQ 
in itself, the different brandvet of the iegislacufQ nwyr cy ^c 
with the silence and reguhiHty oT the pkneUoy systaniw - • ^ ' 

Wcf address your understaodrnf ,«-^the common asiferof 
i^e corooioiiweal, and we ask yo«, it 4t notatrth^ liiiaa whan 
the people do not participate in thfe legr^hircre^ 1^ • il i ui i |ia 
tion of representatives, fVeely, fairly,- and f^twrtiy ctortaJ, 
there can be no puhHc liberty ; Is it not the-facft|'^dM t» tMa 
eountry there is ho fepresentattve legiskttifa ; fcffawftl tia 
people arc not represented in the legisUtuve/ aiid>batell»fMBit» 
V)ei*ship m the consUtntion t If it be th^ prin^)l«'oP At con* 
%tttution; that it is the rig!it*of every cmnmoiwff in thti MnAa 
io have'a vote m the election of ki^ rtff^ eta tta ti ^ r* aidaiit 
Vitfiont sUch vote, no mkti can beWtoaHy #ep p »< titarf » ifi^a 
our iKsh/ in that case, to renbva^' that cotntitnclai^ %iid 1 



t y 



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»)i)«y VU0 ^j(bAflrirtd)»l^ ' tf,oti itt9^A» Hkhd^ilhit comNU^ 

^9n!i0ii^1fAi^ iMvUfc'IW iii iifttNiltial' AfiA iil^lJlEi^ 

'''pMeo^thm of^ ^ i>ib^ ; if it be m&red^dud^t tlWi Jtf- 

abnniliitidB U w. If w^ aMat nMbiiigtothe ankfietitioh? wlJi 
liie oonatilwiiM «uiJa for jtm^ or you-ftr it? If tiie ^calfk 

fflMl of Alfted I and what are prnniplei wijAiout pradSce 
' ^likKthej iiaar and rdid, topractiot witlioat priiianpUt*wkidi 

the peopU o( Inland vaat poHtieal pawer >.-4axatio^ 
'\ inibboft 0Damt,as)dlegiftlatioa trkhoot rflprfufatalion^ i»,viai 
'}ii.pa^I griumnce; ot a Catbo)ie gnkwk^ice, bat tlie grievMioie 
.«]^,ilUbatIeB'. l%f electite fraMhiM is a:itJkbtoM fi«Ma all; 

'iffhikda want a comtiiueiicy in the ceostitiilioD. The dif 
.. gfahdMied^ jmd the oAftinichiBed; th^ '«nl6epr«ieiited« and the 
,iitUH^pf6kiik\td, th^ CdthoUnfid t^e ^rett^rtenatt, are equa^ 

MW^WOatf, aiKliiK;'ar the «0Ditituti<Mi : the Proleetaal^ 
. w&ois tnppoMNl to' hav4 il^. aiM the Catho&c wb# wlahae to 

have i% are «qiiaUy iatereiied in living it free; fiir the tnitb 

U^^Aift the .whole eJaAwanQi^ wanta 'that eaaaocipation whidi 
' ia naoaniryt^t^ice goienMnetit; wecao give no truer deft^ 
I afvflayei7» than that ati^' in which men are governed 
^ their ^aoneent, and no hetler d^cription of freedom^ 

dbu» tbalaot obljr thgee who m^ke the law^ $bouId be bound 
ftby tlit^hMr* V^t thoik iprho are bdund by the law should have 

• ahait «a the maUug it 

. AH Ireland. JuMwa and feels that the people are ousted 
.ftaaa their, tpwa€anatitution» ag^ Ahat in a goveminent whec^ 
,|lief'havie0O-pvticipatioB» the King mutt become, a detpoW 
.^Qd tha.iMtietlailATe. Public reason fs convinced, and w^ 

Atecfft.wkh Uit confilencit of jcoayiction^ that there ore^ 1(^ 

N5 



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46f . 

ii this islioic]^ inimical to a renotation of the geiraiRe eonititv- 
tion^ Who m not« at ttie iine ^i, 'ptmtmf^iMitek^WP 
iiit JDODtinuance of iti carriiptibtir^aA'd tli^ ipiidloilgafiM^r IAp 
alniscAi. The time is com^ when the fiadbu miib i^&OE tbl 
the liation, and the long expected* houi^ dl itdim^^\f^^ 
proaches, perhaps providentMJTyprbiriu^t^'iintirt&^WaiVl^^ 
voice could be heard, and thie anfvertal iKU^ fflfcfa^. ^1^* 
nation is out; one in body, one in soiil, aii tniibJiw^^lStra^^ 




mons may be restored to that true representative^ &^j^cS8l^ 
which iirould regain national confidence, 
press all particular assoaations, give vigc 
rest to the perturbid spirit of the people 

". O, Ireland! Ireland ! country to whiVWVe1^?F^&^ 
all our misfortunes, personal, religrons^ p6liUai1';''&''^i^lti^ 
iVeedom and happiness we are here 8olenanij^''i{A1letfV^4tf 
whom, as a society we live ; and for WKom^ai' i&kn, V nOff' 
necessity commands it, we are ready to aU flfet' uf 'ftr|{iiMr 
yott i^ot to abuse the present precious n'onbbnt^^^t^f IrMtf^ 
^attnguishment, by a credulous comminiil'of^]^Rfi!i3^ j8?lgmlA: 
and senses to the direction af others, by an idle and ideoC gaae 



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^ft»!bflp»«i^»fi^f»S8?>>fr3ii^f.wecn iwRd flibcrnicism an jl 
^ TO^ Wf9aP^»W|«1f^]Tb j? no^ R?®nir «"d blowing' in" 
^/^f^fdMlwW3^yfL»,TrW8Ms y^^^ ypur friends >8 U^ 

*«^- iTfefoW^rfft ft?; /J^tipn^miiit be declared befor? any'^ 
ni^W8fe^^R!ftkc|)l«ce. ^ . ,. . 



«|(iiii||li^of JJlst^y.and by appointing d^egatet to a convene 
tioo^.tbeir.ii«pective ^vihces^ to unite their scattered and 
icu|tt)a<^ wHl^jnlo one monentotta inaas, which may have au- 
t]|^ty aafCcient to paake a declaratian of rights in behalf of 
the nation. Then will th'e Sovereign graciously interpose on 
the petitieoL of all the people; the reality aa well as form it 
lfgf4ShCf^f¥^^ will be established; the justice of the coii« 
4|j^[lf^ T^toated; and when all this complicated system of 
m^imfjJITTitylt; and perwoal oppressioa; of perverted priiW ' 
q|p|^ affd lialf^ ^^urtict^ shall be done away, men shall exceed- 
i^)^;|i^der^^w i^ietjon that boasted of a free constituUon^ 
fffljtiy bfpig^ity of its laws^ could have a^uffered itsetf to be' 
I|||i4^i9f|i ][pKW^|h«a>aLrt^ grievous and insitppQxtable: 



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468 - ^ 

UNITED IRramlEA a^pQBtgt^^t *t. '' ln*» /rf.'^i 
. n> TUB PMoiMjgr ar MMULJinu. r '*^ ''^ *'•' "•"'*' -^ 
WE b*^ oftmi «adre«ai^ ym foypur c^tffe^ s|4f»Ji>l'%{ '^■'^^ 
once to addreM jou in oiir own. Two <|C in^i oS^h^ Q^.49iii;.Ti \> 
Sociity bmt been tbrown into a commo* prison^ far ibr «d^lu nu 
charge of their duty :— « pN>eedine ao extraordinary^ demioctot > ik 
that «i^ sh9«)d<lay before yovt tbt wMe iof that caadMtst "*m 
wbieb baa btfougbt upon the SooMty fc»itffN)i|p an.eiltrtiMi^M 



yhe Sedety of United Igi»hroe<i wm fdiin# i^ M ^w Miib ei i,* ^a 
179>* Tbeir prlDCtples^ tbeir notf iP«t« and^Aeiriokfacli^weam -> 
aet forth in tbeir decUration and their teat Ac thai period tb»-v a 
spnk oftbit nation wai alt ^ekhreat ebb; tba gupal religiQiiai 
aecta*were difunitad, the Proteatams were ditbeaftenedaod f' 
aiuiH by the roeaioriible defeat of their eonfestieQ io- ITSS^t 
the Cftholiw, wttbdot $})\m w iupporten^ aeeoatwa^ to leak r 
to administration alone for relief, dared acare^ aspire tvbopfr - ^j 
for fbe lowest degree df ^nmneipation, aUd «veBi»tbit befie wai 
repifted wftb conuimtty aiid disdain ;-^adwipirtratkei . war v 
omiiipotenty oppoaitien was IbeMe, «ikl4fae peopb^ saenb^nik. *i 
thhfg. * • ' w . • , „ V J.. - ' 

'Saefa #a« the sHuitianof Iieland, wfaen-bi Belfiistrabdwi. ?/ 
DoblmtWo socictiea^wiere (bnaeds fortiie y< i p e a aapfriaftto**i^.q 
atiig a» ntnoa of ibet^reigibua aeeta/ and li [inliipa«lai|fj i 
refom: Prom the instant of thatrlbmiati^n.yi«iaiiaeiaaeBfci.v| 
oieMtd; diepii|bfio baa baeo roMsed ffiin lbiiiipia|aii|Hhni i 
an«iaiit oiei^ o6tbe lead k«gabi ealkkltalMiidnb«{a^i/if 
aeemideieiflHoed;, ilk the apkitofiM^ tadhMMiKL^Mfttedbt^bc»i . 
their loag4Mttngit«;- '---^ -' .i - -^^t..- uao-is-u.? 

The fiartriaiaiiurtJoetb» {JnkadtlmhiMnvlilii^AUMnw^.c'f 
t tioninfavof ofiifaUflndcimipktoeaMai€ip«lien4if^Uifc^i^^ 



:. 1 ^\ ': / 

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«d4Dpjfi]f^ JjpiJjr i«w itwJf iwpijfrtad by « tbifle nUy, thry 

«purned the vile subjection |() f^^dl l^-i)^^ b«ei| «Q iQllgL 
h|^» ftfil wUb ^le^^iWOigrotectihrvpriiil Uwi yivt banging 
on tbifif Qecki^ tbey siiiivinpfiwd ittftsfrpn^mtMiv^s from tbt 
ibiftr m»» int f» 'af,tb» Ifmif^t^, «pi).«irtLdie 4«t9nmpf4 fCMir 
oC mittMffSy' OieyiltBflH igM^jrilieir HMwmSD fcr «. M«l ibolii. 
ti9»9f th«tiiibi#iifiaUai«^ bloodyteodf, nfiodtfr tb««iMn^ 
and i l i ^f iw ii y ^rf .yhiri»>nw ^ mml^ k^onw by a ieport Mt 
forib^^iy'Mi Mei^ tmi cqqifiM by tbr hnt^kdf^ md^ 

e^t«d |^tri0Mii»» «nfi. Yh«^ in pnbHibiiig t^ tbf ivorld t|» 
ahoiitf^i^W' of iv^alfr^niwi/ •bffptry^ 9^ p«f«e0«iH<m, h^V 
ceiMiiH^l •>«to 40Mail iN)nr«pltifto nMcb mi iMfor b« r«f« 
gimiL'- 

]« tbe b»owJ(^gr of tha^ f6iiil-i)o«U Jm hmmvmM^ it 

tb^ kKwplflCe unm oi' iJ^ v9)>iHW« lacte baa be«n btnafigi^l, 

if tttf «ioaKi€ip4|ion ^ Catb(4k9 ba gpu<l <br Inrlm^y tban n^f 

tbi8jSo!0i««i^ rivii^ a«i9d#. Q^rit^ ao4 90ipa4Mf|ior^ ftfi^ Iba^ 

la IMM» UMtra waa 09^ a bo^ of loan. in Iiebnd tbm 
▼enlMrtrl to »pe«k» or Acaroe to ibittkr of r^orafi* The utaaoit 
laDgth.ibaMiat«iofa^(^f.4ba64»y.9'aiit> waatoi atM^i^^of 
tbe out*wocks of coprruptiop — the: Societies of United Iritbmm, 
sioaMddwiMMdto ^ituddk ' Xbty'idtd' notr Mt^ dovo, tbi^ 
pobtiftiipifli^* fli^<UalaaG^liift fg»Uic>#ttaQ|i0o» fcg « vaci^ dfi . 
i^^thagniwapt lamik 969^14 ta^dip tba- wfnga ^ 
or iar€«%«p>tbp tfaite9fpaiMMiiaBib|9r 
thaartMfa |>»y ^anaM id oi l %pagliaaw»iay<gc<lMCM vidwhalk' 
b an Myn i tW t hwi q a wit a ^ TkaMB99rch«;beeBr»*«dMiaAip«9i 
cM«pi#.fMi^ ^awiflwpi^^paoatvK^ liEawtf- 

hooaift ma« In lk« aatiw baa bfao^na ar^ynHf «| tberpi^pMiUi* 

i 44Vrthaf iiMiiaiiir^io {fr ^ib«i% : 




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■'- • '-■ ' '-^ ' ••' ^^ ,• »V' T •■» *jt/oH ,|jt « ...-ixi 

IM piMbir«f tlMt g mt * KW - «M)rrflUniiMip<)iMn[^>v«ift 

lMn# ^itfp jMK noioi ClNvocMUitEjiiicdv ^ -■ '^^^n hna ih^*^*^ 

At IfiM ^pMiQf Of thiB Mn«iiWBqFmm<llQ^i^ 
ilnaAfittidf irfA cf Ui« intioniMhrtW teo9rati.fMili«|iifiUI 
bei|Miyfedt-^itd»(k^Mio AattlfeflMfAeldymHBrf^ 
pirtM, and 4 niak4 tvtem: itt fu^ 
iiiftitfidB WM vmiiaunrad. Ife -war wriAwJy ' ii M y Ypy ^c^lfcit 

^^ ww nl a d a i td i|g«inft Fraoe^ UMiomif;!^ ^ ^ri^rfimht 

aiSKlii^ «m veMd^aod &e £iuii«it eoOrppil^itiS MP^ 
}^^ mmmmmi^^^m^m^ m^pu^ in, pa i liin y y ^J/ im 
Aieiatf «rUttM UdiitMii/ «^^rig8ani iMMiail % ^fBpibfpf, 
fnd^ mumd teir aO nBtfjMieii t^f'At dwy f iwfff rtwj tyfiC) 

irtr^ «tpalitif idiMutlvM to tba fctjr of> g»^ ir Mb iW|^Aw(HtlOfr 
lEsiTgarded their own printtir jafa^ ^cn'^Jiniyriirfathrft 
Mmtr}' traa atHalM. Tfa^^oauTd^not boparterstipttesoWttt- 
ft^es^roi^Uiejr bianiTpomif, totwiiattlkgr^tvUnl^ 
fli^ltidged thalr inAbiiiii protaat «galiiil Uitii^niafefetc tte 
gf^ltHbenai oftfieoatioiiL >• ^^ > •• r*^ i- - ^^t I.-uIo-TV 
' ftf ^e 'lAtygtM^of tlrfveiiaBi'«mimJi*il'fva^ 
ft^cfftf^byihe HMM^af Locdy%> laafablirini 
mittee, to inrestigate the cause of the disturbanoea now i 
^'kiA'f^m eiMtiftiM<'iir«i idiigiiMtt.vi<JQQM aimwliiiyai of 
lf^«f^ indiirfdtiaU ^viog trni«pin#/ J he ^orfetjinitfy IMUbk 
IfMniiniMtitibeii^di^tcy tUpfbrrcwa^kikgmm^mttUh^ 
ktodlf *^^ftiiiiiilionl to ^etf wunti'^aMKi aa'^aMj|litdb#aMlaBS|i 
A» l6A giUince. They etatM m fipyaatoiiiiiailiij ifMili 
¥taf4iA <hi8to <tftt Jb w<r oaawtittf tfc^%gibiiw|i aa wiinniiwJ 
fi^.^'«a«iMnr the<ttiMMtf^ oftbriF^illnMarMa AqM^iMMk 
t(Mp?9Hi«d>#iiifwePavl«ig^«rtil^^ l|»iipftltoaUI 

Bnder, and tbair aecrelarj^ Kr. Oliirer Bond/ wofie i 



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471 

befbre the Hoiim cf Lords ; flxey were called upon te avow or 
f^if^oM^ tkto'fiiblinitMnrtliey a^Mred H M t>ftoer V^ Ibf 
spirit and magnaDimity of snefrwhodeaetyacl U hthbfminfsf 
ttrfi ihiy %i«re 6mb jeiftoBoedi. «kb & oeteritj moMWii^fd in 
#Mi)>a«ll«tiii«|teJy«iQ^nBUaf*tiM^^^ t^ be JaspritfOQcd.-ff^ 
MtngaieBvfori^riwBtfai^aiid «»|Mgra fiiv of £500 ead^ fn4 
fb^tlcMiln ^ pHariii until iim wd finee be paid. Bj tbif •c«|f 
tetiieftWd||eMl«Mi/eiie of noble yrtbw of great taleRt^.iw4 
devke^ lltMtidti is an boDonible ^mfeniori; tiio other^ • 
flXiM^flutet'tir th^ fkireae ehaiaeter^ the higfaett respeotdbiHtjt 
SA- ^'gkid and extennte busmeM^ are torn awi^r fMm tbeir 
MMHi^ knd '^omiettioni, ewrrted thioogh the atreeto with • 
lUtkaij^'IfttlKhl/and plunged like felons Into the coannoB gaali 
liHleti^tlley are at thit isitant eociftned among the vikat lyiaW 
teterC"^ dMatf and refue of the earthy and thb aonfenDf 
Waa pronoaneed by abody, who Mreatoccejadgea and parties 
who^nMiMive the 4>feqcei proportion the pitBkhment» and frovi 
w3ioae'aettlaqre there Ilea no appeal . 
- ' We dO' Vie mention hero crkniiial proaeootiona inatitttted 
ogiinatr '^ekbn^ cT our membera in the eourta of Jaw 
M^paibBahing'and disbriboting oor addtoM lo the Volunteera 
•f Ireland ; respect for the existing lawa of our country^ iarw 
|iesai tifom va at silence wUeh jsf prof^ocalioii shall indo<^ us 
lobveahfwe knafwf whan jurfea ibtioeoe^ that justice wiD be 
Amt^ .'*»-' , ^ 

^ fioaliia the history of the Society, and audi are tbeenor*" 
diHiea*wiiidi^ha^- drawn upon them the peraeqution under 
Whlpfa iMy nonr Ubor. Their prime ^mce is their derated 
'ajtaehmiTntlo uejBwan; ab attadiasentir which hi the eyea ^ 
« bifa^adafe^niaCmf ion indudes aft peUticd siu^.; ihcia next olV 
iHioeM>aa«rdeni wish ibr a complete m4 tn^^ not «.partii^ 
edd SHu^rf* emaucipatfon of the CalhoUes^ Theia ^xt .^ 
ffoecisfhaiflhg ptabbahad a strong eensurt^ ^ thcfiimpeodiot 
vaH estfthihrnOiliikandfito-ptad^^aoito^i^ Al^^ 



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iY2 

the crowning oSeooe for which th^ir oflicerft ^ow lie in gftol, 
by order of the flooie of tiotAs, it bavhig idatruijted |Beir 
ooontxynen in wfa^ th^ copeeiye to be the law of the. Und^ 
for the guidance of thooe who might be summoned before the 
Secret Committee. 

llie Society, now sjibmlts'to their countrjinen a few pWn 
^cts .*-The war bai heen iqiproved by t^arliahieifit ; 36^006 
nieti have been fb|ed-»to be employed in Ireland; the gun- 
powder bill 13 pasted ; the Vuloate^ra of Dublin have be^ ki- 
•ultad; t^eir artillery has been seized; soldiers hoiirlj are 
seen with a Police Msgistrjatca.t their head parading th^'s^ffgtv 
entering and searching the houses of citiiens for arms; and 
finaUy, the officers of the only society vhic;b bad spiHt to ojb- 
serve on tho^ prpceedini^s, ^re, seized ai^d thrown into prisoi^ 
Ifhis is what has been done^ we will a()d what has Ml been 
done ; a complete emancipation of the Ci^tkolics baa not bcm 
granted, and a Reform in Parliament has not been aecopi- 
plished. . 

We hjiTe now; submitted to oor country th^ wbole.of.ovgr 
Ipreeent situation; with thatcountry.it rests to decide upon 
our conduct ; if they approve it, to testify their approhail^^ 
if they condemn it^ to express that condemfiation. Tbepode 
of doing the one or the pjtiier is obvious^ . In one |K^^noe.t]|e 
people have already organized themselves, and declared their 
political creed.' Let the other ^rovii^ces follow their ^xa^iple. 
)«ct the national convention then assemble and- pronounce the 
nfttionalwilU That will inust have. lU.due^weig^t , 

W^ may be after all wrong ; oqr ardency, i^ pursuit of 
yonstitfitional liberty may be such as our CipuntrymA jiaye n^ 
y^t spirit to follow ;- in that case ife most desist, bu^.wse shaB 
fiejiist^ jf^t froqi conviction^ but ftom despair. JS lijshiaeQ 4f 
pot ^sh to see Catholics comp)et,?ljr free ; if tbqy 4Bf>f . ikfi 
contim^nce of inveterate abuse and -corruptioQ « if ttor ^ie$d, 
« reform iu the representation of the )}cople ; if they wish t* 



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475 

hAM an indtitiition^ once the pHde imcl beast of Ireland, in- 
sulted^ degraded, and plundered of their arms; if they are 
content to tee men whe have the spirit to step forward and 
assert the rights and privileges of thehr oountty, dragged away 
like felons, and thrown into the common gaol,— ->then is this 
Sodety wrong in its pursuits and in its practice. We h»ve 
no right to agitate with notions of liberty, now perhaps obso- 
lete, a land which is determined to remain sunk in the lethar- 
gy of corruption ; it is our principle, that if a nation with a 
bad govtminent^ it ought to have that government. We have 
n^ power, and we hare no right, to force men to be free. 

Whatever be the determination of our countrymen, we will 
4o oor doty ; if our principles shall meet with the approba- 
tion and support of the nation nothing shall compel us to quit 
tfiad lineof CQBikiot which our conscience and our honor point 
out, and which we have hftherto endeavoured to pursue. — In 
the worst event, whatever may be our fate, and the public 
<detemin«ilion, we shall steadily support the men who are now, 
in the honerable| discharge of their duty, suETering jn the 
«ause of this Society, of Liberty, and of Ireland, 

-June 7t 1T93. 
* UNITED ISI$aM£N OF DUBIJX. 
On motion,, the following resolution of the Catholic Committee 

was read: 
^ Resolwd that it it with pleasure and gratitufle, we have 
observed the House of Commons, in this session, unani- 
mously taking into their isonsider^ion^ that most important 
measure, the present representation of the people in Par- 
liament ; and we do most earnestly exhort the Catholics of 
Ireland, to co-operate with their Protectant brethren, in 
all legal and constitutional means to carry into efiect, thst 
great measure, recognised by the wisdom of parliament^ 
4md se essential to the freedom^ bappiness, and prosperity 



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#• iriBU^ir.ciTiscNS, I ...,),•. ., „t .,,,«», , 

:WB hastes to fecagnuia# wa^kf thift fwir and, ffcJci^EJii^ 

tidr, n P0ipi< ^wd by «Kperi«OQe, and 0GlMok4 ^y t^dvf pi^fd 

who have Aignaluietl ikmr hymVt^ amiAit al) tba rigfifaiof.tbe 

l aw i 1 1 who feane proied their fiUelity to a cotuutution which 

m^ w a^p c pt t» thi^ VM»ktt)d aU ita own |urM)oipU:«» fBf| vhf 

luift acfeai> Mamiile of*.patieyt prrduranoa in religms, ^4|hy 

uMafara etirtvry thay axporiiiiGed a..pa«aeution ct^vallji 

aMmi w m (bare avoryiMaifiii<ef ^^aodigbverament, «nd.ar«r)r 

j^Kiyh of gatiwhia dimtiapitjit* We oongratfilate our'o9«n« 

try oir ««eh a ku^ aMHiao to- iiie-^biie donaio. oTichhIi 

the ottltivaiioa and.paodyae ai ial)idif«tay> iu aaoM idiigrfo^ 

eaupentfrtalbrpaft'ivaifteaadmi^ifeiiBa. WoctDgtiatailaiaihf 

awpira diat Aa kns af thraawiHigiii acrots the Atlanlieiaauppliy 

aiA by Che tinidy ac^uisitioii of ihe same BiitBbar«t.hamf.' 'W# 

:oongratitkiila tho'cassttotiiaithal new iifvi ia traMfoatiL i«la 

Hi tetnaat a t>anad of decay ami decrapitiKter ; and votrmt 

^bwft iba herabn which aufivad wiilb such ^onetaiicy imr |ba 

aakoof Tetigto»« will i^ow choogriiito a herasai tthat ahaU 

«o» frith equal gt eadi h ea e and oettaitteacy.faa4he.Amda»t tbk 

lMn«r and the- indepeDdenca of ihie eoemtiy. • j 

By4h% vdne henevoleoce of ;d)e aoeeraigti, by Ibe OMljfhl- 

^efted-i|»h$tc^thetiBiaa, by the vnion of nriigioaa fMravfuoM 

ftirihe good of civil soei^yi by tlie iplrii» fmjdmee, aed ea»* 

TjltflAiey ef the Catholia CiMmniUa^, irhe,' di bi g Ibaia avhak 

' ttfMMi^, i!^ei« true to^boCniM Vepeted in'thna,- aad^wijbey 

lett breath sanctified the expedience and Deceaetty eCa.l^aifo- 

^ m f %l t(^ yfU l Mm i' by fbe«e ^«aea» ahmi^ whlK oibanlbMData 

fa— h w H a i^ tfia ; yon have brcn •admitted jntollirt on 

JLoakannisd yan««-«i>iiftadlbM|||«t| 



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% temple but a dwelling. Enter therefore witli erect bittd^ 
' ^X^d'yti€ witfar grateful hearU, gratefbl to yoiir king, gratefiA 
to your countryy i^ttacbf d ^ the oon^titutioti by manly prin« 
ciplenot by childish prejudice, faithful to yovrf^iendb throogh 
fvtry chinge either el^ thetr fmtune or yourtmn, an^ifMot 
forgetfot of tW vinrtence of your eoemieg, bating ^ways the 
inaghariimity to pity am) to despise them. 

Lbving tlie constitution ratiotially, not adafited merely*1o 

ha infirmities, loving it too well, to dote upon its abniee, yea 

nost shortly be sensible, that^ without refiirm, thebabnee^of 

ft)e doctive franchiHe will be more off the otntve than befinv, 

l!ie inequality of popular representatioB more glaring and jnoi^- 

a^ipons, die disproportion more eponnous betweefei the nm^ 

bef of electors in Sft ooun^ie^ and ibat in the boiicwgfaa from 

which you are excluded* What wa# bfpl olete-and oamipt 

belbre, will be close and eormpt atill ; cmamc^ tigbl (WiUiltll 

be private property: and Ifae oonalitiKioii will be tmprismiwl 

under the loek and key ef coi^Minitioiit. The «ra of yxmp eiw 

f^nehfsemeot will therefore eveatuaUj w^rk tbe^wtel •«»,««• 

«f'-Ii%llind, We d^ trsMttbatyoil will not be iacorpoialed 

^nereiy with tbe body^of the cotialhutkMi without addiag t« ita 

spirit You are called nito..ettiienafaip Inot to sanction abitae» 

mit to €(tsoo<intefiaDe& it,' iSot to aeimaMdele ODrruptioo^ but |9 

meliorate raannem and tnfase iii^ tocietj purer irrwtinr^icl 

aokUdder'moRiUty ; always aepai*ating in tJiouglU«iid4fetion, 

4»tMf0veriiment and ifui/(5«adoit(M)itration frum the goed^s^nne 

imd tight Mason natural lo^ ai»d coeval with.tli^ coiuitita^iuQi^; 

nnd elwayt 9eme«oberi(»g that nothing can be gtod ^^^ 

^it^ tbeoKlioii #hich has net for, its olgect ^le vi^^i^i^^f 

;4!ieM»haI«. / • . - .»;«?-' W, 

•iei'Fe(}ow4biiJiin*^We speak !• y#n ^^^ tnnrfijjfinijtfMti 

l^aibBtioni • re^ieatiog witkHtnesfeal pW«si««« tturfbkiitfM^^d 

*fHMi^0ffMaJ^9m. «K4iiob bmdf Mcintb oni^pnifloog dbit 



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]nm bfstmikmBmt urafM^i^ »<m SBict|Mikiotdctihtlij':?«mqiii 

JUmeitftrjrefom. ThWip Oito cifkf«it&;£m«liiclitttitr«»i» 

tf mi^,7«rtd for whicb it Miffenunikr^i^MfMitisIf tM^i^itt 

fi^pf old* •a;v9g»in Its fy«iire« ihoOt^Mtmarht^ioKMittiiB is 

its form, wreaks iu raigbCy venfea(QQfi,oB prmmiifBd pnD(]M9^ 

or 4tf[oil^ Uir.puny jq^lice t^niili li3ijn4tMp«ofiaBi0bft b^Krhicfa 

we liv«^,iiiarely for an uncUMD|ied4idlifi9iBii(pt4o;an«in^#r9D4d 

9f\4 glw<M»» principle wliich h^ aVwiijw.apifli>«rd> ovfejHiUif 

catiooft afMl will iiiy^9y/t r^giilaft ^isir pta^ioe. « Wq cof^ni 

y<y>, HI iUe BQcsst '.solemn fuatvier, to reiiie»|ier.'^iM& jAo*r9#p^ 

daetarsnehjuthorjty, tfa» li^t ^prds,-tb^:folitiqsK,wll and 

ttotatnent of :a body •Ttnen wluo bav? deMcverffo^weU^f ftlf^ 

QonadtuMita «nd of* tjieir* ^uiitr)r« Mev«r forg^ tJbiffau uiMln 

vef fbrsakailicm-^Lct ll*U princi|ile:ot ftefpfWcU^? -m-^^m. 

{||uodcfr» and Ifift «n«^gy to th^ fitn xsjif r^cter. ,yfti^,}ire iihMVlf 

to^nitm lbivtl]«|(]orjr.or^(U^4iee,of lrc)fimLv. - lo* i^n.^.f 

« At7 iorm , our partiei^iir ftuffi^Dg^ as. a $0^9%^ me iMdj ^ 

presfotfAtA an «v«rwbe)BBiiAg seaae.tif «ationa). calamity^ Wt. 

wUh in our sodal, and individui^^^W^^'^'^ 9'P^^^^*^^Qft 

measure that lias the rrnote&t iiiance of giving tlie smallest 

relief 4a s^cb ui;ge)it distress, lamenting at the same time that 

every means adopted must prove fKirtial; palliative and inade* 

quate, until the origin of the extended e?il:be;M^y looked to, 

and what is universally understood, ia at plainly and publidy 

e3r)>re83eA; Whiat then is the <iidsef "Wivi f>Wligt -HHthe 

ctrt'e r - Pftice. ' W*«at' wHl ptwem a r^apei^ <«ifid^r(MAiiflv( 

that ttealth and Vdwdiioiw ^bieh it had rMUived:?ci a« hitio^mi*\ 

Hodse «f CMnnions, 4hst would^ toiffbrm U tha^wilhof'ih^fcviin 

pie by etfe 1ln|»dsltion of tv^ diitiiit at migblrimiv/»te»i»ith^ ; 

matfufacturear; a titftuotbbut not;exolii$i«e p«totlMe-fvrmiv:|i*i^ 

riiA'ffMrfcet*} ' ainrtfioiMl Hati6d«f fiamrnfrnMi-mAqf t\mm nnili j 



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^ft^pyjrfiuuMhtf;' iMfetm^^QigXli^wi m thtttiddei of (Mir 1^^ 

mk wm^^cmM^ mgi^iimgitiiba %!f diffusing MAsftulkifthf 

fe} )QMk0^ die •' tifeiiM' '«0n<UiM lb= n^, Mher ibaii to^ BKke dilt 
|lHM[ilttsciMriftffiaito'1be''i)l^^ Fdr the pMient, we Ke juti 
l»r<d^ lr«rk of th^'pHtikmiiK ^bid oF«*lciinny» wlddipAr^ 
fkMtly cottTmindtf tb« veftoli^; ibtt^i^pttbiicati^ and tlM^ i!«gf# 
Mft;' tirhkli (ii^eri^ ind't>rd|»)igtt^AptiA^-»f i«m^ 
itti9'ii\fi9tl^t bktr^en ton aMliiat^; itr tfrder ' t6 k^ iMek 
iitfi^mal^iifilbfH. at tbtt ^dfeadftit Micrific# 0f votaOKroMl cndH^ 
m^t^blk fti^M^, ihA^tm^tftml cbHrftctJbr. Btciv aS thb 
itMMMtot; ^pcAPhtpl, « 'profldanl j^oiiqr «>«7 b^ oootriiriof 
iiieMis for our dispeHlidD, natwvllf feiirf\|l lh«t wiitrovev two 
A" tbNie IfttKttft itotti «ii«- fliiMBMed togMh«n tMr ooavewitioii 
tkMt, tfttbto'lifn^/ ttMF ito KIhi oppmikwt of thraiilifeoti 
Odd dio iBtBtfjf of iM^Mimry. 



-''^' -' • " •" " ' ' thi gdciitV'or " ' ' . . 

t^f'jWE wlH^JW Utrdy htMod yoo» in tht wiirt of oar eii^lfir^ 
ponioufi iirltbi* i«riVtoQof imtiofml doclanotkm, th# ^arnoa^ 
phi|ior.<rf«B hotoetjbtort, for Ilbet^o4oia>.|pooc«^ ood Jbopi^^ 
iiotof&(ih(k>Utiiaonirocoi4Htv«^lt» >«i niflo ougkfc'tP feii .(AiMV? 
yol» atcoaqwtoTrtryiiioti'oicoyiiti^iiHtt) on iiforinfrOliJipcQMmi ^ 
frolnnC7«-w)ilootet4 ofiyiiOK'^ pre»enl«: rigorous tin[^in«pninimtrn 



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4fH 

pbrtatfon (\rhm jovif tiatiYe'1flhd.^F6f*lrh&t^i*For c<]Anrs|;itr« 
tng agaShat the corruptiolik of the'constitutidtii and-i^lously 
striving to give a rcpr^enutfoii to two fnAlteih «nA aliiilfof 
people. We address you in tio ttttun of ideot'cer^onyy bat 
as men sympatlrising witb tdaii sttffMng ; ifie Uiifgakgii M^ 
and the heart affected* i ^ . r 

Let the few lawyers who tan loeit down aV their "j;>f<rf^ 
sion from the height cf their sature, expadite with a it^^M 
indignatfon on the con^qaence of ** politics enfeiUg into the 
courts of justice and seating herseYf on the benchy** aharpeftfog 
the severity of sentence which the snapplshneas of office^ 
and the acrimnny of personal vengeance^ seia^g witfi ^rrcedU' 
ness the advantiige ofun/iccertained and uncertain pnnisliaaf'iit; 
rioting Mpon' discretion, and without weighing t}>e Intrinm^ 
nature of the offence or lh# inadequacy' of- the penalty, really 
punishing public opinion, afid accumulating all the exasptra- 
tion felt against the prevailing sense of the omnmuMity, on thft 
head of an unhappy individual. Let those singular lawyers 
detail with energy the terrible defects of judiciiil ^micedure in 
Scotland, through all its stages from aceu^llon to ooctvirtioD.' 
Let them instance those particular irregularities in folrda whi<& 
have vitiated your trial, in the c^fnion o4^tht bl|st lawyers, as 
it' has already been deemed vitiated by its vindictive spirit, in 
the minds of the best men. Let this be done— but thfs is tocf 
technical a tasli for our fee^gs, nor does St hideed correspolij 
to the dignity, we will venture to call it, the proud importsfice 
of your prei^ent sUtionl We speak to you as citizens to m 
f>iend and brother, citizens condensed together in-adSNAio», 
perhaps the more (Vom the frozen indifference, which, fiar ^ 
prcBcnl, we feci around us. ' * " 

You ought then, dear associate ! jtm ought to attract t)oili« 
furt iTrom your present situation. Pleasure often* Ai^kMa, bill 
tfNTe is sublime and pcrmaoctit delight Ifc stnigglhlg'' wift 
tti.nbriteJ'mufurtune. Tlw cabinet coi.tiim tt6 jraffdM|«; 



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«9 

k^ hf^p^, i^tfd th« niglitljr. tj»it«tia» of self-flpproving eon^ 
tlgi^n^f ... J3*f ^!^ ^<^ .fthea^y s|iom7V jrnw, austerely but tnielji 
^^d\ptJii;Vtio°<^^^'^^,^i^^ i* l>J?tifig ami wliat i* prrishabk? 
I^f^it rot wb»T>9wed the w<^)d for your use, and sffHirsted 
the^haflTof tnan^md from the s^am? D-^ you not now fi^ 
^R «ijBeof,lh,j,t t\;ieDd&))ip which cliDgs to the for»akrp, ihm 
valqe of that s^imple and eiPCt^re prayer which the p©or of 
Sootland ai-e d»ily tiff«?ring up fm- the a'iv -^«tr of the people, 
excelled ijrom his pwfession, her:'ii«?r hb piinctpkt wore not 
ihotie of a Craft, and lanisJi^d frof^i his country for halving 
thqyght m Blackatorie, as Locke, ai)d as Sidney ? Is it not 
•weet to think that every hutir you now live is productive^ tka| 
your Ufe h not wa&^ed« but burns away an oflVring on tite altar 
9f hypaanity j that yrur example serves to ini»pirit. ciUieri in 
tl^e same aituattvn ; thut your solid virtue may have been th# 
ioieana of ji verting from others^ the suffering t you yourself 
experience j and>^ tliat tun/ny who now enjoy their fire^sldaai 
their wiYe9f and their • childfcen may be indebted to yoor 
fnviDpt interposition, your steady seal and your patient laag* 
naniinitj^ f Is it not sweet to think that your confinement •? 
exile tnaj, in any way, tend tp <h« lilierty of others'^-.— 

, If tfant can be called liberty where the public soul is iai* 
prifooedt where auaptcioQ clouds the •pent candid front of 
man,; wliere the amiahle ingenuousneu that keeps no guard, 
«p4,U9 ^^c ajniiplicitjr 0f th^ heart forgsla to place a seal •n the 
^».is,,at .every hour, and in every place, exposed to calumny 
t^t im in silent watch^ with aU the veiom of the snake, and 
wiM^ff^t ita i;«Ul^ If. thaf) ^^^ be c^ll^|HibHc fiberty^ where 
two met! meet, and afler eying each .other askance* both ask 
'f wh^' hawaT' ^bef^i^e .neitl^fr dare answer the question ; 
vb^re tl|« iQorali^ of ^ p[\^ ro^ be spdUf^ ^d yet hia per-, 
tmt>e proscri^Aed and bis.fri^u^l^aAfO^ou^.ted^ttkiaiaL-^ 
Ittbaticiuj becalljpd pubii^.literty^.whft^Uthe «noeaodtJl, 



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iaUe» we see fetst witlieot fellowiiiip, cooiptnj wftboot cor* 
dimlity, end the jingle of frigid glftssei. without e free inter* 
thaift of aentiment, end a vixtnre of mind^— where, at the 
itill dearer dometlic board, the wife thoddersy when her hiif« 
band drogs a word on the strange impreaeire acenea that are 
4M88ing before men's eyes, and in a panic, aenda tfi the atten* 
danta for fear tbcj haVe glided into the family aa sptea, and 
removea her Yerj children lest they abould hear their bopeat 
parent give vent to the bittemeaa of his hear^ and call down 
a corse on the men who have been curaee to their country. 

Alas for that country I alas far that constitution, set in audi 
hideoua forms before the eyes of those who wiah to lore it, and 
guard it and save it fh>in a conflagration that Uireatena to involve 
every thing human and divine?^-That our rulers would or could 
ikink Mt Imrge /—-That they would not lit their minds merely 
to ^e dimensifwis of their closets, and their plana to the ex- 
pcdieuta of an hour ?— Tbat they would go abroad and ascend 
tosurh a mental elevatioo, as not^only to ooiitemplate the 
mummring multitude below, but with a presdenoe derived 
fVom recollection, to command a prospect into futurity, to trace 
the progress of mind through the lapse of ages, till lost in 
eternal truth, still flowing onward, still enlarging, rising «ver 
every obstacle, and sometisaes smooth, deep, and silent, just 
befinre it breaks down into a cataract, followed by a tide wild, 
broken, -and innavigable. Would to God, that^ instead of 
punishing a worthy man for mixing with the commonalty, 
our rulers would not merely connive at, but encourage such 
an approximation and intimacy between higher and lower so^ 
dety as would cure the vkea incident to each, bring the one 
downand the ether up to their nature humanising the greet, 
ennoblti^ the Tulgari and tempering the ferocity of both, in 
short, as would by burning useleaa pyramids of power into 
humble and cheerful habiutions, make man relish his aituatioa 
and deprecate all change aa the worst of mtafortnaes I 



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4S1 

tn whateyer part of the worl^. Dear Sir, it may be your 
destiny to dwell, believe us, joo will bear /dang with jou our 
r^pect, our affectton, our adfniration. There is an electricity 
that at present pervades the umrersal mind« and were yon 
placed at tile extremity of the globe, the heart of every patriot 
will always feel the touch of your condition ; we feel mudi 
at present on hearing of your illness ; we hope there are many 
years befbre you ; but if otherwise,- be satisfied, for yoii have 
not lived in vain. If death be, as we believe it, but a pause 
in existence, y^ur happiness is yet to come ; and if death be, 
as we trust in God it is not, an eternal sleep, are not the 
dreams of such an honest nun infinitely preferable to the per- 
petuak incubus of a guilty conscience ? 



»%%%%%«%»>»%^%*% »i^ » »%<pa » %»< >^ »» rt » 



CONCLUDING OBSEKTATIONS* 

WE now close our account of those'political papers which 
issued from the Sodety of United Irishmen, and which had 
for their object the constitutional and peaceable vfodicatiDii 
of the rights of Jreland.— A reform of the Irish Pariiamei|t 
was the ultimate wish and ambition of those celebrated per- 
fons who composed and issued the productions which we have 
ODsleavoured to save from oblivion : eloquent and convincing, 
they succeeded in winning all hearts and heads to the support 
df a cause grounded on truth, justice, and good policy. The 
Irish Parliament found itself insulated iu the nation—* the 
ba'ole was to be fou^t by Corruption and its rttainers-against 
the People sind their pure and unbought advocates. The 
English' minister> Mr. Pitt, ever watchful of the progress of 
public feeling in Ireland, and alam^ at the union of senti* 
ment whidi prevailed, had no alternative but an immediate 
coboessitm to the claims of the Catholics, if ho had almost in 

P« 



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«M Kt^^^ Mtted lid|)e« m, the Ci#kili<r»< ai j ^ < tiit <*fe ■««» 
lalfaisUf iMutcl, mtbe coiineof a rtiort;tinii^ ^< c toipl e u d^ 
<HiiioljNitiairi(thich ho bad begiitv-.«-^11ie'iiUBo«IU^of tte 
>nhjiiBireflKre»ed*^die war wiUv Fratica^wara^ adkittuxm^m 
'mvmAu aa wa<lafkMn it« »xp«Klit<ir«^^^ekii{^f^ 1>«««''tf 
^oB^t^^ td baotmeentfatad ; and Ir^aad, ^Ma^'dTkaiioiMtfiD^ 
fKikaiitidivfoiwia; i^aa to%e traata^l'tvith^Mdoeiif ifml^GaAbitl- 
•don^' tka«(]viic9MM^the peqpfo ieiacAl tha^ pp aa wwi ky^ awl 
^ra^iad m^ t(M »wiirtar ^ ib o ii ec aa >i >f af^^aliwua^aBteaiatfeoM 
]u«d> Pitwa^ih'iMm was ta be tha agtnt^peaaa, ani lar lka4^ 
«bi|» itfaa-'^ffofaitad'^iirttLQnl JLtatrtanaali af -^reiaiid*4^,Mii 
jGmttouv iithf -fiatkia'a tavoeifte. anil moat daqo^nt.advontta 
naatftria ifaaraii uw ia i ) li l M cfld flMM|M|iil%iPdtfeakHoaatarii 
ia£ laeland wero 14. Im tbwam^ iiMa the Bhadte;*--apipjkniaat 
astemblad— all the tapplies atked 1^ ^ roinirtar^m e a t^ l aia i* 
ad'f.aii^tiie cupof fiopa had alnost reached the (ipa «f the 
- nation, when thef ume minitter who*h«d ^tted 4ti^|o<^vei^|{Na« 
iag, dathed it to the groundf with remorselesa insenail^ty ! 
Lord Fitawilliam waa recallad, and the eld enemies of Ire* 
land's peace and happiness were restc^red* The feelings irf* the 
.iMion» exasperated to madness hj such treatment werequidc* 
)y susceptible of evei^ impression, however heatile er ^per^ 
ate. It Was at this peridd the Socsetj of United {rishm^ 
astom^ a new diaracter ; they no longer made thfir appeak 
to Pariiament for rdiefor protccti<m or justice ; ihity appealecl 
ta the natioi); and at length were forced by M^ Violaacc of 
their opponents into the afma of tht c^aoBuMii anaosy. 

V'itfa praceedingft ao caotiary to the crigiml nm$ «f Ibaat 



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ktoa «lQfNd her«iMenoe;»)fM^||)MA«f its ^dMlilrate* . Bat 
im slnArJlNnfa'UitftlfikHBCgiffii^.to./imP'Couiitt 9 fkityblmv 
HtMiiT.of tfie tpmlMif «vii>fitt)(^iii€cwUTr0d aa this adi< ibnl 
glqamjr imfffirAl tP aoolb^§i|iit, ijDid^pcffhiif* 4o tftlMlr.lMnihL 
£f]|*ilM»:pi««vnt*«e>feril iOotHflUt •iiiteWcs witb hariof fmii 
to Am.pff^Xft'Of the K«rf|i» .iiaKl)to the people of b^lmiM 
iMgeyii lOMipilaiiofi #f»jlb*Hr.|n^|daitUMit whidi waU^fi^^ef* 
^•tsbliab llidr lime j« s i^|itMp» .4iil^^ 
^Boiiftai mU etthf ^mwt jalNpU tpiiitir ImH Mhidii be it 
Wgtki:bfleoiDetb« vtetimdf AjAieMii cBed ttj j|y*-^lw qMhi^ 
oCa^dianhigiJfiiA* aapruitei ^le ^wiiey, .aiid'tlM p*tieiit«dHtrl> 
^tmtar.io: tbeaggvMrfAiseiiMfttiir jdMipB^ piUndwvl 

Jmv ni ^hrir -bed«i^> be^ iwbpeiidbote,^v>d iter Mtuivl aUtldli 
•iB'.the'woilfL' 
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